فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:14 Issue: 1, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/06/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Fatemeh Mohamadkhah, Farkhondeh Amin Shokravi, Sograt Faghihzadeh, Saeideh Ghaffarifar Page 2
    Introduction
    Regular using of the toothbrush, mouthwash and dental floss is useful in prevention and treatment of the oral diseases.
    Aims
    This paper examines the impact of an educational film on the promotion of the student’s oral health behavior. Methods and Material: This research was conducted in Chabahar in 2011-2012, on 10-12 year old girls. Three hundred students were randomly assigned to three groups of 100. The type of the intervention included film and lecture. Post tests were conducted in two phases: immediately and 3 months after the first intervention. Statistical analysis used: The research data from valid and reliable researcher-made questionnaire was analyzed by the SPSS Version 16 using One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U tests. The study was approved by the ethical committee of Tarbiat Modares University.
    Results
    The highest rate of the birth order in the study population was two, mean age of students was 11 years, and the mean number in each family was five. The average education level of mothers and fathers was illiterate and literacy respectively. The majority of fathers were unemployed and mothers were housewives. Most of the families had private housing. Mean decayed missed filled teeth (DMFT) was: 1.46 + 1.66. The level of the knowledge and attitude about teeth brushing was increased immediately and after the intervention (P-value < 0/001).The rate of practice increased after 3 months (P < 0/001). The level of the knowledge and attitude about dental flossing increased immediately and after 3 months. The rate of the practice did not increase after 3 months (P < 0/46). The level of the Knowledge about using the mouthwash increased immediately after the intervetion and after 3 months(P < 0/003). The rate of the practice did not increase immediately after the intervetion (P < 0/43). The film intervention was effective on the students’ Knowledge immediately and 3 months after the intervention(P < 0/025). The film effectivelly influenced students’ attitude both immediately and 3 months after the intervention(P < 0/028). Taken all together the study shows that the oral health practice is worse in the families with the lower socio-economic situation.
    Conclusions
    Using educational film could be effective in promoting students’ self-care behaviors
    Keywords: Education, Educational Lecture, Digital Media
  • Zahra Pourmehdi, Seyedkamaleddin Tabatabaei, Seyedahmadreza Salimbahrami, Shiva Borzouei Page 13
    Objective
    we compared the use of intrathecal bupivacaine in combination with general anesthesia to general anesthesia alone in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery for its impact on time to extubation.
    Methodology
    In this case control double blind study we compared 34 patients in Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahwaz, Iran, from May 2011 to September 2011.The patients were randomly assigned to receive general anesthesia with prior administration of intrathecal bupivacaine 0.5% at a dosage of 20 mg (bupivacaine or case group n = 17) or general anesthesia alone (control group n = 17) according to a simple computer-generated list.
    Results
    Mean extubation time in bupivacaine group was213.00 ± 3.06 (3h and 33m) and in control group was 257.12 ± 4.49 minutes (4h and 17m).the difference between two groups was significant(P < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Intrathecal bupivacaine offers promise as a useful adjunct in reducing postoperative time to extubation in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery.
    Keywords: Extubation, Intrathecal bupivacaine, general anesthesia, Coronary Artery Bypass graft (CABG), Surgery
  • Oluwole Moses David, Rotimi Christopher Falegan, Oluyege Oa Page 21
    Background
    The presence of Cronobacter sakazakii in infant formula has been commonly reported in the recent time and has been implicated in infection of infants with high mortality rates.
    Aim
    There is paucity of information the occurrence of C. sakazakii in infant formula in the study area hence this study. This work aimed at the determination of aerobic bacterial load and the susceptibility pattern of C. sakazakii isolated from the infant formula and to determine the factors that encourages bottle feeding.
    Materials And Methods
    Standard microbiological methods were used to isolate and identify C. sakazakii and disc diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of the isolates to the tested antibiotics. Standard pre-test questionnaire was used to collect information on the pattern of infant formula feeding and breastfeeding among nursing mothers in the study area.
    Results
    The total aerobic bacterial counts of ten different infant formula screened ranged from 1.1x102 to 8.0 x 103 cfu/g. The least counts occurred in brand CWG whiles the highest was recorded in brand DNN. Out of ten brands of infant formula examined only four were positive for C. sakazakii. Eight antibiotics were tested against the isolated C. sakazakii. The isolates showed the highest resistance to tetracycline (99.93%) followed by nitrofurantoin (96.97%). Out of the total isolates tested 42.43%, 51.51% and 52.51% were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate, gentamicin and ofloxacin respectively. Based on the level of education, 83.33% of the participated nursing mothers had minimum of secondary education. A greater part of the respondents (82.35%) fed infant formula to their babies while about 17.65% does not. Mother gave different reasons for choosing infant formula for their babies. A total of 39 mothers reported their babies showed different signs of infections after been fed with infant formula.
    Conclusion
    Most of the infant formula screened did not meet the international acceptable standards and the rate of bottle feeding is still high in the study area.
    Keywords: Cronobacter sakazakii, breastfeeding, infant, infant formula, antibiotic resistance
  • Alireza Nasrolahi, Esmat Ghanei *, Masoumeh Moalem Pages 35-43
    Background
    Auscultatory methods with a mercury sphygmomanometer had been approved as BP measurement method. Decline in accuracy of BP measurement might lead to pitfalls in diagnosis and management of patients.
    Objectives
    Present study was performed for assessment differences between standard and routine measurement of blood pressure in study wards.
    Materials and Methods
    Present clinical survey was performed for assessment quality and accuracy of sphygmomanometers which had been used in three main wards of a tertiary educational hospital. Blood pressure of patients which measured by trained clinical resident with new calibrated sphygmomanometers was considered as standard values of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and compared with recorded blood pressures in the check list of patients hospital beds.
    Results
    In the clinical survey 86 patients were included into the study. Correlation coefficient between two measurements was 0.82 and 0.59 in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.00). Mean and standard deviation of differences between standard and routine systolic and diastolic blood pressures had significant differences (7.62 ± 12.69 and 6.39 ± 11.55 mmhg; P = 0.00).
    Conclusions
    One of the possible causes of difference between routine and standard measured blood pressures in the present study was lack of calibration in a sphygmomanometer and this defect was also the easier problem to correct by change of damaged portions. Findings of our study showed that physicians did not reliance only to routine blood pressure measurements for clinical decision making about patients due to several confounding variables that had impact on measurements.
    Keywords: Accuracy, Blood pressure, Sphygmomanometer
  • Mojtaba Taherisadr, Mona Nasirzonouzi, Behzad Baradaran, Alireza Mehdizade Page 44
    Blood disorders can cause morphological changes in mature red blood cells so by investigating blood smears morphologically, we can study and distinguish blood diseases such as anemias. On the other hand, because most of the available methods are manual, expensive, time-consuming and depend on the experts expertise so for improving detection rate and increasing its accuracy, a method of automated analysis for the rapid classification of large numbers of red cells from individual specimens has been developed. According to this method which is based on digital image processing, several features relating to shape, internal central pallor configuration of red cells and their circularity and elongation have been extracted and with the help of a decision logic all those various types of red blood cells were classified into 12 categories. According to the obtained results, diagnosis of blood disorders such as iron deficiency anemia, the anemia of chronic disease, β-thalassemia trait, sickle cell anemia, hemoglobin C disease, intravascular hemolysis, hereditary elliptocytosis, hereditary spherocytosis and megaloblastic anemia due to folic acid deficiency can be possible.
    Keywords: Automatic classification, Red blood cells, Image processing, Blood disorders
  • Sedigheh Ebrahimi, Soheil Ashkani, Esfahani, Fereshteh Bagheri Page 54
    Background
    Neural tube defects (NTDs), anencephaly, meningocele, and meningoencephalocele, are of the most common congenital anomalies of the central nervous system caused by defects in closure of the neural cord in the third and fourth gestational weeks. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of NTDs among the total births in clinics under supervision of Yasuj University of medical sciences, Yasuj, southwest Iran.
    Methods
    All newborns with NTDs who were delivered in obstetrics and gynecology hospital wards of Yasuj University of medical sciences, south west Iran, from April 2005 to March 2011 were included. The mothers with NTD deliveries were also compared with the mothers with physically healthy deliveries for blood indices. After an interview a form was filled regarding their demographic information such as maternal age, address, gestational age, mother''s blood group, blood indices, and due date of delivery.
    Results
    Of the 14034 infants who were born in hospitals of Yasuj university of medical sciences, south west Iran, during the 6years period of this study, 68 (36 girls and 24 boys; P = 0.46) had NTDs. 59 (86.8%) infants had anencephaly and 9 (13.2%) had other types of NTDs. The prevalence of NTDs was 4.84/1000 birth during the 6years period. No significant difference was found between the groups regarding the other demographic variables and blood indices.
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of NTDs in Yasuj, is much higher compared with previous reports. This warning sign should be beard in mind by policy makers to address the related etiological factors and prevention plans.
    Keywords: Neural tube defects, anencephaly, meningocele, meningoencephalocele, prevalence
  • Sara Gholami, Tayebeh Hamzehloei Page 63
    In this review article, in addition to the clinical manifestation of the alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency, the genetics and molecular diagnosis of the disease and the effects of the causative mutations were reviewed.
    Keywords: Alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency_Pi ZZ_Molecular diagnosis of AATD
  • Soheila Alyasin, Reza Amin, Sepideh Darougar Page 76
    We report the case of a 12 year old girl who presented with a relatively large nodule in her clitoris, which was later proven to be an unusual presentation of sarcoidosis. She was admitted because of fever, dysuria, frequency, vaginal irritation and itching without a favorable response to the previous antibacterial treatment. She had a history of intermittent dry cough during the last three months before admission. Two days after her admission, she also developed bilateral parotid enlargement. Spiral CT scan of the neck showed diffuse parotid and submandibular glands enlargement with bilateral enlarged lymph nodes. Spiral CT scan of the chest revealed bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy with a non-infectious pattern of pneumonitis. Biopsy of the lesions was indicative of granulomatous infiltration mostly in favor of sarcoidosis. The patient was also evaluated for other conditions associated with pathologic features of granulomatous inflammation. The findings were negative except for a significantly elevated serum angiotensin converting enzyme. Sarcoidosis was considered as the diagnosis and she was successfully treated with prednisolone.
    Keywords: sarcoidosis, geital, pediatrics