فهرست مطالب

International Journal Of Environmental Research
Volume:7 Issue: 4, Autumn 2013

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/07/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 26
  • M. Yamada, H. Harada, M. Yamauchi, T. Yamaguchi, A. Ohashi Pages 823-830
    One of the main disadvantages of anaerobic wastewater treatment at a low pH is the significant operational cost due to the addition of necessary alkali. To reduce alkali supplement and thus the cost, this study proposes a sequential multi-feed (SqMF) mode (distributed feeding) and effluent recycle (ER) mode. Experiments were conducted with a pilot-scale (2.5 m3) thermophilic (55°C) multi-staged up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor. Alcohol distillery wastewater (shochu), a major source of industrial wastewater in Japan, was used for the study. The SqMF mode of operation (influent pH: 5.0; organic loading rate: 45 kgCOD/m3/day; HRT: 12 hours; influent COD concentration: 20,900 mgCOD/L) successfully reduced the alkali supplement (24% NaOH solution) requirement by 67.2% compared with the single-feed mode. For the ER mode operation (organic loading rate: 35 kgCOD/m3/day; HRT: 12 hours; influent COD concentration: 17,400 mgCOD/L), operation was possible without any alkali supplement since the system uses the alkalinity generated during microbial metabolism.
    Keywords: Alkalinity, Sequential multi, feed, Effluent recycle, Alcohol, Distillery, Wastewater
  • A. De Santiago-Mart, Iacuten., I. Valverde-Asenjo, J.R. Quintana, C. Gonz, Aacute, Lez-Huecas, A.L. Lafuente Pages 831-840
    The potential risk of metal accumulation in periurban agricultural areas is a matter for concern. The climate characteristics and carbonate content of calcareous agricultural Mediterranean soils typical in these areas favour metal accumulation at the surface level; however there is also a risk of potential metal mobility. Our study focuses on the soil properties affecting metal mobility in these soils. Metal extractability patterns were assessed in soils after they were spiked with a mixture of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn and incubated up to 12 months, using one-step extraction methods (NaNO3, a mixture of low molecular weight organic acids – LMWOA and diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid –DTPA–). The concentration of extractable Cd was 50% lower in the soil with the highest carbonate content. LMWOA-extractable Cu was highest in soils with the lowest organic matter (OM) content at day 1 of the incubation experiment and in soils with the lowest carbonate and recalcitrant OM contents at 12 months. Fine mineral fractions determined the lowest DTPAextractable Cu. The highest Pb retention was in soils with the highest carbonate and clay contents. However, we were unable to establish any soil component affecting Pb extractability patterns. The Zn extractability pattern was related to particle-size distribution, which was highest in soils with a low proportion of fine mineral fractions. To summarise, carbonate, particle-size distribution and OM are relevant to potential metal mobility in these soils. The high DTPA-extractable metal values are evidence of a potential risk of metal mobility in the soils in the study.
    Keywords: Soil pollution, Carbonate, Metal mobility, One, step extractions, Incubation experiment
  • N. Sravanthi, I.V. Ramana, P. Yunus Ali, M. Ashraf, M.M. Ali, A.C. Narayana Pages 841-850
    This study presents an empirical relationship of suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) inthe coastal waters, which is derived from the conventional methods, to radiometer remote sensing reflectance values (Rrs) and satellite data in coastal waters of Kerala. An algorithm is then developed to utilize both in situ SSCs measured from conventional methods and Rrs values. This algorithm is validated with the SSCs retrieved from Oceansat-2 Ocean Colour Monitor (OCM) data. A significant coefficient of determination (R2=0.62) is observed between the SSCs measured in situ and satellite derived SSCs. Reflectance values from more than two spectral wavelength bands are also employed to test the accuracy of results. Satellite derived SSCs range from 1- 40 mg/L in the coastal waters off Cochin, southwest India. The regional algorithm developed for the study area gives better results than Tassan’s algorithm, and this algorithm can be used in estimation of SSC for coastal waters of western India.
    Keywords: Suspended particulate matter, Oceansat, 2, Ocean Colour Monitor, West coast of India, Validation of suspended sediment concentrations
  • S. Jokari, H. Rashedi, Gh. Amoabediny, S. Naghizadeh Dilmaghani, M. Mazaheri Assadi Pages 851-858
    In recent years, biosurfactants due to wide applications in chemical, petroleum, food andpharmaceutical industries, have been widely considered by researchers. Biosurfactants are produced by aseries of microorganisms, so it is important to screen culture medium and operating conditions in miniaturized bioreactors prior to scaling up to large bioreactors.In this study, using a kind of miniaturized bioreactor called ventilation flask, optimal production conditions, including filling volume and shaking frequency to produce a surfactin-type biosurfactant by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, were examined. Moreover, the effect of oxygen transfer rate (OTR) on the surfactin production was investigated according to Amoabediny and Büchs model. The results indicated that the maximum biomass and biosurfactant yield which obtained under optimal conditions (filling volume of 15 mL and shaking frequency of 300 rpm) were evaluated 0.3 g/L/h and 0.0485 g/L/h, respectively. Also, at the same conditions, the amount of surface tension decreased from 60.5 mN/m to 31.7 mN/m and the maximum oxygen transfer rate (OTRmax) obtained as 0.01 mol/L/h.
    Keywords: Biosurfactant, Surfactin, Optimization, Filling volume, Ventilation Flask
  • H. Hartmann, J. Livingston, M.G. Stapleton Pages 859-868
    The climate and weather patterns of Buffalo (New York, U.S.A.) are strongly influenced by the city’s proximity to Lake Erie. Total monthly snowfall in Buffalo is forecasted using neural network techniques (Multi-Layer Perceptron = MLP) and a multiple linear regression (LR) model. The period of analysis comprises 28 years from January 1982 to December 2009. Input data include: zonal wind speed (u-wind), meridional wind speed (v-wind), air temperature, the geopotential height (GPH) over Lake Erie and the surrounding regions at the 1000 mb -, 925 mb -, 850 mb -, and 700 mb - levels as well as the surface pressure and air temperature, mean water temperature, lake surface water temperatures (LSWT) and the amount of ice coverage of Lake Erie; the 500 mb GPH over James Bay, Canada; and the surface pressure over the North-Central Great Plains. Different lead times of the input variables are tested for their suitability. The most accurate result is obtained by using the MLP with an optimum lead time approach (lead times vary for the different input variables between one and six months). The results of the MLP with six months lead time are in good agreement with observed precipitation records over the study period.
    Keywords: Seasonal forecast, Snow, Lakes, Neural network analysis, Multiple regression
  • J. Kwasniewska, R. Jaskola, J. Maluszynska Pages 869-879
    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the sensitivity of plant bioassays: Tradescantia-micronucleus (Trad-MCN) tests using BNL 02 and 4430 clones, and Crepis capillaris hairy roots chromosome aberrations test. The evaluation of the sensitivity of the tests was based on the example of the analysis of the genotoxicity of water samples from two natural water reservoirs in Poland: the Rawa River, heavily polluted by industry, and the Goczalkowice - drinking water reservoir. Both tests showed genotoxicity of the Goczalkowice and Rawa waters. The results suggested the stronger genotoxic effect of water samples on Tradescantia 4430 clone compared to BNL 02. Tradescantia 4430 was a more sensitive bioindicator of genotoxicity than C. capillaris hairy roots. However it has been proved that Crepis capillaris hairy roots could be used as a convenient system for the environmental monitoring of water samples. Our study is the first example of using the TUNEL test (TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) to determine the genotoxicity of water pollutants.
    Keywords: Crepis capillaris, Hairy roots, Tradescantia, TUNEL test, Water samples
  • M. Gholamalifard, A. Esmaili Sari, A. Abkar, B. Naimi Pages 877-886
    Remotely sensed imagery is proving to be a useful tool to estimate water depths in coastal zones. Bathymetric algorithms attempt to isolate water attenuation and hence depth from other factors by using different combinations of spectral bands. In this research, images of absolute bathymetry using two different but related methods in a region in the southern Caspian Sea coasts has been produced. The first method used a Single Band Algorithm (SBA) and assumed a constant water attenuation coefficient throughout the blue band. The second method used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to adjust for varying water attenuation coefficients without additional ground truth data. PCA method (r=-0.672394) appears to match our control points slightly better than single band algorithm (r=-0.645404). It is clear that both methods can be used as rough estimates of bathymetry for many coastal zone studies in the southern Caspian Sea such as near shore fisheries, coastal erosion, water quality, recreation siting and so forth. The presented methodology can be considered as the first step toward mapping bathymetry in the southern Caspian Sea. Further research must investigate the determination of the nonlinear optimization techniques as well as the assessment of these models’ performance in the study area.
    Keywords: Bathymetry, Satellite Imagery, Single Band Algorithm (SBA), Principal Components Analysis (PCA), Caspian Sea
  • N. Dizadji, M. Rashtchi, S. Dehpouri, N. Nouri Pages 887-894
    Considering the point that the existence of heavy metals in the wastewater are so dangerous for the environment and it would have many bad consequences for all the creatures including human beings, we must try out the ways that make us capable of adsorbing these heavy metals. In order to accomplish this goal we should use a method called adsorbing. In this study the adsorption of copper ions in hydrated copper nitrate (Cu (NO3)2, 3H2O) aqueous solution on natural zeolite (Clinoptilolite) and vermiculite was studied in batch reactors. The effect of temperature (25, 50, 75 °C), solution pH (1.00-5.5) and concentration effect on the traditionally defined adsorption isotherm in the adsorbate range 100-325 mg/L for clinoptilolite and 100- 650 mg/L for vermiculite on the removal of copper was studied. The results showed that an increase in pH increases the adsorptivity of vermiculite. Pseudo second order model best described the reaction rate. Batch adsorption experiments conducted at room temperature (25±1 °C) showed that the adsorption pattern followed the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Optimum conditions for adsorption were determined at pH 5.5, and vermiculite and clinoptilolite at a dose of 3g. The concentration of metal ions was measured by Atomic Absorption Spectro eter (AAS). The results indicated that vermiculite and clinoptilolite are appropriate for adsorbing copper ions.
    Keywords: Heavy metal, Copper, Hydrated copper nitrate, Langmuir, Freundlich, Natural zeolite
  • A. Kacar, A. Kocyigit Pages 895-902
    In this study, it was aimed to determine the effects of ship dismantling zones on distribution of heavy metal resistance and level of antibiotic resistance of bacterial isolates from Eastern Aegean Sea coast. Thirteen isolates were identified by phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA sequences which indicated that the isolates belonged to genus Bacillus. These strains were investigated in respect of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of heavy metals (Hg, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Co, Ni, Pb and As) and susceptibility of some antibiotics (ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, vancomycin, gentamicin and tobramycin). The MICs of heavy metals were different for each strain but the general order of resistance to the metals was found to be as Pb>As>Ni>Co>Cu>Zn>Cr>Cd>Hg and the toxic effects of these metals increased with increasing concentration. It can be concluded that all isolates were sensitive to Hg but were highly resistant to Pb, As and Ni. Additionally, it was found that the strains were resistant to gentamicin followed by tobramicin. The studies suggest that sediment bacteria in a ship dismantling area can be biological indicators of heavy metal contamination.
    Keywords: Hazardous wastes, Heavy metal resistance, Sediments, Ship dismantling zone
  • Y.J. Kim, D.H. Kang, M.G. Kim, T.I. Qureshi Pages 903-908
    This study was conducted to identify emission characteristics of certain hazardous substances contained in the plastic of used home electrical and electronic appliances keeping in view compliance with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive and to estimate the possibility of safe recycling practices. According to the results, the concentration of cadmium, lead, mercury and chromium were found below than Maximum Concentration Value (MCV) of RoHS, while the concentration of total bromine (T-Br) was exceeded the standard limitations in the samples of plastic from e-waste. Over 90% of the plastics used in housing cover of display electronic products were composed of Polystyrene (PS) 53.9% and PS-flame retardants 36.4%.Peak of each hazardous substance in total samples also showed higher values of bromine, cadmium and lead. In order to enhance cleaner recycling of waste electronic appliances in accordance with the allowance of RoHS Directive, the use of brominated flame retardants in plastic and chrominated synthetic resins should be restricted and applications of metal surface finishing such as coating and painting of high molecules synthetic resins should be minimized.
    Keywords: Hazardous substances, Flame retardants, Cleaner recycling
  • G. Agrillo, E. Chianese, A. Riccio, A. Zinzi Pages 909-916
    The wide availability of data on air pollutant emissions, the knowledge already achieved on the set of chemical and photochemical reactions in the troposphere, the ability to access real time weather conditions at the local scale that determine the transport and transformation of gases and aerosol, now make it possible to obtain credible and reliable predictions, retrospective analyses and/or future projections on air quality. Political institutions and the scientific community are strongly committed to achieve these objectives.During the last years, a sensible improvement has been achieved both because of the better analysis of physical/chemical phenomena, and software/hardware architecture advancements. Nowadays, it is not uncommon to provide, also in real-time, weather and chemical forecasts at very high resolutions (less than 1 km in the horizontal directions). Some of the achievements and future perspectives on the development scenarios are given, with focus on the results of the Campania region (Southern Italy).
    Keywords: Air pollution, Monitoring, Modeling, Forecast, Quality, Data analysis
  • A.R. Karbassi, S.S. Bassam, M. Ardestani Pages 917-924
    During estuarine mixing of fresh water with saline water and due to the flocculation process, aportion of dissolved metals come into particulate phase, and the dissolved load decreases. This process plays an important role in self-purification of heavy metals in rivers. In this study, flocculation of Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn during mixing of Cheshme-Kileh River water with Caspian Sea water has been investigated. Salinity and electrical conductivity are the governing factors for the flocculation of Mn and Cu. Zn and Ni are governed by pH. Dissolved oxygen is a governing factor for the flocculation of Pb. Rapid flocculation occurs in the earlier stages of mixing. The final flocculation rates of metals are in the following order: Mn (68.79%) > Pb (45.45%) > Ni (26.32%) > Cu (23.08%) > Zn (21.21%). In addition, electro-flocculation (EF) is investigated. The results reveal that EF had adverse effect on flocculation rates of heavy metals. General pattern of EF of metals is like the following: Mn (57.89%) > Pb (40.9%) > Cu (23.08% > Ni (22.37%) > Zn (15.15%). Furthermore, the effect of decreasing pH level on flocculation of heavy metals is studied. Except for Mn, decreasing the pH increased the flocculation rates of heavy metals. Maximum flocculation of Ni, Cu, Pb, and Zn occur at pH about 7.5. Due to the flocculation of trace metals during the estuarine mixing about 51.6, 7.8, 5.5, 3.9, and 3.6 ton/year of Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, and Cu, respectively, are removed from the river water.
    Keywords: Heavy metals, Estuarine processes, Aquatic Environment, Electro, flocculation
  • A.H. Arias, A. Vazquez-Botello, G. Diaz, J.E. Marcovecchio Pages 925-936
    The usage and production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was banned in Argentina in 2002، approximately twenty to thirty years later than in other countries. A total of 29 sediment samples (up to 14 m deep) were analyzed for a mix of seven individual PCBs in a time series for over more than one year in twelve selected locations، including harbors، recreational docks and several industrialized coastal locations in Bahia Blanca Estuary، Argentina، South America. The GC/ECD results showed the dominance of three chlorinated compounds: CB180، CB52 and CB101، which showed a strong reduction with distance from the urban area. The principal components analysis differentiates light and heavy congeners variation، settling several hypotheses and the classification of sampling sites to determine the PCB burden. Considering literature reports، the present results were evaluated in the international PCB context، diminishing the scarcity of PCB data from the Southern Hemisphere and prompting the need of future monitoring approaches.
    Keywords: PCBs, Sediments, Coastal environments, Industries, Southern Hemisphere
  • G.T. Ribeiro, J.C.M. Poderoso, J.E. Serr, Atildeo., T.V. Zanuncio, J.C. Zanuncio Pages 937-944
    Eucalyptus species are cultivated in homogeneous plantations in Brazil, mainly to supply woodfor the cellulose and steel industries, which favors the establishment of insect pests. The objective was todetermine the geographical distribution and structure abundance of Lepidoptera defoliators of eucalypt.Primary pest species of eucalypt of the order Lepidoptera were found in all areas sampled and their populations were correlated with the age of the eucalypt plants, rainfall, and monthly average temperature. They presented population peaks between February and July (Três Marias and Niquelândia) and July to November (Monte Dourado) during periods of lower rainfall. The highest population peaks of these species were recorded when the eucalypt plants were three to six years old. The area of Guanhães presented better stability and fewer possibilities for the occurrence of eucalyptus Lepidoptera primary pests.
    Keywords: Eucalypt, Distribution, Defoliators, Lepidoptera, Light traps, Monitoring
  • S. Gonz, Aacute, Lez, Ubierna, I. Jorge, Mardomingo, M.T. Cruz, I. Valverde, M.A. Casermeiro Pages 945-956
    This work investigates the effect of the application rate and type of sludge throughout the soil carbon cycle in a semiarid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. We study the two-year evolution of the various pools of soil organic and inorganic carbon and their influence on soil respiration. We applied three rates (, 80 and 160 Mg/ha) of two types of sludge –aerobically and anaerobically digested sewage sludge– in a calcareous Mediterranean soil. The study area is located in the southeast of Madrid (Spain) and is characterised by a Mediterranean climate with a marked seasonal and daily contrast. We analysed soil organic carbon, CO2 emissions, organic carbon fractions, soluble carbon, and inorganic carbon forms. Measurements were madeat three times over two years, and bimonthly for organic carbon and CO2.The results show that sludge type and rateof applicationexerta significant influence throughout the soil carbon cycle. Aerobic sludge has a greater effect over the short-term. Anaerobic sludge treatment appears to have less effect on the cycle at the beginning of the amendment, but is prolonged over time, as the differences with untreated soil persist even after two years. The application of organic amendments in calcareous Mediterranean soils also modifies the inorganic carbon pools and greatly increases the soil soluble hydrogen carbonates. All of these results are reflected in the rates of soil CO2 emissions, with the highest values recorded in soils amended with aerobic sludge. Our data points to the advisability of a review of the European Union’s recommendations regarding sludge and agriculture. We propose includinga sludge stabilization process and recommended application ratesaccording to the effects on soil biogeochemical cycles.
    Keywords: Soil Organic Carbon, CO2 emissions, Sludge application, Fertilization, Agriculture
  • J. Hemmat, M. Mazaheriassadi Pages 957-962
    Problematic dyes extensively used in different industries such as textile, paper, food, plastics and cosmetics have undesirable environmental effects. White rot fungi demonstrating effective extracellular enzyme system, which is capable of degrading dyes and various xenobiotics. The aim of this study was to optimize decolorization of reactive blue 19 (RB19) dye using Phanerochaetechrysosporium. A Box- Behnkendesign and Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were used to study the effect of independent variables, namely glycerol concentration (15, 20 and 25 g/L), temperature (27, 30 and 40oC) and pH (5.5, 6.0 and 6.5) on color removal efficiency in aqueous solution. From RSM-generated model, the optimum conditions for RB19 decolorization were identified to be at temperature of 20oC, glycerol concentration of 120/L and pH: 6.5. At the optimum conditions, predicted decolorization was 98 percent. The confirmatory experiments were conducted, which confirmed the results by 99.8 percent color removal. Thus, the experimental investigation and statistical approach enabled us to improve reactive blue 19 biodegradation process by Phanerochaetechrysosporium up to 1.25 times higher than non-optimized conditions.
    Keywords: White rot, Decolorization, Response Surface Methodology (RSM)
  • A.H. Javid, A.H. Hassani, B. Ghanbari, K. Yaghmaeian Pages 963-972
    In this study, feasibility of upgrading and retrofitting municipal wastewater treatment plants was investigated at laboratory scale using Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) process. For this purpose, an aerobic pilot was operated for nearly one year in different conditions, in which a moving bed carrier with a specific biofilm surface area of 500 m2/m3 and a filling rate of 60% was utilized. System efficiency in removal of BOD5 and COD was examined at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 and 4 h. The obtained results indicated high ability of the system to tolerate organic loading and to remain stable at a high food to microorganism (F/M) ratio. The system produced effluents with good quality at low HRTs and led to an average BOD5 removal efficiency of nearly 88% during the operational period. The Organic Loading Rate (OLR) applied to the system had a range of 0.73-3.48 kgBOD5/m3.day and 2.43-11.6 gBOD5/m2.day, at which the reactor showed a good performance and stability. In general, it was concluded that (MBBR) can be an excellent alternative for upgrading and optimizing municipal wastewater treatment plants
    Keywords: MBBR, Optimization, Sewage, Biomass, Carrier
  • M. DŁugaszek, K. KopczyŃski Pages 973-978
    In the paper, the contents of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), aluminium (Al), and nickel (Ni) were determined in the meat of roe deers, wild boars, and hares coming from central region of Poland. Measurements were carried out using atomic absorption spectrometry. The ranges of median values found for the concentration of elements were as follows: 89 – 121 (Ca), 235 – 241 (Mg), 19.2 – 28.6 (Zn), 0.93 – 2.07 (Cu), 26.3 – 39.1 (Fe), 0.10 – 0.38 (Mn), 0.04 – 0.31 (Cr), 0.07 – 0.48 (Pb), 0.004 – 0.010 (Cd), 0.31 – 1.26 (Al), and 0.05 – 0.13 (Ni) ìg/g, respectively. We stated that the concentrations of Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, and Mn were comparable to their amounts in meat of farm animals. The smallest amounts of hazardous elements, except for Al, were determined in meat of hares, and the highest ones in roe deer meat. Moreover, a large variability in Cr, Pb, and Ni content was found. Generally, there were no significant correlations between the concentration of elements in the meat of wild animals and their age and weight, but some statistically significant and strong correlations between concentrations of elements were stated. Moreover, significant positive correlations were found to exist for the content of Fe and Mn in muscle tissue and liver of hares.
    Keywords: Wild animals, Muscle tissue, Bioelements, Heavy metals
  • N. Pattananuwat, M. Aoki, M. Hatamoto, A. Nakamura, S. Yamazaki, K. Syutsubo, N. Araki, M. Takahashi, H. Harada, T. Yamaguchi Pages 979-988
    We evaluated the efficacy of a full-scale combined biophysicochemical system for treating molasses-based bioethanol wastewater in terms of organic substances, nutrient, and dark brown color removal. The main organic removal unit, i.e., the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor, achieved 80.7% removal and 4.3 Nm3 methane production per cubic meter of wastewater with a hydraulic retention time of 16.7 h. Downflow hanging sponge (DHS) reactors were important in reducing the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and the lowest possible organic waste intake prevented excessive biomass formation. The BOD removal efficiency was 71.2–97.9%. The denitrification upflow anaerobic fixed bed (UFB) reactor achieved 99.2% total nitrogen removal. Post-physicochemical membrane treatment reduced the total phosphate, color, and remaining organic matter by 90.4%, 99.1%, and 99.8, respectively. We analyzed the microbial diversity of the sludge from the UASB reactors. Methanosaeta was the dominant archaeal genus in the system, followed by Methanolinea, Methanomicrospillum, Caldiserica, Bacteroidetes, and Deltaproteobacteria.
    Keywords: Molasses, Wastewater, DHS, Membrane filtration, Decolorization, Microbial diversity
  • M. Yaman, E. Erel Pages 989-994
    The main sources of human exposure to trace metals for non-occupationally exposed individualsare inhalation and ingestion. Because the absorption rates of the metals by inhalation are significantly higher (up to 50-60%) than those by ingestion (between 3% and 10%), determination of trace metals in ambient air samples is of special interest. The main purpose of this study was to determine Fe, Zn and Cu in ambient air by combining pre-concentration methods and flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). In the pre-concentration step, adsorption reagents including 4-(2-pyridyl-azo) Resorcinol (PAR)-loaded XAD-7, thioureasulphonamide polymeric resin and cupferron-activated carbon were used sequentially. Under the optimum conditions, seasonal distributions of Fe, Zn and Cu concentrations in ambient air of Elazig City, Turkey, were determined. Concentrations of Fe, Zn and Cu were found to be in the ranges of 154-416, 101-323 and 12-75 ng/m3, respectively. High Zn levels determined in March and April can be attributed to the burning of coal at the beginning of spring.
    Keywords: Air, Metals, Pre, concentration, AAS, Atmosphere
  • M.R. Masnavi Pages 995-1006
    The notion of Sustainable Development has rapidly gained considerable attention since the lastdecades of the twentieth century. It has become a locus for global paradigm shift on environment and development issues particularly after Rio Conference in 1992. The comparative analysis of Agenda 21 and major UN documents, MDG, and RIO+20 as well as some major sources are made to provide a context for the assessment of landscape and environment importance for achieving sustainability. Study showed almost half of the Agenda 21 is devoted to the Environmental problems, landscape issues and protection of nature and natural resources. Landscape ecology and ecological complexity theories have been widely used in recent decades to analyze natural systems and artificial phenomena to predict the future behavior of systems; and to provide better solutions for balanced interactions of human and living organisms at larger scales. The paper investigated landscape ecology and complexity theory potentials for better understanding landscape system and its nature as an ever changing semi-living phenomenon, which plays a key role for the life of inhabitants of the planet. Using an integrated approach and analyses, this research is to develop the ecological dimensions of landscape as framework for the contribution of landscape ecology and ecological complexity towards achieving sustainable development. Analyses led the paper postulates the new dimensions: Transformation complexity and Accumulation complexity; and reveals Ecosystem complexity and Biocomplexity to expand the current dimensions of ecological complexity, with their effects on the landscape systems, environmental sustainability and hence sustainable development.
    Keywords: Sustainable development, Landscape, Ecology, Complexity, Theory, Environment
  • F. Amirlatifi, N. Soltani, S. Saadatmand, Sh. Shokravi, M. Dezfulian Pages 1007-1014
    In this research the effects of crude oil on morphological and physiological characterization ofthe cyanobacterium Microchaete tenera ISC13 were investigated. Isolated cyanobacterium treated with different oil concentrations (control, 1, 2.5, 5 and 7%) in carbonless BG110 medium. Morphological characteristics such as morphology of filament, cellular shapes and sizes, relative position of heterocytes and akinetes were described for these treatments. Biometrical and morphological observations carried out by light and scanning electron microscopy. Dimensions of cells did not significantly impress, although a slightly increase in length of vegetative cells was observed in 2.5 and 5% crude oil in comparison to control. With respect to the physiological responses, cyanobacterium growth increased with elevated oil concentration but no changes was observed in chlorophyll content. Phycobiliproteins (PBP), phycocyanin (PC) and allophycocyanin (APC) had the highest rate in control. Increasing crude oil decreased all PBP. This study demonstrated that crude oil doesn’t have destructive effect on Microchaete tenera ISC13 and suggest probable potential of this microorganism to use oil hydrocarbons as carbon source.
    Keywords: Microchaete, Morphology, Oil pollution, SEM, 16S rRNA
  • A.A. Espinosa, J. Miranda Pages 1015-1020
    Soil samples were collected from seven sites in and around the Metropolitan Area of MexicoCity. The locations were chosen as possible sources of fugitive dusts which contribute to suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Mexico City. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the concentrations of several major elements (Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe), as well as of other trace elements that might be useful to identify the source of the airborne particles (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Y, and Zr), while X-ray Diffraction (XRD) was employed to identify the most important mineral phases present in the samples. It was found that the concentrations of some elements and the presence of minerals (like albite, quartz, and calcite) show a certain similarity to those determined by other authors in samples of Total Suspended Particles (TSP) from this urban area. Also, a comparison is made with ratios of published elemental compositions of fugitive dust profiles for inhalable particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). The ratio Mn/Fe obtained in this work is very similar to all other studies, suggesting a crustal origin, while the ratios Cr/Fe and Ni/Fe in the other studies may be affected by anthropogenic sources.
    Keywords: Airborne particles, Minerals, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction
  • A. Mohseni, Bandpei, Z. Yousefi Pages 1029-1038
    Water samples have been collected from key parts of Haraz River along different points and analyzed for various water quality parameters during winter and spring season. Effects of industrial wastes, municipal sewage, fish farming and agricultural runoff on river water quality have been investigated. The survey was conducted on along the Haraz River (185 km) from near its headwaters at the Polour, foot of Mount Damavand toward the Caspian Sea in Sorkhrood area. It lies between longitude of 35°522 and 45 52 and latitude of 35°452 and 36°152. In this study eight stations were selected, depending on the quality of surface water and effluent entering points from industrial and commercial areas and population density in coastal rivers. 120 samples were taken from these stations and analyzed. Analysis performed as standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. This study involves determination of physical, biological and chemical parameters of surface water at different points. The river was found to be highly turbid in the middle and lower parts of the river. But BOD and fecal coliform concentration was found higher in the dry season. The minimum and maximum values of parameters were Conductivity 400 -733.33 μs, DO 8.48 and 12.8 mg/L in stations 5 and 6 respectively, BOD5 1.31 and 3.54 mg/L, COD 8 and 38.67 mg/L, total nitrogen 2.124 and 3.210 mg/L. The results analyzed statistically and used for this river data bank and recommendations for the water authorities.
    Keywords: Conductivity, BOD, COD, DO, Haraz River
  • O. Veses, R. Mosteo, M.P. Ormad, J.L. Ovelleiro Pages 1039-1046
    Pollution deriving from trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Hg, As and Cr) in sediment samples (collected in 2009), belonging to rivers located in Catalonia and the Basque Country (Spain), was assessed according to sediment quality guidelines. Sediment samples were ranked in terms of a pollution index that takes into account the presence of multiple pollutants such as trace elements. While only about 10% of samples located in rivers of Catalonia showed significant potential toxicity related to trace elements, about 53% of samples located in rivers of the Basque Country showed several potential toxicity issues related to these pollutants. Extremely high trace element concentrations were measured in some samples from this latter region, constituting a clear potential risk to the benthic fauna. The use of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) such as Self-Organizing Map (SOM) to classify sites according to their similar quality was found to be a reliable tool that can be incorporated in sediment quality assessments that include large datasets.
    Keywords: TEC, PEC, Quality guidelines, Sediment, SOM