فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue:3, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/09/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • Ahamd Haerian, Seyedsaeid Mazloomy Mazloomy Mahmoudabad, Amirmohammad Mahabadi, Hamidreza Dehghan, Zeinab Hamzeheil Page 147
    Introduction
    The discipline of oral public health is known as a science and art of dealing with populationoral health. In order to improve public awareness followed by changing people`s life style itis necessary for the society to be exposed to massive oral health information.The aim of this study was to evaluate the routes of oral health information being delivered to the Yazd population in1389
    Materials And Methods
    In this descriptive cross sectional study 16 blocks in urban areas of Yazd city were randomlyselected. A total of 400 subjects (8 years and above) were interviewed and thequestionnaire filled. The data were analyzed using descriptive analysis with SPSS 18software.
    Results
    Two hundred and twenty four male subjects (56%) and 173 female subjects (44%)participated in this study. According to this study the main sources of oral healthinformation on Yazd population where mass media (radio & television) (22.3%) and dentists(14.5%). It was also believed that radio and television and dentists were potential sources oforal health information. It was revealed that 67.5% of the population had access to theinternet. The use and the potential of internet for access to oral health information were insixth place.
    Conclusion
    Oral health officials put more time andeffort for providing oral health programs in order to improve oral health conditions in thesociety. Science using the internet as a source of oral health information for access in thesociety was less important than some other countries are main due to, language problems,investment in this area is recommended.
  • Hassan Saadati, Mohammad Hassan Lotfi Page 154
    Introduction
    Diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disorder and has a high prevalence in Yazd province, Iran. According to our knowledge and research, there are no population-based studies that have examined the diabetes and associated risk factors in Yazd. The aim of this study was to determine the association between the lifestyle habits and environmental risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes in the adult Yazd population, Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    the case-control study conducted among diabetic patients and healthy subjects in the Yazd population, Iran. The study was conducted in a period from December 2012 to May 2013. Studied individuals consisted of 200 patients with Type 2 diabetes and 200 controls without Type 2diabetes. These controls were individually matched to the patients by gender and age (±2 years). Subjects were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers using pretested questionnaires. Student t-test was used to assess differences between mean values of two continuous variables. Chi-square analysis was performed to test the differences in proportions of categorical variables between groups and Logistic regression analyses were performed to quantify the association between type 2 diabetes and categorical variables.
    Results
    Diabetic subjects had less income level (37.9% vs 27%, P=.02). In the group of women, significantly, women with diabetes had a more history of birth > 4 kg than women in the other group (22% vs 6.3%, P =. 002). Also the history of gestational diabetes and polycystic ovary syndrome (POCs) in women with diabetes were significantly more (P=. 03). The family history of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia were significantly more frequent among the diabetes group (P<.05). Obesity was more common among diabetic patients 47.5% vs 31% (OR=3.06, 95% CI=1.79-5.24, P<0.001). Furthermore, among the diabetes group the central obesity (WHR) was higher (OR=3.44, 95% CI=2.07-5.71, P<0.001). Consumption of fast food, physical activity, duration of sleep, smoking and passive smoking was similar in the two groups, whereas consumption of fruit, vegetable, red meat and fish was significantly lower in diabetic subjects (P<0.001). The mean Weight, BMI, Waist circumference, Waist-hip ratio, Diastolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride were significantly higher in diabetes patients than in control subjects. The logistic regression model showed that family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives (OR=9.37, 95% CI=4.70-18.69, P<0.0001), history of dyslipidemia (OR=4.89, 95% CI=12.51-9.51, P<0.0001), family history of dyslipidemia (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.25-5.11, P=0.009), type oil consumption (OR=2.16, 95% CI=1.12-4.16, P=0.021), type vegetable consumption (OR=4.81, 95% CI=2.49-9.44, P<0.0001), consumption fruit (OR=2.43, 95% CI=1.24-4.74, P=0.009), waist to hip ratio (OR=2.67, 95% CI=1.27-5.60, P=0.009), diastolic blood pressure (OR=2.99, 95% CI=1.38 -6.46, P=0.005), HDL (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.01 -3.82, P=0.047) and History birth >4 kg (OR=63.89, 95% CI=5.67 -719.29, P=0.001),were considered as associated risk factors for diabetes.
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that family history of diabetes in first-degree relatives, family history of dyslipidemia, history of dyslipidemia, Waist-hip ratio, consumption of fruit, Consumption of vegetables, Type of oil consumption, History birth >4 kg and HDL were positively associated with diabetes.
  • Hossein Fallahzadeh, Mahdieh Momayyezi Page 169
    Introduction
    To compare the health status of different parts of the health indicators of quality of life is another factor. The purpose of this study is to assess the quality of life for people over 18 years of Yazd city.
    Materials And Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study on 352 people over 18 years living in households was conducted in the city of Yazd in 1390. Cluster sampling was performed according to the Yazd city health center and for measuring quality of life WHOQOW-BREF questionnaire was used.
    Results
    The mean (SD) domain scores of physical health12.99±2.76, mental health 12.99±2.76, public health, 13.15±2.92 and the environmental health 12.54±2.32, respectively. In the area of quality of life in people with chronic diseases to be significantly higher than healthy people (P <0.001). Quality of life scores in the physical health in men were higher than women. (P = 0.39) but no significant differences in other areas. The inverse relationship between BMI and quality of life score, and there was a direct correlation with income and housing infrastructure (P <0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study can be generalized to the population of Yazd is the quality of people''s lives so it could be a good foundation for the city of Yazd in different areas. Meanwhile, the developed countries have a lower quality of life score is the most appropriate size in the population can help to improve quality of life.
  • Mohammad Hossein Baghianimoghadam, Hasan Shahbazi *, Masoomeh Zinalabediny, Farokh Legh Servat, Batol Ghane, Vida Poutmazar Page 179
    Introduction
    Majority of media users are teenagers which has deeply potential impact either positive or negative on cognitive, social and behavioral and also development of children and adolescent. There is a strong positive correlation between the onset of smoking in adolescents and young adults, and exposure to media and movies which shown consumption of smoking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the views of the people of Yazd, Iran on the impact of visual media on the prevention and incidence of smoking among adolescents and young adults.
    Materials And Methods
    This was a descriptive (cross-sectional) study. Participants were 582 individuals living in the city of Yazd. The self administrative questionnaire was used which validity and reliability was measured. After completing the questionnaires, the data was analyzed with using SPSS Version 16.
    Results
    Based on participants'' view role of family, friends and media respectively were more important in tendency of teenagers and adolescents smoking users. Almost 80 percent of subjects showed that influence of smoking in the media on a positive attitude towards tobacco smoking among adolescents and young people was very high. More than 55% of participants confirmed that the lack of smoking in movies is not effective in quality of the films. It was also confirmed, that in last month advertisements and anti-smoking programs were not seen by participants.
    Conclusion
    The present study suggest control and monitoring on media, limitation or lack of smoking on media and films is an important factor to decreasing and control of smoking in adolescents and young adults.
  • Seyyed Saeid Mazloomy Mahmoudabad, Nahid Ardian Page 188
    Introduction
    During the recent decades, many scholars focused on the physical activities as an influencing factor on psychological and mental status. Concerning the importance of university students’ mental health, this paper investigates the effects of physical activities on promoting their mental health.
    Materials and Methods
    In this descriptive analytical study, 200 female students of Shaheed Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected as the participants. The case group consists of athlete female students and the control group includes non-athlete female students. The instrument used in this study was GHQ-28, along with some more demographic questions. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 16, using frequency, standard deviation, T-test and Chi-Square.
    Results
    data has shown that the average scores for general health differ significantly between athlete and non-athlete female students P<.05.The highest average scores were for depression among athlete female students and social dysfunction among non-athlete female students. The lowest average score was for anxiety among both groups. The average score of general health among non-athlete female students was higher than the cut-off point of 23. It was found that the higher the fathers’ education, the lower the general health’s scores were.
    Conclusion
    The results showed that athletic students'' mental health is better than that of non-athletic ones.
  • Fariba Kiani, Mohammad Reza Khodabakhsh Page 196
    Introduction
    Safety climate received substantial attention due to its potential for explaining variation in safety-related outcomes. The present study examined degree of safety climate related to fatalism and perceived helplessness among workers’ Isfahan Steel Company.
    Materials And Methods
    The current study was a correlation study. Sample consisting of 189 employees in Isfahan Steel Company in 2012 was selected according to the stratified random sampling method. Data gathering tools were questionnaires of demography characteristics, safety climate of Hayes, Perander, Smecko, et al. (1998), fatalism of Williamson et al. (1997) and perceived helplessness of Cohen, Karmark & Mermelstein (1983). The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 15 and statistical tests of multivariate regression and correlation coefficient.
    Results
    The results showed that there was internal significant correlation between safety climate, fatalism and perceived helplessness (p<0.05). Also, multivariate regression analysis showed that about 22% and 19% of the variance of fatalism and perceived helplessness variables was significantly predicted by safety climate (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The perception of fatalism and helplessness in work environments can be obstacles to prevent occupational accidents. Promoting safety climate can be associated with fatalism culture change and also perceived helplessness reduction among workers.
  • Naghmeh Ghorashi *, Abbas Alavi Rad, Mohammad Reza Eslami Page 208
    Introduction
    Economic development and public welfare are some of macroeconomic goals for any country. Health economy is one of the parameters as criterion for action in evaluation of this important subject. The present study has been intended to investigate into the relationship among factors of health economy including total health expenditures (some percent of Gross Domestic Product GDP), life expectancy, Infant mortality rate, and Population age 65 and above as a percentage of the total population on Iranian economic growth minus petroleum.
    Materials And Methods
    In order to estimate this ratio, the needed study has been carried out by the aid of a econometric model based on Aggregated Growth Theories and according to indices of healthcare economy within time interval 1996:1-2010:4 and by means of Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS).
    Conclusion
    The results of the estimations suggest that among four factors of in the field of health economy in this survey, two factors, i.e total health expenditures (as some percent of GDP) and Population age 65 and above as a percentage of the total population have been positively and significantly affected on Iranian economic growth during career of study. Although, other known variables in economic growth models such as financial development and foreign commercial parameters like exportations and importations have also affected on Iranian economic growth minus petroleum positively and significantly in accordance with the existing expectations and theories.
    Results
    Thus, it seems that the authorities and policy- makers in the field of healthcare of this country may prepare the ground for boosting economic growth of this country through increasing healthcare and medical costs by orientation of development and deepening the healthcare infrastructures and system in the future.
  • Mohammad Hassan Lotfi, Reza Ali Fallahzadeh *, Ali Akbar Askarnejad, Nadjme Hajian, Sedigheh Fallahzadeh, Ibrahim Salmani Nodoushan Page 220
    Introduction
    The most important consequence of nephrogenic disease is the chronic renal failure and unfortunately, there is no significant program to improve the life quality of these patients. Although they need mental support as well as physical rehabilitation but all current endeavors focused on increasing their physical ability not the mental aspect. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between religious beliefs and quality of life in dialysis patients.
    Material And Methods
    In this analytical descriptive study, the data were gathered by a questionnaire about patients'' belief and life quality. In this study, the data of 56 patients including 20-60 year old people who were under dialysis treatment in Shahid Rahnemoon hospital in Yazd were gathered. The measurement instruments included a short-formed questionnaire of life quality (SF36) which investigated the condition of the patient and his/her life quality, and also a questionnaire of national approach of studying religious belief which included 66 questions regarding religious cultures. The data were analyzed by SPSS 16 software putting the descriptive statistics into use. T-test and non-parametric tests were done for data analyzing (with the level of significance of 5).
    Results
    In 24 women and 32 men who were under venous dialysis treatment, the correlation between the degree of religious belief and life quality was significant (r= 0.34, P=0.01). Moreover, the correlation between scores of religious belief and life quality in patients experienced 4 to 8 years of dialysis & correlation between score of religious belief and life quality among those who had chronic disease were significant(r= 0.36 & r= 0.62 respectively, P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    The results of the study showed that due to the influence of religious belief on life quality of patients who were under dialysis treatment, their life quality can be improved through the proper program of teaching religious belief.
  • Mohammad Taghi Ghaneian, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Mahboobeh Dehvari *, Monireh Kheirkhah, Fatemeh Anvari, Behzad Jamshidi Page 229
    Introduction
    Natural organic matters (NOMs) existing in water resources led to various problems such as formation of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Humic matters like humic acid (HA) are component of NOMs that should be removed from water. Advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is one of the NOMs removal methods. The aim of this study was to survey the degradation of humic acid by electron beam irradiation/Mn II ion from aqueous solutions.
    Materials and Methods
    This experimental study was performed in laboratory batch study. In this study, effect of pH (4 to 10), different doses of electron beam radiation (1 to 15 kGy), initial concentration of manganese ions (0.1 to 0.4 mg/l) and the initial concentration of humic acid (10 to 50 mg/l) in degradation of humic acid were investigated. Electron irradiation was performed using an electron accelerator model TT200 (IBM company, Belgium). Residual concentrations of humic acid in the samples were determined by spectrophotometer UV/Visible (Optima SP-3000 Plus model, Japan) at wavelength of 254 nm.
    Results
    According to results, pH changes had no effect on removal efficiency of humic acid. Results showed that increase of absorbed dose led to increase of removal efficiency. With increase of MnII ion concentration to 0.2 mg/l, removal efficiency was increased but in higher concentrations, removal efficiency decreased. So that in concentration of 0.2 mg/l and 0.4 mg/l of MnII ions, removal efficiencies were equal to 65.83% and 50.26%, respectively. Survey on the experimental data showed that degradation of humic acid by e-beam irradiation in presence of MnII ions follows second-order kinetic.
    Conclusion
    The results of this research showed that electron beam irradiation coupled MnII ions is an effective method for removal of humic acid from aqueous solutions.
    Keywords: Degradation, Humic acid, Electron beam irradiation, MnII ion, Water treatment