فهرست مطالب

Archives of Clinical Infectious Diseases - Volume:7 Issue:4, 2013
  • Volume:7 Issue:4, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/01/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Masoud Mardani Pages 107-108
  • Amit Kumar Verma, Om Prakash Kalra Pages 109-112
    Treatment of tuberculosis was an obstacle for ages. In spite of good drugs, the disease is not under control. Thus, the need for more drugs existed. Searching for a new drug demands much investment on the time, money and human resources. There are many drugs with antitubercular action that are discovered and explored in the last century. The most common drug, Isoniazid, is now a frontrunner anti-tubercular drug. Like the same antitubercular effect of Trifluoperazine which is known since 1990s, but due to the lack of research its anti-tubercular potential is not yet explored completely.
    Keywords: Antitubercular Agents, Isoniazid, Trifluoperazine, Antipsychotic Agents, Therapeutics, Hydrazines
  • Parsa Yousefi Chaijan, Mojtaba Sharafkhah Pages 113-115
    Background
    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common cause for diseases in infants. Various studies have suggested that infants with UTI benefit from a lower rate of breastfeeding compared to control groups. Our experimental evidence showed if breastfed infants are infected with a UTI, their response to treatment is faster and better..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study is to compare bacterial resistance to common antibiotics in breastfed and bottle-fed female infant..Patients and
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional analytical study, urine cultures (Uc) were conducted on female infants, under 2 years old, with UTIs. Antibiograms were conducted for Gentamicin, Ampicillin, Amikacin, Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Cephalexin, Nitrofurantoine, Nalidixic acid, and Cotrimoxazole. The results of the two groups were compared: 1) breastfed infants (BrF) and 2) bottle-fed infants (BoF)..
    Results
    Based on our inclusion criteria, 377 female infants suspected of having UTIs were introduced to the study. Among them, 73 infants were excluded from the study. In both groups, the lowest resistance was against Nitrofurantoine (0.7% in BrF vs. 11.2% in BoF) and the highest resistance was against Cotrimoxazole (30.6% in BrF vs. 68.4% in BoF)..
    Conclusions
    Breastfeeding causes lower bacterial resistance to common antibiotics compared to bottle-feeding..
    Keywords: Urinary Tract Infection, Breastfeeding, Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Mohammad Saeed Sasan, Abdolvahab Alborzi, Mazyar Ziyaeyan Pages 116-118
    Background
    Viruses are by far the most common cause of meningitis in children..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology of viral/aseptic meningitis (AM) in children (2 months - 15 years) in Shiraz..
    Materials And Methods
    This is a cross-sectional prospective-descriptive study from May 2001 to May 2002 in Nemazi and Dastgheib Hospitals, Shiraz. EV meningitis was diagnosed using RT - PCR on Aseptic CSF samples. Mumps meningitis (MM) is defined (clinically) by simultaneous presence of parotitis and meningitis and negative PCR for EV. Clinical data were extracted from hospital archive files..
    Results
    During the study period, 688 CSF samples (from 598 patients) were analyzed. Among these samples, there were 218 (36.4%) cases of meningitis. Twenty seven (12.38%) were bacterial [Streptococcus pneumonia (11 cases), H. Influenzae (8 cases), Neisseria meningitidis (5 cases) and other organisms (3 cases)]. The rest of the cases (191 patients) were considered as AM. RT - PCR for detection of EV was carried out on 53.4% (102 out of 191) accessible aseptic CSF samples. Among these cases, only 12.7% (13 out of 102) were positive for EV. Twenty patients (19.6%) with negative (Enteroviral) PCR, had parotitis and were considered as MM. Other causes of AM were found in 8 (7.8%) cases (Brain Abscess and Guillain-Barre syndrome, each one in 2 cases, Partially treated bacterial meningitis, TB Meningitis, Leukemic meningitis and Varicella encephalitis each were detected in one case)..
    Conclusions
    The cause of AM was found in 40.15 % (41 out of 102) of patients. Although at the time of this study (2001 - 2002) MM was the most common form of AM in children in Shiraz, Enteroviral Meningitis (EVM) was relatively close to it in prevalence (13 Enteroviral vs. 20 MM)..
    Keywords: Meningitis, Meningitis, Aseptic, Meningitis, Viral, Enterovirus, Mumps, Child
  • Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei, Farahnaz Joukar, Fatemeh Soati, Motahare Javadi Pages 119-123
    Background
    Hydatid cyst disease (HCD) or echinococcosis has a worldwide distribution and is endemic in many countries of Mediterranean region. In Iran, due to various climatic conditions, the rate of the disease is diverse in different parts. The most infected regions are the domains of Alborz and Zagros Mountains where there is a high rate of ruminants and the main carrier of people are animal husbandry. Due to the importance of this zoonotic helminth and the lack of information about hydatid cyst disease in Guilan province, we conducted a retrospective study from 2000 to 2010 to evaluate the HCD inpatients in this region..
    Objectives
    The aims of the study are to evaluate HCD inpatients and to review the clinical presentations of different organs affected by cysts and postoperative outcomes of hydatid cyst in Guilan province..
    Materials And Methods
    A retrospective descriptive investigation was performed by reviewing the medical records of patients with HCD, admitted to four private and governmental hospitals, in Rasht, capital of Guilan province from 2000 - 2010..
    Results
    Sixty-two patients (38 males, 24 females) with a mean age of 46.38 ± 18.36 years (aged between 8 and 81 years old), with HCD were evaluated. In the 40 - 60 years old group, there was highest rate of HCD (40.3%). Housewives had the highest rate of infection (40.3%) followed by farmers (22.6%), pupil (8.1%), animal husbandries (6.5%) and others (22.6%). The most prevalent complaint of the patients with liver involvement were abdominal pain (75%) and nausea and vomiting (9.1%) and the most common findings of the inpatients with lung involvement the most common complaint was cough (40%). Seventy one percent of the patients had liver involvement and 16.1% had lung involvement. The most common diagnostic method was ultrasonography (48.14%). Computed tomography was diagnostic in 43.20% of cases and chest X-ray in 8.6% of cases. Overall, 96.8% of patients were cured and the mortality rate was 3.2%..
    Conclusions
    Echinococcosis is still an important health problem in Iran that needs further studies. Therefore, accurate information on the distribution of the disease is the first step to control and prevent it. In general, the situation of the hydatidosis in the human in Guilan shows somehow a resemblance with the other areas in Iran..
    Keywords: Echinococcus granulosus, Echinococcosis, Iran
  • Gita Eslami, Hossein Goudarzi, Robabeh Taheripanah, Soudabeh Taheri, Fatemeh Fallah, Bahram Moazzami, Arezou Taherpour, Elnaz Ohadi, Bita Pourkaveh, Zahra Zahirnia Pages 124-127
    Background
    Chlamydia trachomatis (C. trachomatis) is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infectious disease in the world. Moreover, it plays a role in spontaneous abortion. The accuracy of PCR in detection of C. trachomatis infections has been shown in several studies..
    Objectives
    The frequency of spontaneous abortion and known side effects and statistics vary in Chlamydia trachomatis infection in women with spontaneous abortion and different ways to identify and determine the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis are used..
    Materials And Methods
    Four sterile Dacron swabs were used to collect specimens from endocervix and vagina from women with miscarriage. DNA was extracted by AccuPrep Genomic DNA extraction kit. The nested PCR procedure was performed with two pair primers. This study was conducted on women referred to Medical Centers of Tehran, Iran in 1391..
    Results
    The number of intercourses per week and history of miscarriage can be known as the risk factors of abortion. Frequency of C. trachomatis in endocervix was 13.25%; the amount of vaginal infection among this group was 19%..
    Conclusions
    Nested PCR as a sensitive Chlamydia trachomatis detection test and endocervical specimens has been offered to detect this bacterium in spontaneous abortion. Besides, C. trachomatis screening among pregnant women can be suggested to prevent abortion..
    Keywords: Chlamydia trachomatis, Abortion, Spontaneous, Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Hamid Kassiri, Khadijeh Shemshad, Ali Kassiri, Samaneh Shojaee, Narges Sharifinia, Masoomeh Shemshad Pages 128-131
    Background
    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is one of the most important health problems in different regions of Iran that occurs both in zoonotic and anthroponotic forms in different foci of Iran. The Khuzistan Province, located in the South West of Iran in vicinity of the Persian Gulf, is one of the oldest susceptible foci for CL in Iran..
    Objectives
    Due to the lack of information about the conditions in the focus of Behbahan County, the present study was conducted to find out the epidemiology of CL in this area..
    Materials And Methods
    The data of this descriptive cross-sectional study consisted of all patients with CL referred to the Behbahan County Health Center with the symptoms of CL and presence of leishman bodies in Giemsa-stained smears. Parasites considered to be Leishmania major according to the essence a great vacuole in the cytoplasm..
    Results
    The study showed that the rate of CL incidence with the general rate of 0.18 per 1000 people. Ulcers were present in 172 patients, comprising 44.8% female and 55.2% male. In 55 cases (32%), the ulcers were located on the hand, in 54 cases (31.4%) on the feet, in 33 cases (19.2%) on the face and in 30 cases (17.4%) on other parts of the body. The highest incidence was found among patients with two age groups of 20 - 29 (27.3%) and 10 - 19 years old (26.2%)..
    Conclusions
    With respect to the increased prevalence of CL in Behbahan County, health care observers should pay close attention to prevent the disease spread..
    Keywords: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, Leishmania major, Epidemiology, Clinical Laboratory Technique, Demography, Iran
  • Taoufiq Aatif, Mohamed Benyahia Pages 132-134
    We describe bladder and urinary tract abscess with concomitant hip arthritis in a 64-year-old male patient on hemodialysis. The patient recovered promptly after abscess draining and antibiotics. This case is reported with a brief discussion of risk factors of this condition..
    Keywords: Arthritis, Hip, Renal Dialysis, Infection
  • Mina Asef Zadeh, Mohammad Reza Oladi, Borzooyeh Naji, Abolfazle Mehrtash Pages 135-137
    Tuberculosis is an infection which may influence many organs while ocular tuberculosis (TB) is amongst the rarest infectious diseases with no sign of systemic disease. A fifty-six-year- old female with complaint of gradual loss of visual acuity, weight loss, night sweats and purulent discharge from medial canthus and non-productive coughs. In general, tuberculosis in endemic areas, even the rare complications or symptoms, must be considered in differential diagnosis. Ocular TB is also not an exception as the definite diagnosis is almost impossible..
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Tuberculosis, Ocular, Chorioretinitis