فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/10/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 22
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  • Odaro Stanley Imade, Faith Iguodalaakinnibosun, Bankole Henryoladeinde, Osaro Iyekowa Pages 499-509
    Background
    Our study aimed at substantiating the recent claim of myocar­dial complications in severe malaria by experimentally inducing severe Plasmodium falciparum infection in a humanized mouse model employed as human surrogate.
    Methods
    Twenty five humanized mice were inoculated with standard in vitro cultured P. falciparum and blood extracts collected from the inner cardiac mus­cles of infected mice that died were examined for the presence of the infectious cause of death. The therapeutic effect of quinine on 7 mice se­verely infected with P. falciparum was also evaluated.
    Results
    All the 25 humanized mice inoculated with the in vitro cultured P. falciparum revealed peripheral parasitemia with a total of 10 deaths recorded. Postmortem examination of the inner cardiac muscles of the dead mice also revealed massive sequestration of mature P. falciparum as well as significant infiltration of inflammatory cells such as lymphocytes and monocytes. Postmor­tem evaluation of the inner cardiac muscles of the P. falciparum-in­fected mice after quinine therapy showed significant decline in parasite den­sity with no death of mice recorded.
    Conclusions
    Data obtained from our study significantly corroborated the findings of myocardial dysfunction as the primary cause of death in recent case reports of humans infected with P. falciparum.
    Keywords: Humanized, Immunosuppressed, Myocardial, Parasitemia, Therapy
  • Mahdi Mosayebi, Abdolhossein Dalimi Asl, Mohammad Moazzeni, Ghasem Mosayebi Pages 510-515
    Background
    The objective of this study was to investigate HLA-DRB1*and DQB1* allelic polymorphisms in Iranian patients with hydatidose. This is the first survey dealing with the correlation between HLA-DRB1* and DQB1* al­leles and cystic echinococcosis in Iranian patients.
    Methods
    The study was carried out on 56 patients with confirmed cystic echino­coccosis and 30 apparently healthy individuals living in Arak- Markazi Province by HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 typing through PCR-SSP method. The first step was to identify the patients and blood sampling. DNA was prepared from whole blood and PCR-SSP with 31 primer mixes for per sample was used. PCR reaction mixtures were loaded in agarose gels and bands were observed under UV illumination and gel document after electrophoresis. Analysis of re­sults was carried out with specific softwares and frequency and interpretation tables for calculation of P-value in χ2 test were provided via Fisher΄s exact test. Significant samples were analyzed by logistic regression and odds-ratios were calculated.
    Results
    A statistically significant positive association was found between HLA-DQB1*03 and the resistance to cystic echinococcosis (P<0.02) (odds-ratio=2.87).
    Conclusion
    Immunogenetic susceptibility to unilocular hydatidose varies accord­ing to the HLA antigens in Arak, Markazi Province, and DQB1*03 mole­cules are associated with the level of immune response to parasite antigens.
    Keywords: DQB1, HLA, DRB1, Hydatidose, Echinococcosis, PCR, SSP
  • Samieh Asadian, Mehdi Mohebali, Mahmod Mahmoudi, Eshrat Beigom Kia, Zahra Heidari, Majid Asgari, Mojgan Aryaeipour, Sepideh Moradi, Mohammad Bagher Rokni Pages 516-521
    Background
    The aim of this study was to conduct a seroprevalence survey in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province, north western Iran to detect the rate of human fascioliasis in the city and nearby villages. Literature shows that no such study has been conducted so far.
    Methods
    Overall, 458 serum samples were collected by randomized cluster sam­pling method from 153 males and 305 females referred to different health centers of the region after recalling by staff in those centers in 2012. All cases filled out a questionnaire and an informed consent. Sera were analyzed using indirect-ELISA test. Ten μg /ml antigens (Liver Fluke Homogenate), serum dilutions of 1:500 and conjugate anti-human coombs with 1:10000 dilutions were utilized to perform the test. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS software ver. 18.
    Results
    Nine cases (1.96%) were positive for fascioliasis by ELISA test. The seroprev­alence of fascioliasis among females was 1.63% and 2.6% in males. There was no significant difference as regards age groups, sex, job, residency, literacy and consuming row vegetable. According to job, unemployment subjects had the high­est rate of infection as 5.9%. The seroprevalence of infection was 1.52% in illiterate people. As for residency, urban life showed no significant difference with rural life (2.4% vs. 1.42). Age group of 40-49 yr old, with 3.3% seropositivity had the highest rate.
    Conclusion
    Obtained seroprevalence of fascioliasis shows immediate attention of health authorities to the diseases in the area. The adjacent of Ardabil Province to endemic areas of fasciolosis accentuates this attention.
    Keywords: Seroprevalence, Human, Fasciolosis, ELISA, Iran
  • Muhamad Ali, Tetrawindu A. Hidayatullah, Zulfikar Alimuddin, Yunita Sabrina Pages 522-529
    Background
    pfmdr1 and its variants are molecular marker which are responsible for antibiotics resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, a parasitic carrier for malaria dis­ease. A novel strategy to treat malaria disease is by disrupting parasite lactate dehydro­genase (pLDH), a crucial enzyme for Plasmodium survival during their erythro­cytic stages. This research was aimed to investigate and characterize the pfmdr1 and pldh genes of P. falciparum isolated from Nusa Tenggara Indonesia.
    Methods
    Genomic DNA of P.falciparum was isolated from malaria patients in Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. pfmdr1 was amplified using nested PCR and genotyped using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP). pldh was amplified, se­quenced, and analyzed using NCBI public domain databases and alignment using Clustal W ver. 1.83.
    Results
    Genotyping of the pfmdr1 revealed that sequence diversity was extremely high among isolates. However, a sequence analysis of pldh indicated that open read­ing frame of 316 amino acids of the gene showing 100% homology to the P. falcipa­rum 3D7 reference pldh (GeneBank: XM_001349953.1).
    Conclusion
    This is the first report which confirms the heterologous of pfmdr1 and the homologous sequences of P.falciparum pldh isolated from Nusa Tenggara Islands of Indonesia, indicating that the chloroquine could not be used effectively as antimalar­ial target in the region and the pLDH-targeted antimalarial compound would have higher chance to be successful than using chloroquine for curbing ma­laria worldwide.
    Keywords: Plasmodium falciparum, Drug resistance gene, pfmdr1, pldh, Indonesia
  • Hamed Mirjalali, Maryam Niyyati, Hoda Abedkhojasteh, Zahra Babaei, Meysam Sharifdini, Mostafa Rezaeian Pages 530-535
    Background
    Acanthamoeba genus is introduced as opportunistic and cosmopoli­tan parasite. Monkey and wistar rat are appropriate models for experimental study on Acanthamoeba infection. In this study Acanthamoeba spp. were isolated from hot spring (HS), windows dust (WD) and a corneal sample of keratitis patient (KP) and their pathogenicity surveyed by in vitro and in vivo tests.
    Methods
    Isolates of Acanthamoeba were cultivated axenically for 12 months in PYG medium. Overall, 30 wistar rats, in 6 equal groups were used for developing experimental Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) and Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE). The Keratitis and Granulomatous Encephalitis experiments were per­formed by intrastromal and intranasal inoculation of Acanthamoeba cysts, respec­tively. Pathogenicity of the three isolates was also evaluated by in vitro test using osmotolerance and temperature tolerance assays. Identification of genotypes were performed by PCR technique and sequencing.
    Result
    None of the isolates could perform AK and GAE in wistar rats, although all isolates were described as T4 genotype. Isolates obtained from KP and WD could grow only in 30 °C, but not in 37 °C and 40 °C. On the other hand, HS iso­late grew in 30 °C and 37 °C but not in 40 °C. Moreover, all of isolate grew in 0.5 M mannitol but not in 1 M and 1.5 M.
    Conclusion
    T4 isolates with a long-term axenic culture and different factors re­lated to host and parasite may play role in pathogenicity of these free-living amoe­bae.
    Keywords: Acanthamoeba T, Pathogenicity, Experimental Model, Rat, Osmotolerance
  • Aliehsan Heidari, Hossein Keshavarz, Homa Hajjaran, Seyyed Meisam Ebrahimi, Kourosh Kabir, Mohammad Hassan Naseri Pages 536-544
    Background
    Apical Membrane antigen 1 (AMA-1) is positioned on the sur­face of merozoite and it may play a role in attack to red blood cells. The main aim of present study was to determine the genetic variation, as well as, to detect of selection at domain I of AMA-1 gene Plasmodium vivax isolates in Iran.
    Methods
    Blood samples were collected from 58 patients positive for P. vivax, mono infection and the domain I of AMA-1 gene was amplified by nested PCR and then sequenced.
    Results
    A total 33 different haplotypes were identified among 58 Iranian se­quences. The 23 new haplotypes were determined in this study that was not reported previously in other regions of the world. There were totally observed 36 point mutations at the nucleotide level in the analyzed sequences. Sequences analyses indicated 25 amino acid changes at 20 positions in which 5 sites demon­strated thrimorphic polymorphism and the others were dimorphic in the domain I of the Iranian PvAMA-1 isolates.
    Conclusion
    Our findings indicated relatively high level of allelic diversity at the domain I of PvAMA-1 among P.vivax isolates of Iran. Since, PvAMA-1 is consider­ing as vaccine candidate antigen, these data provide valuable infor­mation for the development of a PvAMA-1 based malaria vaccine.
    Keywords: Plasmodium vivax, Malaria, Apical Membrane Antigen, 1, Iran, Genetic variation
  • Bahador Sarkari (Shahriari), Elahe Biranvand, Seyed Mahmoud Sadjjadi, Hamidreza Rahimi Pages 545-551
    Background
    Antigen B (AgB) is frequently used for immuno-diagnosis of hu­man cystic echinococcosis (CE). Echinococcus granulosus AgBs show a high degree of genetic variability in different hosts or in different CE endemic areas. The present study aimed to evaluate the genetic polymorphisms of encoding antigen B2 gene (AgB2) among different Iranian isolates of E. granulosus.
    Methods
    A total of 50 CE isolates were collected from human, sheep, cattle, goat and camels, 10 isolates from each intermediate host of E. granulosus. Total genomic DNA from either protoscolices or germinal layer was extracted from each cyst and PCR-RFLP followed by DNA sequencing was used to evaluate sequence variation and polymorphism of AgB2 in the isolates.
    Results
    After the PCR amplification, using AgB2 primers, an almost 400 bp band was amplified in all of the isolates. The PCR products were digested with Alu1 re­striction endonuclease. After restriction enzyme digestion with Alu1‚ sheep and human isolates gave a similar pattern of RFLP with the gene size of approximately 140 and 240bp and camel and goat isolates gave a similar pattern, but different from sheep and human, with the gene size of approximately 150 and 250bp. Se­quence analysis showed the most genetic similarity of AgB2 between human and sheep isolates.
    Conclusion
    Findings of this study revealed the differences in the sequences of AgB2 within and between the Iranian isolates of E. granulosus. These differences may affect the performance of any diagnostic test which uses AgB.
    Keywords: Genetic variability, Antigen B2, Echinococcus granulosus, Iran
  • Wael Mohamed Lotfy, Anwar Mohsen Ezz, Ashraf Ali Moustafa Hassan Pages 552-558
    Background
    Heavy metals tend to bioaccumulate in living organisms, and their accumulation has been a major concern. As mammals are known to excrete heavy metals via their bile, it seems to be very promising to analyse metal burdens of para­sites that infect the biliary tree such as liver flukes of the genus Fasciola. The present study was carried out to evaluate F. hepatica and F. gigantica as bioaccumula­tors of heavy metals, and to estimate their use as sensitive markers of environmen­tal pollution with heavy metals.
    Methods
    A total of 36 slaughtered buffaloes (26 infected and 10 controls) col­lected from the slaughter-house of Tanta City, Egypt were used. Samples of muscle and liver tissues were taken from each buffalo. A total of 44 adult Fasciola flukes were collected from the 26 infected buffaloes. Quantification of some heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn) in samples was carried out using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.
    Results
    Results revealed different concentrations of heavy metals in different host tissues. The adult flukes were classified into F. hepatica (n = 25) and F. gigantica (n = 19). The bio-concentration factor (BCF) of Cr was significantly higher in F. hepatica (P = 0.0465) while BCF of Zn was significantly higher in F. gigantica (P = 0.0189). A comparative study between the two species as regards the BCF was never done before.
    Conclusion
    The obtained results indicate the possibility of use of Fasciola flukes as markers of environmental pollution with some heavy metals.
    Keywords: Heavy metals, Fasciola, Bioaccumulation
  • Aboelhadid Shawky Mohamed Aboelhadid, Mahmoud Amin El-Askalany, Wahid Mohamed Mousa, Walid Mahmoud Arafa Pages 559-569
    Background
    Haemonchus contortus causes severe economic losses in small rumi­nants, so this study was conducted to study the UV effect on H. contortus larvae and its protective effect.
    Methods
    Sixteen male goats were divided into 5 groups, control infected, con­trol uninfected and UV 30minutes exposure; UV 60minutes exposure and UV booster 60minutes exposure. The UV groups were exposed to UV irradiation at wave length 254 nm for 30 and 60 minutes. The UV booster 60min was adminis­trated 2 doses of exposed larvae with an interval of one month. All groups except the control negative one were challenged for 42 days from the beginning.
    Results
    In UV booster 60 min had reduction in egg count per gram feces and worm burden (93% & 34 % respectively). The establishment rate and relative fertility declined in comparison with other groups. These parameters were simi­lar in control infected, UV 30min and UV 60min groups. PCV value of UV booster 60min group was similar to uninfected group. After two weeks from the booster dose of irradiated larvae, increased levels of antibody were found in goats of UV booster 60min group.
    Conclusion
    Two doses of UV 60min exposure, with an interval of one month, gave reduction not only in egg per gram feces but in worm burden as well.
    Keywords: Haemonchus contortus, Goat, UV irradiation, Attenuation
  • Waseem Shahzad, Haider Noor, Mansur -Ud-Din Ahmad, Rashid Munir, Muhammad Sharif Saghar, Muhammad Hassan Mushtaq, Nisar Ahmad, Ghulam Akbar, Fayyaz Mehmood Pages 570-578
    Background
    Babesia ovis and Theileria ovis are among the important and main etiological agents causing ovine babesiosis and ovine theileriosis, causing severe economic losses among sheep and goats. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and molecular diagnosis of B. ovis and T. ovis in Lohi sheep at Livestock Experiment Station Bahadurnagar, Okara, Pakistan.
    Methods
    The prevalence of B. ovis and T. ovis was investigated in 200 Lohi sheep of mixed age and sex by PCR during 2011. The assay was employed us­ing primers Bbo-F & Bbo-R, specific for a 549-bp fragment in B. ovis genomic DNA and primers TSsr 170F & TSsr 670R, specific for a 520-bp fragment in T. ovis genomic DNA. The animals were also screened for both haemoparasites through stained thin blood smears.
    Results
    Thirty two (16%), 48 (24%) and 26 (13%) were the number of ani­mals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infection with both parasites respectively, through microscopy. Sixty eight (34%), 73 (37%) and 42 (21%) were the number of animals found positive for B. ovis, T. ovis and for mixed infec­tion with both parasites respectively, through PCR test.
    Conclusion
    The results indicate the high sensitivity of PCR for surveying babesio­sis and theileriosis and there is noteworthy prevalence of these diseases in sheep at an experimental station where environmental conditions are rela­tively controlled as compared to field conditions.
    Keywords: Babesia ovis, Theileria ovis, PCR, Sheep, Pakistan
  • Sima Rostami, Robin Nicholas Beech, Reza Salavati, Mohammad Reza Bane¬Shi, Hossein Kamyabi, Majid Fasihi Harandi Pages 579-585
    Background
    The purposes of the present study were morphometric characteriza­tion of rostellar hooks of Taenia multiceps and to investigate the associa­tion of hook length variation and the variability within two mitochondrial genes of sheep isolates of the parasite.
    Methods
    Up to 4500 sheep brains were examined for the presence of C. cerebralis. Biometric characters based on the larval rostellar hook size were measured for each individual isolate. Representative mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA gene se­quences for each of the isolates were obtained from NCBI GenBank. Morphomet­ric and genetic data were analyzed using cluster analysis, Interclass Correlation Coeffi­cient (ICC) and random effects model.
    Results
    One hundred and fourteen sheep (2.5%) were found infected with the coenuri. The minimum and maximum number of scoleces per cyst was 40 and 550 respectively. Each scolex contained 22–27 hooks arranged in two rows of large and small hooks. The average total length of the large and small hooks was 158.9 and 112.1 μm, respectively. Using ICC, statistically significant clusters of different hook sizes were identified within the isolates. The length of the large and small hooks was significantly associated with the variability in mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.
    Conclusion
    Taenia multiceps, is a relatively important zoonotic infection in Iranian sheep with the prevalence rate of 2.5%. Hook length analysis revealed statistically significant difference among individual isolates. Associations between the rostellar hook length and variability in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA was documented.
    Keywords: Taenia multiceps, Sheep, Hook morphometry, Mitochondrial gene, Iran
  • Abbas Shahbazi, Pegah Farhadi, Masoud Yerian, Ahad Bazmani, Sara Khadem Nakhjiri, Arash Rasouli, Ahmad Raeisi Pages 586-592
    Background
    Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread species of Plasmodium in humans and causing about 80 million clinical cases annually. This study was under­taken to detect P. vivax in asymptomatic treated vivax malaria patients to trace la­tent/sub-patent malaria infection.
    Method
    The venous blood of all detected cases with P. vivax in Bashagard, Minab and Roodan Districts in Hormozgan Province from 2009 to 2010 was examined by microscopic and nested PCR methods for presence of the parasite.
    Results
    In microscopic examination of peripheral blood smears, all samples were negative for the presence of the parasites. But, we detected two P. vivax related bands in the electrophoresis of the nested PCR products (120 bp).
    Conclusion
    Following up the malaria cases after treatment by a combination of methods, or new diagnostics such as RDTs can be included in the priorities of ma­laria elimination program in Iran.
    Keywords: Plasmodium vivax, Asymptomatic, PCR, Iran
  • Fattaneh Mikaeili, Hossein Mirhendi, Mostafa Hosseini, Qasem Asgari, Eshrat Beigom Kia Pages 593-600
    Background
    Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features us­ing existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the para­sites.
    Results
    Eight out of 30 cats (26.7%) were found infected with Toxocara nema­todes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological fea­tures and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infec­tion ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.
    Conclusion
    The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on hu­man toxocariasis.
    Keywords: Intensity, Toxocara cati, Cat, Molecular, Iran
  • Mohhammed Asadpour, Gholamreza Razmi, Gholamreza Mohhammadi, Abol¬Ghasen Naghibi Pages 601-607
    Background
    Cryptosporidium parvum is a zoonotic pathogen transmissible from a variety of animals to humans and is a considerable public health concern. Dairy cattle have been identified in numerous reports as a major source of environmen­tal contamination with this pathogen. The aim of study was to detect and isolate the Cryptosporidium spp. from fecal samples of naturally infected pre-wean calves in the Mashhad area
    Methods
    Overall, 300 fecal specimens from 1 to 30 days pre-weaned calves were collected from 10 farms in the Mashhad area the capital center of the Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium spp. All infected samples were also analyzed using nested –PCR. A polymerase chain reac­tion (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was also used to detect and identify Cryptosporid­ium spp. in PCR- positive samples.
    Results
    Eighty five (28.3%) of the specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in 8-14 days old and diarrheic calves were significantly higher than other groups. Restriction digestion of the PCR prod­ucts by SspI, VspI restriction enzymes and sequence analysis revealed the presence of C. parvum bovine genotype in all isolates.
    Conclusions
    Our results suggest that pre-weaned calves are likely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic C. parvum.
    Keywords: Cryptosporidium, Genotypic characterization, Pre, weaned calves, Iran
  • Mehrzad Saraei, Seyedeh Zeinab Fattahi, Mojtaba Shahnazi, Afshin Afshari, Safar Ali Alizadeh, Hassan Jahanihashemi Pages 608-616
    Background
    Toxoplasma specific IgM antibodies; the common serologic marker in diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis has its own limitations. Confirmatory testing with other markers, introduced as a complementary tool in distinguish acute and chronic infections is unusual in Iran. In the present study, we investigated the correla­tion between the results of IgM ELISA, IgA ELISA, and IgG avidity tests in the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis to demonstrate the necessity of confirmatory testing in serodiagnosis of infection in the country.
    Methods
    A total of 107 positive Toxoplasma IgG and IgM sera were obtained from patients referred to private laboratories and stored at -20 ºC for futures use. Sero­logic tests were set up in duplicate to analyze the serum levels of IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgG avidity antibodies using commercial ELISA kits. The results were pre­sented as semi quantitative for IgG, IgM and IgA ELISA, and Relative Avidity In­dex in percentage for IgG avidity test. Pearson’s correlation coefficient (rp) was applied to analyze the data.
    Results
    Of 107 serum samples, T. gondii specific IgM and IgA antibodies were positive in 67.3% and 53.3%, respectively. Besides, 29.9% of the sera displayed low avidity for IgG antibodies. The rp was - 0.572 (P<0.01) between the IgG avidity and IgM ELISA, - 0.364 between the IgG avidity and IgA ELISA (P<0.01), and 0.564 between the IgM and IgA ELISA (P<0.01).
    Conclusion
    The study strongly highlights the necessity of confirmatory testing in differential diagnosis of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in Iran.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, ELISA, IgG Avidity, Iran
  • Ghasem Zamini, Mohammad Bagher Khadem Erfan, Mohammad Reza Rahmani, Mohammad Sadegh Khodavaisy, Behroz Davari Pages 617-621
    Background
    The effect of frequent examinations on the students’ learning has had inconsistent results. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of fre­quent announced quizzes on the learning of a representative sample of Iranian medical students.
    Methods
    This experimental study was conducted among 37 fifth semester medi­cal students who had taken the course in Protozoology and Helminthology, in which the same basic information were provided about different types of proto­zoa and worms. Initially, in the teaching of helminthology, ten routine ses­sions were handled with lectures and interactive questions and answers. Then at the beginning of the protozoology topic in the beginning of all of the next 9 ses­sions, the students were informed that they will have a quiz at the end of each session. At the end of the semester, the total scores of quizzes were compared with the mean final scores of protozoology and helminthology using paired t and repeated measure tests.
    Results
    The mean final scores of the protozoology lesson were not significantly different from that of the helminthology (10.45 ± 2.75 vs.11.25 ± 2.56 on the scale of 20, respectively, P=0.13). There was no significant difference in the mean score of the five quizzes compared with the mean final term score of protozo­ology. The overall mean scores in the helminthology lesson (11.25±2.56), protozoology lesson (10.45±2.75), and the quizzes (9.16 ± 3.55) were significantly different (P <0.0001).
    Conclusion
    Frequent announced quizzes were not effective on increasing the medical students'' motivation and learning.
    Keywords: Frequent quizzes, Teaching, Medical Students, Education, Iran
  • Zahra Eslamirad, Reza Hajihossein, Behzad Ghorbanzadeh, Moham¬Mad Alimohammadi, Mahdi Mosayebi, Mojtaba Didehdar Pages 622-626
    Background
    Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular protozoan parasite that infects human and animals. Toxoplasma parasites are isolated from different parts of ani­mals even from semen but there are little information about the effect of toxoplasmo­sis on fertility in animals and humans. In present study, the effect of chronic toxoplasmosis on serum levels of testosterone in men was studied.
    Methods
    In this case-control study, 1026 men referred to Arak Post Marriage Cen­ter were selected. Three ml of blood samples were collected and sera separated by centrifugation at room temperature. These sera were analyzed for detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibody. Next 365 positive sera were selected as cases and also the same number of negative sera (365) as controls. Finally the level of testosterone was analyzed for the cases and controls samples.
    Result
    Serological tests on the sera of 1,026 men in Arak City showed that 365 of them had anti-Toxoplasma antibody. Comparison of testosterone concentration in case and control groups showed that testosterone concentration in case group was less than control group and this difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The chronic toxoplasmosis could affect reproductive parameters in men.
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Testosterone, Human, Male
  • Mohammad Yakhchali, Seyyed Yaser Mirrajei, Reza Malekzadeh-Viayeh Pages 627-633
    Background
    Infection with Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum has been reported in a wide range of animals worldwide. This study was undertaken to assess the utility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), for detecting the infection with O. turkestanicum larvae stages in Lymnaea gedrosiana.
    Methods
    A total of 6,759 Lymnaeidae snails were collected from six aquatic habitats in West Azarbaijan, northwest Iran. Of these, the snails of L. gedrosiana were identified. To detect infected L. gedrosiana with the larval stages of O. turkestani­cum, they were subjected for cercarial shedding and molecular examina­tions. The genomic DNA was extracted and PCR was performed to specifically amplify a fragment of the nuclear 28SrRNA gene of O. turkestanicum.
    Results
    Of all collected snails, 5.4% (365/6,759) were the snails of L. gedrosiana. The cercarial shedding method revealed that 23.56% (86/365) of the snails were infected. The PCR patterns confirmed that 28.77% (105/365) snails of L. gedrosiana were infected with larval stages of O. turkestanicum. The infected snails were observed in five studied sites. The highest infection rate (66.66%, 20/30) was recorded in the snails of Ghargologh in the northern part. Only 35.24% (37/105) of the infected snails were from the plain areas, whereas the remaining existed in high altitudes.
    Conclusion
    It was concluded PCR method could be an efficient and fast method for uncovering the actual rate of infection with larval stages of O. turkestani­cum in the snails of L. gedrosiana. This method can be also useful for the domestic animals and public health management programs in the country.
    Keywords: Ornithobilharzia turkestanicum, Lymnaea gedrosiana, PCR, 28SrRNA gene, Iran
  • Hossein Hamidinejat, Mohammad Rahim Haji Hajikolaei, Masoud Ghor¬Banpoor, Mehdi Namavari, Sara Mohammad Ali Gol Pages 634-640
    Background
    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite from phylum apicom­plexa and an important agent causing abortion in cattle which produce notable economic loss all around the world.
    Methods
    Dot-Elisa was set up performing checker board procedure and then 178 sera of cattle examined with commercial indirect ELISA and direct agglutina­tion test (DAT) were also evaluated by dot-ELISA afterwards.
    Results
    Kappa statistical analysis revealed that Dot-ELISA has good agreements with ELISA as well as the DAT and also, Mc Nemar´s analyzing showed that this procedure has acceptable ability to discriminate positive results. Relative sensitiv­ity and specificity of Dot-ELISA were respectively 92.63% and 89.16% and 93.4% and 90.8% in comparison with ELISA and DAT.
    Conclusion
    Since the dot-ELISA is easy, inexpensive and not needed high experi­ence to interpret the results, it is superior to ELISA and DAT when we aim to screen the cattle on the farm and slaughterhouses or when the laboratory equip­ment is not available.
    Keywords: Neospora caninum_Serodiagnosis_Dot – ELISA_Sensetivity_Specificity_Iran
  • Amir Dehghani Samani, Khodadad Pirali Kheirabadi, Azam Dehghani Samani Pages 641-644
    Background
    Parasites affect the health and productivity of birds. Haemoproteus columbae occurs in pigeons widely in tropical and subtropical regions. The present investigation was concentrated on the prevalence of H. columbae and rate of para­sitemia in domestic pigeons in southwest of Iran.
    Methods
    Pigeons regimented in three groups, less than six months old, between six and twenty four months old and more than twenty four months old.Then stained blood smears were studied for presence of H. columbae and finally rate of parasitemia in every group calculated.
    Results
    Mature and immature stages of H. columbae gametocytes were found in 24% of blood smears prepared from 100 healthy domestic pigeons. Mean of para­sitemia in infected pigeons was 9.58%. Mean size of macrogametocytes was 4µm×15µm and mean size of microgametocytes was 3µm×12µm. Mean of para­sitemia in infected females was more than males and pipers. Mean of parasitemia in infected old pigeons (pigeons with more than twenty four months old) was more than pigeons with less than six months old and pigeons between six and twenty four months old.
    Conclusion
    This study show the prevalence and rate of parasitemia in domestic pigeons in southwest of Iran. We should be care about this parasite in pigeons by knowing the prevalence and high risk groups.
    Keywords: Haemoproteus columbae, Domestic pigeons, Ectoparasite, Iran
  • Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Ali Halajian, Ali Asghar Moosa¬Pour, Reza Nikzad, Mohammad Nikzad, Shahab Ramezanpour, Soheil Ebrahimpour Pages 645-650
    Background
    Recently there is a high tendency among exotic pet owners for keeping hedgehogs. This mammal can transfer some significant zoonotic patho­gens to human. Hence, the present study was conducted for the first time to pre­pare a list of helminth parasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in North of Iran.
    Methods
    Ten (four males and six females) road killed hedgehogs were collected during April to January 2011 in rural areas of Babol city, Mazandaran province, Iran. All of internal organs were scrutinized for helminth burden. The extracted specimens were fixed and preserved in 70% ethanol and then cleared in Lacto-phenol solution. Helminth identification was carried out according to available systematic keys.
    Results
    All the examined hedgehogs (100%) were infected with parasitic hel­minth as following: two hedgehogs (20%) were infected with Crenosoma striatum, four hedgehogs (40%) harbored Physaloptera clausa, one (10%) host had Hymenole­pis erinacei and three (30%) of them were infected with Nephridiacanthus major.
    Conclusion
    This is noteworthy that the current survey is the first report of hel­minth parasites fauna of Eastern European Hedgehog in Iran. Since this is the first such investigation in our country, more researches are required to perform on unexplored areas of Iran in order to increase our knowledge regarding hedge­hog parasitic diseases
    Keywords: Helminth parasite, Hedge­hog (Erinaceus concolor), Iran
  • Mahesh K. Puttaraju, Srikanth Hanasoge Srivathsa Pages 651-654
    Tenia solium, a parasite causes cysticercous cellulose when affecting the central nerv­ous system, the manifestation is called neurocysticercosis. The most common symp­tom in neurocysticercosis is seizure. Generally, oral diagnosticians come across cases of oral cysticercosis and it is rare to find a case of neurocysticercosis in the dental office, as it goes undetected. Sometimes, when patients experience sei­zure in the dental office and subsequent evaluation is performed, rarity such as this can be detected. One case of neurocysticercosis in a 27 year old unmarried female patient detected due to its presentation in the dental office is being reported here