فهرست مطالب

  • سال دوازدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 44، تابستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
|
  • Behzad Azarnioshan, Ahmad Beh, Pajooh, Bagher Ghobary Bonab Page 5
    Objective
    This research has been conducted with the aim of studying the effectiveness of play therapy on severity of symptoms of behavioral problems among male students with intellectual disabilities (ID).
    Method
    By considering an experimental design two special schools in Babol and Babolsar were selected. From the population of all students in the two schools, 30 were selected and assigned into the experimental and control groups (15 subjects each). These two groups were matched according to their demographics such as intelligence, gender, student level of education, and level of behavioral problems. At the pre- and post-test stages, before and after 10 sessions which took 30-45 minutes three sessions in a week, Rutter Questionnaires (1976) were applied to both groups. Furthermore, in order to diagnose any change after the therapy. The data were analyzed by SPSS software, using ANCOVA.
    Results
    The play therapy could ameliorate the amount of behavioral problems (all at p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Considering the significant differences between the experimental and control groups, play therapy may be suggested as an effective method of treatment for children and adolescence with behavioral problems.
    Keywords: Behavioral problems, play therapy, intellectual disabilities, cognitive behavior approach
  • Riyahi Azadeh, Rassafiani Mahdi, Akbarfahimi Nazila, Karimloo Masood Page 17
    Objective
    This study examines the reliability and cross-cultural validation of the Persian translation of the Manual Ability Classification System (MACS) for children with cerebral palsy (CP).
    Method
    To investigate the validity and reliability of the Persian translation, first forward and backward translation was done and then content validity, inter-rater and test–retest reliability was determined using parents and occupational therapists the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and the weighted Kappa coefficient. 100 Children (4 to 18 years old, with the age mean of 85.15 months; 63 boys, 37 girls) with various types of CP were classified according to MACS by both the parents and the therapists. Additional data on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), intellectual delay, visual acuity, auditory acuity and epilepsy were collected.
    Results
    The inter-rater reliability was high, and the ICC was 0.96 (ranged from 0.94 to 0.97) among the occupational therapists and parents. The ICC for the test–retest reliability was high, and the ICC related to parents was 0.97 (it ranged from. 95 to. 98) and the ICC related to occupational therapists was 0.97 (it ranged from. 96 to. 98). There was a total agreement between the GMFCS and the MACS.
    Conclusion
    The Persian version of the MACS is valid and reliable, and accordingly we can suggest it for the Iranian population.
    Keywords: Cerebral palsy, Manual Ability Classification System
  • Majid Saghafi, Mahnaz Esteki, Nhassan Ashayeri Page 27
    Objective
    The present study investigates executive functions in students with Nonverbal Learning Disabilities (NLD) and Students with Dyslexia.
    Method
    Among 2nd, 3rd, and 4th graders referred to learning disorders clinics, 31 students with NLD and 22 students with dyslexia were selected through a multi-stratified random sampling method. Goldstein learning disorders scale (2002) was administered to evaluate NLD. Reading and Dyslexia Test (Koromi Noori et al., 2007) was used to diagnose dyslexia, and to test executive functions (working memory, planning, flexibility, and degree of attention) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and three subtests of Wechsler's (mathematics, numeral memory, decoding) were administered respectively.
    Results
    Covariance analysis manifested no significant difference for planning between students with NLD and Dyslexia. In flexibility, students with NLD performed better than dyslexic students. Considering working memory, the number of nonrepeated errors in NLD was more than dyslexic group. In addition, the difference in the degree of attention was not significant between students with NLD and dyslexia.
    Conclusion
    Performance of students with non-verbal learning Disorders in executive functions is lower than dyslexic students.
    Keywords: Executive functions, nonverbal learning disorders, dyslexia
  • Beheshteh Niusha, Kamran Ganji, Leila Khademi Adel Page 37
    Objective
    This study investigates the prevalence of behavioral disorder among preschool children of Razan city.
    Method
    The research method was descriptive-epidemiology. 327 preschool children (144 girls and 183 boys) were selected by random cluster sampling from governmental and private elementary schools. Information were collected by Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Caregiver- Teacher Report Form (C-TRF) and questionnaire that made by researcher. Data were analysis by descriptive statistics, Chi square and Pearson correlation coefficient.
    Results
    Analysis revealed that 9/8 % of preschool children had behavioral disorder and the prevalence of behavioral disorders includes anxiety, physical, withdrawal, attention, internalized and externalized disorders in boys were more than girls. Furthermore, the prevalence of behavioral disorders in rural areas was more than urban areas.
    Conclusion
    The relatively high percent of behavioral disorders in preschool children emphasize the necessity of educational planning and implementing for parents and teachers, also present psychological and counseling services.
    Keywords: prevalence, behavioral disorders, preschool children, Razan city
  • Hojatollah Ragheb Page 55
    Objective
    This study examines the effect of Learning strategies on Curiosity and Interest of preschool students with intellectual disabilities (ID).
    Method
    Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, 141 preschool students with ID (70 experimental, 71 control group) by cluster random sampling method, were selected. During the study, the experimental group was exposed to the intervention program and the control group was not.
    Results
    MANOVA analysis revealed a significant difference between the two groups in Curiosity and Interest. No significant difference was observed between boys and girls.
    Conclusion
    Learning strategies of Approaches to Learning Domain had significant impact on Increasing Curiosity and Interest of preschool students with ID.
    Keywords: Learning strategies, curiosity, interest, preschool, intellectual disabilities
  • Nader Jahangiri, Narjes Monfared, Abolghasem Ghavam, Hamid Mohib Azghandi Page 69
    Objective
    In the present research, in order to pathologically assess the reading skill of Persian students with Vision Impairment, various reading errors and reading speed of Persian Braille were analyzed.
    Method
    Based on practical experience of Persian Braille and empirical observation of various reading errors of Persian blind students, the normalized test of “National Braille Reading skill” was localized. After gaining the validity and reliability, the test was conducted on a sample of 20 Mashhad students with Vision Impairment, having the age range of 18-28 years with sex segregation, all of whom were chosen based on stratified sampling.
    Results
    On the whole, the percentage of reading errors, from high to low, includes “punctuation errors”, “orthographic errors”, and “letter and point errors”, respectively. The average score for reading was 55 which was lower than minimum score. Average reading speed was 70 words per minute. There was no significant difference between male and female students in terms of Braille reading scores and reading speed. Braille reading speed in two-handed female students was more than male ones but it was not significant. Gender effect on reading scores was also meaningful and it was approved that reading Braille with two hands was accompanied by an increase in the scores.
    Conclusion
    The most prevalent reading error in the sample was “punctuation error”.
    Keywords: Braille reading errors, reading speed, Braille Touch Signs System, Persian visual alphabet, Students with vision impairments
  • Mohsen Golparvar, Hamid Atashpoor, Mahboobeh Hadipoor Page 85
    Objective
    This research compares the psychological well-being of gifted female students studying at second grade of gifted high school for girls with their gifted peers in regular schools.
    Method
    Statistical population was the gifted students studying at high school for girls with their gifted peers in regular schools. The sample consisted of 126 gifted school students selected through a simple random sampling method, and sample of second group consisted of 127 students selected purposefully from the regular high schools. The research instrument was Ryff’s Psychological Well-being Scale (PWBS, Ryff, 1995) with 84 items including 6 subscales of self acceptance, positive relationship with others, autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth and environmental mastery. Data were analyzed using independent sample t-test and multivariable analysis of variances (MANOVA).
    Results
    Results of t-test revealed that psychological well-being of the gifted students of regular schools was significantly higher than gifted students of gifted high school (p<0.05). Also results of multivariable analysis of variances indicated that acceptance, autonomy, purpose in life, personal growth and environmental mastery of gifted students of regular schools was significantly higher than gifted students of gifted high school (p<0.01 or p<0.05), but there was no significant difference between two groups in positive relationship with others (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    In gifted high schools it is necessary to offer some procedures for reinforcing the gifted student’s psychological well being along with formal education.
    Keywords: Psychological well, being, Gifted, Girls