فهرست مطالب

المپیک - سال بیست و یکم شماره 3 (پیاپی 63، پاییز 1392)
  • سال بیست و یکم شماره 3 (پیاپی 63، پاییز 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/10/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Sari, Sarrafv. *, Asri, Rezaeis., Amisasanr., Zolfeghar, Didani, H Page 7

    Balance between free radical production and body antioxidant is disrupt by exercise trainings and cause a condition known as oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of chronic (14 days) vitamins C, E supplementation on Malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and total antioxidant capacity(TAC) in trained speed skaters. Eighteen male speed skaters with two years of background of competition were recruited (14.0±1.8 yrs, 161 ± 7.03 cm, 57.0 ± 6.4 kg) and divided in a double-blind manner randomly to placebo group (400 mg of a dextrose, 250ml water) and supplement group (200 IU vitamin E and 400mg vitamin C) for 14-days.Both groups performed 1000m speed skate test and Blood samples were taken be-fore the test. Second trial has been repeated after 14 days supplementation and same training protocol in same manner and blood samples has been taken before, after, 30-min subsequent the related test. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measure at P<0.05 in SPSS18 The results showed that the level of MDA and activity of GPX, CAT decreased significantly and TAC increased with 14 days supplementation after speed skate test. Therefore, two weeks vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation, the degenerative effect of oxidants on plasma membrane were probably deceased and the activity of antioxidant enzymes decreased in speed athletes.

    Keywords: Anaerobic Activity, Lipids Peroxidation, Oxidative Defensive, Vitamin C, E
  • Karimin., Dabidi Roshanv.*, Ayaz, A Page 19

    Stress and inflammation are among the most prevalent and disturbing side effects of chemotherapy and anticancer drugs. Therefore, there is a need for additional nondrug agents that could effectively reduce chemotherapy-induced side effects. Ginger are reported to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, anticancer activities. The aim of this study was to determine the individual and concomitant effect of 6-wks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on markers related to cardiac stress and systemic stress in obese women with breast cancer. Forty women diagnosed with breast cancer (48±5.4 years, 76±9 kg, fat mass 41.8±4%), that were in the 3 stage of disease and during the study, were only under special medication called tamoxifen. Subjects were randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, exercise training, ginger supplement and exercise training+ ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the exercise training+ ginger supplement group orally daily received 3000 mg ginger powder for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise training program were collected at a ranged from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures at rest was measured using a pressure gauge, and heart rate was measured by polar heart rate monitor. The double product was made by systolic pressure and heart rate. Malondialdehyde levels also were measured by ELISA. Data using one-way ANOVA at an alpha level of 5% was considered. Although, the ginger supplementation and or the water-base exercise resulted in a reduction of rest heart rate, systolic blood pressure, rest rate pressure product or double product (DP), malondialdehyde (MDA) and an increase in maximal heart rate and exhaustive time, in comparison to pretest, the water-base exercise and ginger supplement group showed significantly larger positive effect in all the outcomes, compared to the water-base exercise or ginger supplement alone groups and the age-matched placebo group. These results suggest the nondrug strategies such as waterbase exercise and ginger supplementation may play an important role in improve quality of life by reducing cellular inflammation and stress in obese women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Keywords: Breast Cancer, Cardiac Stress, Ginger, Water Based Exercise
  • Kashefm., Gaeini, A.A., Karamis.*, Amanim., Zahiri, S Page 35

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of short-term consumption of Glutamine supplement and interval exercise on serum HSP72 and CK response in soccer players. For this reason, 29 soccer players (mean age, 19.3±4 years; weight, 69.3±2 kg; height, 176.6±1.2 cm; body fat percentage, 12.1±1.7; body mass index, 22.1±2.3 kg/m2; Vo2max, 53.5±1.3 kg.ml-1min-1) Voluntary were from Tehran Railway players and randomly divided into four groups of control (n=7), supplement (n=7), supplement- exercise (n=8) and exercise (n=7). All subjects have participated in daily soccer workouts before the study and only supplement-exercise and exercise groups did interval exercise. Blood samples of basal (12-14 hours after overnight fasting), pre test, post test and 90 minutes after test were taken from antecubital vein of non-dominant hand. Supplement (Glutamine) and placebo (dextrin) with amount of 0/5 g/kgBW and 5 ml/kgBW respectively, were consumed in one hour before interval exercise protocol. The interval protocol consisted of three sets of running with 80% of maximum heart rate and rest times with 5 minutes walking between them. Hsp72 and Ck values were measured using Elisa and Enzymatic methods respectively. For data analyzing in four groups in 4 stages of test, analysis of variance with repeated measures test and factor between groups and bonferoni post hoc at P≤0/05 were used. The results show that Hsp72 values 21% (P=0/001) at post test in supplement group and 16% (P=0/001) at post test in supplement- exercise group and 41% (P=0/001) at 90 minutes after exercise stage in supplement-exercise group has increased compared to the basal stage. Also Hsp72 values between post test stage in supplement group compared to post test stage in control group, has increased 15% (P=0/047). Hsp72 values between post test stage in supplement-exercise group compared to post test stage in control group has increased 20% and Hsp72 values between 90 minutes after test stage in supplement-exercise group compared to 90 minutes after exercise stage in control group has increased 40% (P=0/033). Hsp72 values have increased in supplement group at post test stage (P≤0/001) and in supplementexercise group at post test stage (P≤0/001) and 90 minutes after exercise (P≤0/001) compared to basal level. Analysis of the results derived from the study show that in the subjects athlete glutamine supplementation may be effective in stimulating of Hsp72 response and interval exercise had no effective role in hsp72 response.

    Keywords: CK, Glutamine Supplement, HSP72, Interval Exercise, Soccer Players
  • Niksereshtm.*, Agha, Alinejadh., Azarbayjani, Ebrahim, K Page 51

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of intensive aerobic interval training (AIT) on serum IL-10, IL-17 and insulin resistance in obese men. Nineteen sedentary obese men (mean age: 39 ± 5.6 years) were randomly divided into two groups including the IAIT (n = 9) and the control (n = 10) groups. Blood samples were taken in fasting state from all subjects. The AIT program included interval running at an intensity corresponding to 80 - 90% of maximal heart rate, three times a week for 12 weeks, while the control group maintained sedentary during study. The AIT caused a significant increases in serum level of - IL-17 (P = 0.046), and the VO2max (P = 0.003), also a significant decreases in body weight (P = 0.004), waist to hip ratio (WHR) (P = 0.023), body fat percent (P = 0.011), insulin (P = 0.000) and insulin resistance (P = 0.004). While, the serum IL-10 levels of two groups remained unchanged. In the both groups (n = 19), VO2max was negatively correlated with baseline insulin concentration (r = -0.58). Also, changes in serum IL-17 levels was negatively correlated with change in insulin concentration in response to training (r = - 0.84). Based on the results, it is suggested that AIT can be used as a effective method for reducing inflammation and insulin resistance, improving body composition in healthy obese men.

    Keywords: Endurance Training, Inflammation, Interleukin, 17, Obesity
  • Bahramiana.*, Gaeini A.A., Kordi, M.R., Samadia., Javidim., Nasiriana. Page 61

    Background And Aim
    Cardiovascular diseases are the main reason of mortality in diabetic patients which include microvascular and macrovascular injuries. Chronic inflammation conditions in diabetes are associated with Cyclooxigenase 2 enzyme (COX-2) expression. The major metabolites of this enzyme which play an important role in cardiovascular homeostasis are Prostocyclin 2 (PGI-2) and Tromboxane (TXA-2). The present study investigates the response and adaptation of COX-2, PGI-2 and TXA-2 on diabetic wistar rats to progressive resistance training.
    Methods
    in an experimental study 49 wistar rats were purchased from Pasteur institute of Iran and divided into acute resistance exercise (n=10), acute control (n=10), prolonged resistance exercise (n=12) and prolonged control(n=12) groups. The prolonged resistance exercise protocol included 8 weeks (3 sessions per weeks) of 10 sets of ascending from ladder and free weights were attached to rats’ tails (this overload is determined by maximum capacity of carrying free weights). The animals were sacrificed 48 hours after the last session of training program and sample blood was taken. After the left ventricle was drained, COX-2, PGI-2 and TXA-2 were measured; the data were analyzed by t-test via spss16 software.
    Results
    The results of independent t-test show no significant difference between PGI-2 level of heart in acute resistance exercise and control group (p=0.693) and prolonged resistance exercise and control group (p=0.103). Also, there were no significant difference between TXA- 2 level of heart in acute resistance exercise and control group (p=0.134) and prolonged resistance exercise and control group (p=0.103). In this study there were no significant difference in COX-2 level of heart between acute resistance training and its control group (p=0.349), but in prolonged resistance exercise group this value was significant (p=0.02).
    Conclusion
    It appears that resistance exercise doesn’t have any significant effect on inflammatory, stimulatory and inhibitory factors of microvascular and macrovascular in diabetic patients.

    Keywords: Hyperglycemia, Inflammation, Microvascular, Macrovascular Injuries
  • Saghebjoom.*, D. Abolhasanim., Bahari Fardr., Yaghubi, A Page 73

    The purpose of present study was to investigate the effects of different stretch protocols during warm-up on power performance in the Wingate test. Eighteen male students (Mean±SD: age 22.66±1.64 years, weight 65.5±5.4 kg and height 177±6.3 cm) Were selected and 5 different warmup protocols, with different time dynamic stretching (30, 60 and 90 seconds) and a combination of the static and dynamic stretching, performed on separate days. In each session, immediately after stretching, subjects performed Wingate test. The results show a significant increase in relative peak anaerobic power (p=0.001), relative mean anaerobic power (p=0.001) and fatigue index (p=0.001) in all stretching session than without stretch session. Also, relative peak anaerobic power showed a significant increase (p=0.001) at different times of dynamic stretch than session of combined static and dynamic stretch. However, no significant difference observed between the various sessions of dynamic stretching. Thus, 30s dynamic stretching on muscles involved in movement, without static stretching,before short exercises (less than 30 seconds) that need to peak power, seems to be enough.

    Keywords: Dynamic Stretch, Muscular Power, Pelative Peak power, Static Stretch, Wingate Test
  • Karami R.*, Shemshaki., Ahmadizade S., Basami M., Akbarinia A Page 87

    The purpose of this study was to compare the responses of fibrinolytic system to different types of isokinetic muscular contractions in men. Ten healthy male (age 26.1±3.4 years) subjects performed three exercise protocols included Concentric/Concentric (C/C), Eccentric/ Eccentric (E/E) and Concentric/ Eccentric (C/E) contractions (Flexion and Extension) in knee joint for both legs by using a dynamometer system in three separated sessions. In each trial, subjects performed 4 sets of 10 repetitions of knee flexion and extension, at the speed of 60 degree per second. Blood Samples were taken before exercise, immediately and 30 minutes following exercise for measuring tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen, plasminogen activator inhibitor- 1 (PAI-1) antigen and D-dimer. t-PA antigen in response to three isokinetic contractions is significantly increased and recovery period decreased (P<0.05). Changes in t-PA antigen following C/C and C/E protocols were significantly (P<0.05) than E/E protocol. Regardless of the type of contractions, PAI-1 antigen levels in response to the isokinetic exercise is significantly increased, while, it significantly (p<0,05) decreased following recovery. However, responses to three protocols were not significantly different (P>0.05). D-dimer levels did not change in response to isokinetic exercise (P>0.05), and no significant differences among three protocols were detected. Based on the findings, it could be concluded that isokinetic contraction induces a rise in fibrinolytic system activity and that the C/C and C/E protocols results in more activation of fibrinolytic system compared to E/E protocol.

    Keywords: Concentric Contraction, D, dimer, Eccentric Contraction, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor, 1, Tissue Plasminogen Activator
  • Saghebjoom.*, Shabanpoor Omalij., Fathi, R Page 99

    Very little data exist on the effects of resistance training in diabetics. It has been shown that intensity of resistance exercise, the more important variable than exercise volume in patients with type 2 diabetes. Chemerin is a newly discovered adipokine that has been shown to induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscles. Thus, recent study investigate the role of 8 weeks of high intensity circuit resistance training on plasma chemerin levels in diabetic men. A total of 18 sedentary, overweight men with type 2 diabetes (age: 48.5±7.73 yr, weight: 79.41±12.6 kg and BMI: 27.29±4.38 kg/m2), were randomized to experimental (n=10) and control (n=8) groups. Chemerin, insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) were measured before and 60h after the training period. Plasma chemerin levels decreased significantly (P=0.01) in resistance training group, and exhibited significant reductions in plasma insulin (P=0.01) and glucose (P=0.04). Resistance training reduced HOMAIR (P=0.01), but HbA1C remained unchanged (P> 0.05). Reduced plasma chemerin concentration may contribute to improved insulin sensitivity. It seems that circuit resistance training with high-intensity can be focused as a prevention approach in type 2 diabetes, but may not be appropriate for some individuals.

    Keywords: Type 2 Diabetes, High Intensity Circuit Resistance training, Chemerin, Insulin Resistance