فهرست مطالب

Reproductive BioMedicine - Volume:11 Issue: 6, 2013
  • Volume:11 Issue: 6, 2013
  • 110 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/08/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Modarresi T., Sabbaghian M., Shahverdi A., Hosseinifar H., Akhlaghi Aa, Sadighi Gilani Ma Page 447
    Background
    In patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA), vital spermatozoa from the tissue is obtained from testes by enzymatic treatment besides the mechanical treatment.
    Objective
    To increase the sperm recovery success of testicular sperm extraction (TESE), with enzymatic digestion if no sperm is obtained from testis tissue by mechanical method.
    Materials And Methods
    Tissue samples were collected from 150 men who presented with clinical and laboratory data indicating NOA by means of TESE and micro dissection TESE methods. Initially, mature spermatozoa were examined for by mechanical extraction technique shredding the biopsy fractions. In cases whom no spermatozoa was observed after maximum 30 min of initial searching under the inverted microscope, the procedure was followed by enzymatic digestion using DNaseI and collagenase type IV. Surgery type, pathology, AZF, karyotype, hormones and testis size were compared in patients.
    Results
    Of 150 cases with NOA, conventional mincing method extended with enzymatic treatment yielded successful sperm recovery in 13 (about 9%) patients. Comparison of parameters revealed that level of FSH and LH were significantly different (p=0.04 and 0.08 respectively) between two groups that response negative and positive to enzymatic digestion.
    Conclusion
    The combination of conventional TESE and enzymatic digestion is an effective method to recover spermatozoa. The benefit of the mincing combined with enzyme to sperm retrieval for NOA firstly shorten the mechanical searching time, leading to minimizing further cellular damage as well as exposure to external conditions, and secondly reduce the number of cases with sperm recovery failures. Also, the serum level of FSH and LH are factors that influence the chance of sperm retrieval.
    Keywords: TESE, Enzymatic digestion, Non, obstructive azoospermia, FSH, LH
  • Zaimy Ma, Kalantar Sm, Sheikhha Mh, Jahaninejad T., Pashaiefar H., Ghasemzade J., Zahraei M Page 453
    Background
    About 15% of couples have infertility problems which 40% of them are related to the male factors. Genetic factors are candidate for about 10% of male infertility conditions. Among these, AZFa, AZFb, AZFc and AZFd regions on the Yq are considered most important for spermatogenesis. Microdeletions of these regions are thought to be involved in some cases of azoospermic or oligospermic infertile men.
    Objective
    We studied the prevalence of AZF microdeletions among Iranian infertile men with non-obstructive azoospermia and oligospermia.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 50 Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic infertile men were selected for case group and 50 men with normal spermogram as control group. The molecular study of Y chromosome microdeletions was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (M-PCR) method by using of 13 sequence tagged site (STS) markers from AZF region.
    Results
    Four (8%) patients showed Y chromosome microdeletions among case group, deletion in AZFc region was the most frequent (80%) followed by AZFb (20%), in AZFa and AZFd region we did not detect any deletions. No deletion was detected in control group; the ratio of Y chromosome microdeletion in azoospermic men was higher than this ratio in oligospermic men [19% (3/16) among azoospermic men and 3% (1/34) among oligospermics]. Serum FSH level in men with microdeletions was higher than this level in men with no deletions (p=0.034).
    Conclusion
    Because of relatively high prevalence of microdeletions on the long arm of Y chromosome among Iranian azoospermic and oligospermic patients, screening of this microdeletion may be advised to infertile men particularly azoospermic and oligospermic men before using assisted reproductive treatments
    Keywords: Male infertility, Multiplex polymerase chain reaction, AZF microdeletion
  • Sohrabipour Sh, Jafari A., Kamalinejad M., Sarrafnejad A., Shahrestany T., Sadeghipour Hr Page 459
    Background
    Prepubertal varicocele has the most devastating effects on the testes. Oxidative stress is the major cause leading to infertility in varicocele. The antioxidant properties of Flaxseed (FS) treatment in some oxidative diseases have been reported.
    Objective
    This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant effect of FS in prepubertal rats with experimental varicocele.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty two male prepubertal rats were divided into 6 groups: the varicocele group were either fed with 10% FS, or with regular diet, or with Vit E, the group with sham operation fed with 10% FS, or had regular diet, and control rats who had not been operated but received regular diet. Varicocele was created by Koksal method. After 6 weeks sperm superoxide anion and H2O2 were evaluated by flowcytometery. Semen total antioxidant capacity (TAC) by Koracevic method and testes malondialdehyde (MDA) by thiobarbituric acid with spectrophotometry was measured.
    Results
    While superoxide anion and H2O2 were significantly higher in varicocele grop with regular diet (p=0.0001), FS significantly decreased the previously-mentioned parameters (p=0.0001). There were no significant differences for seminal TAC between 6 groups (p=0.07). Left testicular MDA concentration were lower in varicocele or group that were fed with 10% FS compared with other groups (p=0.001).
    Conclusion
    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause sperm oxidative damage. FS as a fat soluble antioxidant can scavenge intracellular ROS production in varicocele.
    Keywords: Varicocele, Flax, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants
  • Bordbar H., Esmaeilpour T., Dehghani F., Panjehshahin Mr Page 467
    Background

    In traditional medicine zingiber officinale used to regulate female menstural cycle and treat male infertility. Recent studies have suggested the possible role of ginger extract in improving the testicular damage of busulfan.

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of zingiber officinale on the sperm parameters, testosterone level and the volume of the testes and seminiferous tubules by stereological methods.

    Materials And Methods

    Fifty rats were divided into four groups. All the rats were given a single intraperitoneally injection of 5mg/kg busulfan solution. The first group was kept as busulfan control, while the other groups were orally administrated ginger extract in graded doses of 50, 100 and 150mg/kg b.wt, for 48 consecutive days. At the end, all animals were anesthetized and their testes and vas deference were removed, fixed, embedded, and stained. The volume of testes and seminiferous tubules were estimated by cavalieri methods.

    Results

    The result showed, that zingiber officinale increased the volumes of seminiferous tubule in 100mg/kg treated group compared to control group. Sperm count (706×105 and 682×105) and the level of testosterone (50.90 ng/mL and 54.10 ng/mL) enhanced in 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg treated groups compared to control group (p=0.00).

    Conclusion

    It seems that zingiber officinale stimulate male reproductive system in induce busulfan infertility.

    Keywords: Busulfan, Cavalieri method, Ginger extract
  • Nikbakht Dastjerdi M., Adoutorabi R., Eslami Farsani B Page 473
    Background
    Endometriosis is a female health disorder that occurs when cells from the lining of the uterus grow in other areas of the body. The cause of endometriosis is unknown.
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to investigate TP53 gene codon 72 polymorphism in women with endometriosis and compared it with healthy samples in Isfahan.
    Materials And Methods
    We undertook a case-control study to examine the possible association of the TP53 gene codon 72 polymorphism with the risk of endometriosis in Isfahan. Ninety whole blood specimens from normal people as controls and ninety endometriosis specimens were analyzed. p53 codon 72 genotypes were identified using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction.
    Results
    Frequency of genotype Arg/Arg (Arginine/Arginine) in the samples of endometriosis was 28.9% and in healthy samples 42.2%. Frequency of genotype Pro/Pro (Proline/Proline) in the samples of endometriosis was 15.6% and in healthy ones. Frequency of heterozygote's Arg/Pro was 55.6% in endometriosis samples and 54.45% in healthy ones 3.3%. By comparing statistical genotype Pro/Pro with two other genotypes in both groups there was a statistical meaningful difference between control group and endometriosis group. [p=0.009, CI=95%, OR=5.34 (1047-19.29)].
    Conclusion
    Recent research shows that genotype Pro/Pro codon72 exon4 TP53 gene may be one predisposing genetic factor for endometriosis in Isfahan.
    Keywords: Polymorphism, Genotype, P53 gene, Endometriosis
  • Jamali S., Mosalanejad L Page 479
    Background
    Sexuality is an important part of women’s health, quality of life, and general well-being. There are many factors influencing the female sexual function, including psychological, physiological, couple relationship, and socio-cultural factors. Pregnancy plays an important role in the sexual function and behavior of women.
    Objective
    This study aims to evaluate the sexual function and determine the prevalence of sexual dysfunction among women during pregnancy.
    Materials And Methods
    The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 257 healthy pregnant women aging between18-40 years who had attended the antenatal clinic, Paymaneh Hospital, Jahrom, Iran between April and October 2011 Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire was used for assessing the sexual function
    Results
    The mean age of the participants was reported as 26.45±4.49 years. In addition, 143, 69, and 45 subjects were in their 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively. Comparison of the second and the third trimesters revealed a significant difference in the scores of all FSFI domains and the mean total FSFI score was reported as 19.9±22.45. Among the study subjects, 197 ones (79.1%) had sexual dysfunction (FSFI score <26.5), while only 52 (20.9%) had normal sexual function (FSFI score ≥26.5). The sexual dysfunction among pregnant women was rated as 23.4%, 30.5%, and 46.2% in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimesters, respectively.
    Conclusion
    The prevalence of sexual dysfunction is high during pregnancy and reaches higher levels in the third trimester. Therefore, pregnant women and their partners need counseling about physical and psychological changes in pregnancy.
    Keywords: Sexual dysfunction, Pregnancy, Female Sexual Function Index
  • Kheradmand F., Nourmohammadi I., Ahmadi, Faghih Ma, Firoozrai M., Modarressi Mh Page 487
    Background
    The impact of cadmium (Cd) on male infertility may be related to the interaction with metal-binding proteins known as metallothioneins (Mts). Trace elements like zinc (Zn) have protective effects on testicular damage induced by Cd.
    Objective
    We determined the effect of Zn and low-dose Cd pre-treatment on the expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes on testicular Sertoli cells.
    Materials And Methods
    The cultured TM4 mouse sertoli cells were treated with 50 μM ZnSO4 (Zn pre-treated group; ZnPG), 2 μM CdCl2 (Cd pre-treated group; CdPG), or distilled water (DW pre-treated group; DWPG). After 18 hour, all of these groups were exposed to 100 μM CdCl2 for different periods of time (1, 2, 3, and 6 hours). There was also a control group for all three groups, which was treated only with distilled water (without Cd or Zn pre-treatment). Cellular viability, Zn and Cd concentrations and gene expression were assessed by MTT, atomic absorption spectrometry and real time PCR methods, respectively.
    Results
    The expression of Mt1 and Mt2 genes in ZnPG, CdPG, and DWPG was greater than the control group (p=0.02 and p=0.01, respectively). Cd concentrations in CdPG and DWPG were greater than the control group (p=0.00). Expression of both genes in ZnPG and CdPG increased after 3 hours of treatment and Cd concentration decreased simultaneously, which was more obvious in ZnPG.
    Conclusion
    Zn and short term low-dose Cd pre-treatment might reduce the adverse effects of Cd by increasing expression of Mts genes in Sertoli cells. The protective effect of Zn was stronger than Cd.
    Keywords: Cadmium, Gene expression, Metallothionein, Sertoli cells, Zinc
  • Pasha H., Faramarzi M., Esmailzadeh S., Kheirkhah F., Salmalian H Page 495
    Background
    The infertility is associated with psychological consequence including depression, and lack of self-efficacy.
    Objective
    The aim of this study was to compare the pharmacological and no pharmacological strategies in promotion of self-efficacy of infertile women.
    Materials And Methods
    A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 89 infertile women who were recruited from Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center and were randomized into three groups; cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), antidepressant therapy with flouxetine 20 mg daily for 3 month, and a control group. All participants completed Infertility Self-efficacy Inventory (ISE) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) at the beginning and end of the study.
    Results
    The means ISE scores among the CBT, fluoxetine, and control groups at the beginning and end of the study were 6.1±1.6 vs. 7.2±0.9, 6.4±1.4 vs. 6.9±1.3 and 6.1±1.1 vs. 5.9±1.4 respectively. Both CBT and fluoxetine increased the mean of ISE scores more than control group after intervention (p<0.0001, p=0.033; respectively), but increase in the CBT group was significantly greater than flouxetine group. Finally, there was evidence of high infertility self-efficacy for women exposed to the intervention compared with those in the control group. Also, there was an improvement in depression. Both fluoxetine and CBT decreased significantly the mean of BDI scores more than the control group; decrease in the CBT group was significantly more than that in the fluoxetine group.
    Conclusion
    CBT can serve as an effective psychosocial intervention for promoting self-efficacy of infertile women.
    Keywords: Infertility, Self, efficacy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Drug therapy
  • Baghianimoghadam Mh, Aminian Ah, Baghianimoghadam B., Ghasemi N., Abdoli Am, Seighal Ardakani N., Fallahzadeh H Page 503
    Background
    Infertility is accompanied by numerous psychological and social problems. Infertile couples are more anxious and emotionally distressed than other fertile people. Previous studies suggested that infertility is more stressful for women than men.
    Objective
    The purpose of this study was to determine the status of general health of infertile couples.
    Materials And Methods
    This cross-sectional study evaluated general health of 150 infertile couples attending to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility that were selected consequently. The data were gathered by the researchers, based on face to face interview before and after three months of treatment by two questionnaires. The first questionnaire had questions on demographic information and the second one was the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). This questionnaire has four sub- scales areas. All data were transferred directly to SPSS 15 and analyzed.
    Results
    The mean age of women was 28.3 and men were 32.4 years. The scores for all sub- scales of GHQ in women were more than men. There was significant difference between age and general health at physical symptoms scales (p=0.002), anxiety and sleep disorders (p=0.003). The age group 25-29 years had higher scores (more than 7) than other age groups. There was significant difference between the scale of social dysfunction and results of treatment.
    Conclusion
    Our results, similar to the previous studies have revealed negetive social and mental effects of infertility on women is more than men, so there is need that they be educated specially.
    Keywords: Infertility, General health questionnaire, Mental health, Treatment outcome
  • Kim Th, Lee Hh, Kim Jm, Ryu Al Chung Sh, Lee Ws Page 511
    Background
    Postpartum hemorrhage is the leading cause of severe maternal morbidity and death. A prompt management of uterine artery embolization (UAE) is important for a good outcome. UAE is generally accepted to be a safe and reliable procedure.
    Objective
    To estimate critical patient characteristics influencing the success of UAE for the treatment of emergent primary postpartum hemorrhage.
    Materials And Methods
    This was a cross sectional study that reviewed 121 patients who were diagnosed primary postpartum hemorrhage between February 2002 and December 2009 at a tertiary treatment center among 4,022 deliveries. We evaluated patient clinical characteristics associated with a successful surgical outcome of UAE.
    Results
    The success rate for UAE was 96%. For two cases, UAE complication was associated with fever (>38.5oC). Five patients had problems that required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU).
    Conclusion
    To increase the surgical success rate and lower the number of ICU admissions, the decision to treat primary postpartum hemorrhage using UAE should be based on individual patient clinical findings under the direction of obstetrics staff and an interventional radiologist.
  • Afzali N., Ahmadi F., Akhbari F Page 519
    Background

    Genital tuberculosis is a chorionic disease and mostly occurs by haematogenous spread from extra genital source like lungs, peritoneum, lymph nodes and bones. Transmission through a sexual intercourse is also possible. Since the majority of patients are in reproductive ages, involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrium cause infertility in patients. Cases: Reviewing 4 cases of female genital tuberculosis, which referred to an infertility treatment center with various symptoms, we encountered various appearances on hysterosalpingography (HSG).

    Conclusion

    The genitourinary tract is the most common site of extra pulmonary TB. The primary focus of genital tuberculosis is fallopian tubes, which are almost always affected bilaterally but not symmetrically. Because of common involvement of fallopian tubes and endometrial cavity, disease causes infertility. Diagnosis is not easy because genital tuberculosis has a wide range of clinical and radiological manifestations with slow growing symptoms. Detailed hysterosalpingography finding may be helpful in better diagnosis of the disease. This case series aims to depict the various hystrosalpingographic appearances and pathology produced by tuberculosis and related literatures are reviewed in order to establish a better diagnostic evaluation of genital tuberculosis.