فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:1 Issue:2, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • Mdjid Samii Page 41
  • Zahid Hussain Khan Page 42
  • Rafieh Alizadeh, Soraya Mehrabi, Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem Pages 43-50
    Context: Parkinson''s disease (PD) is one of the common neurodegenerative disorders, characterized by the gradual loss of dopamine (DA) containing neurons in the substantia nigra. It is currently treated by L-DOPA and DAergic drugs. Although these treatments are very effective in the beginning of the disease, but they are not curative and have side effects in chronic use.. Evidence Acquisitions: The aim of cell replacement therapies for PD is looking for a long-lasting relief of patients’ symptoms. Different sources of stem cells are recruited to establish a long lasting treatment for PD. We have categorized them into embryonic stem cells from the fertilized egg, neural stem cells from the embryonic or adult brain, mesenchymal stem cell, and stem cells from other tissues. In this review we used three key words «Parkinson''s disease, stem cells and neostriatum transplantation» to search in «PubMed» search engine. We found more than hundreds of publications but limitation for citation led us to select only those that were more innovative..
    Results
    Cell replacement therapies in PD aim to provide greater long-lasting relief of patients’ symptoms. Although the transplants survive, reinnervate the striatum, and generate adequate symptomatic relief in some patients yet side effects are still major concern..
    Conclusions
    This article reviewed different sources of cell used in transplantation and focused on their advantages and disadvantages in transplantation studies..
    Keywords: Parkinson Disease, Stem Cells, Neostriatum, Transplantation, Dopaminergic Neurons
  • Anshu Tewari, Mahdi Hasan, Rahul Misra, Anita Rani Pages 51-54
    Background
    In the recent era, smoking has become fashionable. Seventy percent of the Indian population is continuously being exposed to smoking. Cigarette smoking produces various quantities of nicotine that is readily absorbed by the physiological system of smokers..
    Objectives
    Adolescence is the period in which smokers typically begin their nicotine addiction. To date, no attempt has been made to estimate changes in cholinergic and DA-D2 receptors (Dopaminergic D2 receptors) following nicotine administration, although literature review has revealed available publications regarding changes in dopamine concentration following nicotine. Hence the present experiment was conducted to study the alteration of cholinergic and DA-D2 receptors in hippocampus and corpus striatum respectively following nicotine exposure by using neurochemical receptor binding techniques..
    Materials And Methods
    In the present study an experiment was done on male albino rats. Nicotine was administered for 8 weeks orally via a cannula, using dose rate (5 mg/d, 10 mg/d). The results were compared with control adult rats, given vehicle in an identical manner. After exposure, we assessed [3H] Quinuclidinyl Benzilate as a specific ligand for cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus and DA-D2 receptors binding in corpus striatum using [3H] Spiperone as a specific ligand for DA-D2 receptor..
    Results
    Chronic nicotine treatment induced the up-regulation of cholinergic receptors in the hippocampus and down-regulation of DA-D2 receptors in the striatum..
    Conclusions
    Such knowledge is important for understanding nicotine dependence and the consequences of nicotine administration for the treatment of neurological disorders. These effects may underlie long-term behavioral changes associated with adolescent nicotine exposure..
    Keywords: Nicotine, Receptors, Cholinergic, Quinuclidinyl Benzilate, Hippocampus, Corpus Striatum, Receptors, Dopamine D2
  • Gholamreza Hassanzadeh, Rostam Ghorbani, Tahmineh Mokhtari, Mohamad Bayat, Adib Zendedel, Yosef Mohammadi, Mitra Barzroodi Pages 55-59
    Background
    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease which affects the brain as well as other organs. Connection of mesencephalic raphe nuclei to striatum is important, and reduction of these projections can play a negative role in regulatory connection between them..
    Objectives
    The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of diabetes on projections of mesencephalic raphe nuclei to striatum of rats..
    Materials And Methods
    Forty eight male adult Wistar rats were divided into four groups (1.control, 2. two-month diabetic rats, 3. four-month diabetic rats and 4. six-month diabetic rats). HRP was injected into the dorsal and ventral striatum separately and after perfusion with normal saline, fixation, and postfix solutions, the brains were sectioned coronaly (40 µm). Frozen sections were reacted with TMB and counterstained with 1% neutral red..
    Results
    This study showed reduction of labeled neurons in both mesencephalic raphe nuclei following induction of diabetes. After injection of HRP to ventral striatum this reduction was prominent in DR nucleus in comparison to median raphe projections to ventral striatum affected by diabetes more than that of those to dorsal striatum..
    Conclusions
    Diabetes mellitus decreases the projections of mesencephalic raphe nuclei to striatum..
    Keywords: Diabetes Mellitus, Mesencephalon, Raphe Nuclei, Corpus Striatum, Streptozocin
  • Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya, Shadi Shokouhyar, Mehrdad Emami, Mohaddese Sharifzade Pages 60-66
    Background
    Complementary and alternative medicine is considered and used by many people with epilepsy to treat seizures, despite the lack of enough scientific proof for its efficacy..
    Objectives
    The aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which patients with epilepsy use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and to assess the perceptions of CAM among these patients..Patients and
    Methods
    In this study patients with epilepsy were recruited at two epilepsy centers in Iran (Shiraz and Tehran). The survey collected specific information about CAM perceptions and usage. All independent variables were correlated with the dependent variables: the perception about CAM and the CAM usage. The Pearson Chi-square test and Student’s t-test were used for univariate analyses. Subsequently, multivariate analysis using logistic regression was performed on variables that were significant (P < 0.05) in univariate analysis..
    Results
    Three hundred and twenty-three patients and / or their caregivers in Shiraz, and 227 people in Tehran were recruited. One hundred and thirty-nine patients (43%) in Shiraz, and 116 (51%) in Tehran and it was thought that at least one of CAM treatments might be helpful to treat seizures. Forty-five patients in Shiraz and 30 people in Tehran had used CAM to treat their seizures. We could not find a model to predict which thinks that CAM is effective in treating seizures. However, we found a model among CAM users. Within this model educational level made a significant contribution. People with epilepsy who had either a low education or, on the contrary, were highly educated more likely used CAM to treat their seizures..
    Conclusions
    CAM is considered and used by many people with epilepsy to treat their seizures. Cultural issues probably play an important role in having faith in CAM and consequently using a specific method of CAM to treat seizures..
    Keywords: Complementary Therapies, Epilepsy, Perception, Complementary Therapies
  • Fatemeh Ghavam, Ahmad Ali Noorbala, Mohsen Rahimnia Pages 67-70
    Background
    This article ponders about one of the challenges faced by quadriplegic disables and investigates their capability in doing daily activities. Considering the high frequency of disability in the world, it is of vital importance to do research about this group of people many of who played significant roles in Iran-Iraq’s war, serving them the right to be independent for handling their daily and personal activities. Any attempt to improve their perceptions of having control over their life and expand their choices for a preferred living situation has been proved to lead to a better quality of life in these people. Devices such as wheelchairs and walkers were traditionally devised to facilitate life for disables but this article took a further step to design special dishes compatible with the needs of spinal cord injury disables particularly quadriplegics. This measure is unprecedented in Iran and any comprehensive measure was not previously taken in the world..
    Objectives
    Facilitating eating habits of quadriplegics was the main goal of this project; designing dishes for quadriplegic disables..
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, field research was conducted, using a questionnaire, library, Internet, and an interview with quadriplegics and those who are incapacitated in using their hand..
    Results
    The designed dishes were given to several quadriplegic disables, which drew their attention pleasantly and satisfied them. The “Disables and Veterans Institute” also approved the dishes..
    Conclusions
    By using these dishes in all rehabilitation centers, pain and suffering of these patients can be alleviated and their independency can be improved. Although the «Disables and Veterans'' Institute» welcomed the project, due to various reasons, this is yet to be massively produced..
    Keywords: Quadriplegia, Rehabilitation, Cooking, Eating Utensils
  • Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Mandana Mohyeddin Bonab, Sanaz Ahmadi Karvigh, Sepideh Yazdanbakhsh, Behrouz Nikbin, Jamshid Lotfi Pages 71-75
    Background
    Mesenchymal stem cell therapy has been used in multiple sclerosis (MS) in order to modulate the course of the disease in previous studies. One of the major concerns in such cases is long term safety or efficacy of this type of therapy..
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to report the clinical status of five patients with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and one patient with neuromyelitis optica, five years after an autologous intrathecal mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) injection..Patients and
    Methods
    The patients (three male, three female) had a progressive course nonresponsive to the conventional immunomodulatory treatments with Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score of 3.5 to 6. They received the MCSs after discontinuing other treatments. They were examined annually to assess the disease activity and possible complications..
    Results
    Two patients had no change in their EDSS scores. One was diagnosed to have Devic’s disease decreased one score in the EDSS, but experienced four relapses during these five years. Three patients had an increase in EDSS scores by 1-2 scores after five years. Two experienced relapses after injection. There was no significant adverse reaction, infection, or neoplasm during this period of follow up..
    Conclusions
    Intrathecal mesenchymal stem cell therapy for MS is generally safe and did not result in any adverse reaction like malignancy for a relatively long period of time. At least half of the patients had no change in their EDSS and the remaining patients had a delay in disease progress..
    Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Stem Cells, Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation, Tissue Therapy
  • Masoume Masoumipoor, Seyed Behnam Jameie, Atusa Janzadeh, Farinaz Nasirinezhad, Mahdie Kerdari, Maryam Soleimani Pages 76-81
    Background
    Different types of pain such as neuropathic pain (NP) are still challengeable conditions in medical disciplines. Neuropathy leads to medical, social and economic problems for the patient, thus various therapies are being used to treat or reduce it. There are numerous studies mainly focused on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress for NP. Recently, Low level Laser Therapy (LLLT) has been used in certain areas of medicine and neuro-rehabilitation. Chronic constriction injury (CCI) is a well-known model for neuropathic pain studies..
    Objectives
    The present research was designed to find the effects of 660 wave length LLLT on injured sciatic nerve..
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty Wistar adult male rats (230 – 320 g) were used in this study. The animals were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10). To induce neuropathic pain for sciatic nerve, CCI technique was used. Low Level Laser of 660nm was used for consecutive two weeks. Thermal and mechanical hyperalgesia were performed before and after the operation on days 7 and 14 respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were also evaluated..
    Results
    Our results showed that CCI decreased the pain threshold; whereas, LLLT of 660nm wave length for two weeks increased the mechanical and thermal thresholds significantly. Comparison of the mechanical and thermal thresholds showed significant therapeutic effects of LLLT in trial groups than control..
    Conclusions
    Although our results showed the therapeutic effects of LLLT on NP and might be used for clinical application in neuropathic cases; more future clinical studies are needed.
    Keywords: Laser Therapy, Low, Level, Chronic Constriction Injury, Neuralgia
  • Epidemiologic Characteristics of Patients Treated in a Referral Center With the Diagnosis of Central Nervous System Infection in North of Iran, from March 2008 to March 2012: A Retrospective Observational Registry Study
    Farhang Babamahmoodi, Alireza Davoudi, Abdolreza Babamahmoodi, Mojgan Sepehrimanesh Pages 82-87
    Background
    Central nervous system infections are life-threatening in many cases. Infection etiology may be varied based on age, geographic region and comorbidities..
    Objectives
    This study aimed to identify epidemiologic, clinical and laboratory features of patients with central nervous system infection in this area to facilitate rapid diagnosis and treatment.. Patients and
    Methods
    In a retrospective study,, data were collected by chart review of computerized medical records of hospitalized patients with CNS infection in Razi hospital, from March 2008 to March 2012 in Qaemshahr city, north of Iran..
    Results
    During this period, of 16532 hospitalized patients with infectious diseases in Razi hospital, 66 were admitted with CNS infection diagnosis (0.4%). The average age was 26.3 ± 20.7 years. Male were more than females (81.2% vs. 18.8%), and 6.3% were younger than one year, and 35.9% aged between 11 - 20 years. Most patients were admitted in fall (32.8%) followed by summer. Eighty six percent of cases had meningitis, and encephalitis and brain abscess was occurred in 10.6% and 3%, respectively. Three cases of cryptococcal meningitis, and one rare case of H1N1flu meningitis and brucella meningoencephalitis were reported..
    Conclusions
    Based on data collected about risk factors and epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory features of CNS infections, we can help to prompt diagnosis and treatment of these patients..
    Keywords: Central Nervous System, Infection, Hospitals, Epidemiology