فهرست مطالب

نامه هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 4 (بهار و تابستان 1391)
  • پیاپی 4 (بهار و تابستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • محمد سپاهی*، کامران سپهران صفحات 5-22
    نجف بیگ وزیروف دومین نمایشنامه نویس مسلمان قفقاز، پس از آخوندزاده در ایران نویسنده مهجوری است. در این پژوهش، زمینه های اجتماعی ژانر در نمایشنام ه های طنز وزیروف بررسی می شود. به گفته نظریه پردازانی چون نورتراپ فرای، واژه طنز (satire) را می توان در دو معنا به کار برد: طنز همچون وجه ادبی (محاکات فروتر) و طنز همچون ژانر (میتوس زمستان). در معنای نخست، طنز به احساس حقارت وزیروف به هویت قوم یاش دلالت می کند و در معنای دوم، تصویری بدبینانه و ضدآرمانی از مناسبات اخلاقی را به نمایش می گذارد (نقطه مقابل خوش بینی کمدی). با تکیه بر مفاهیم روانکاوی لاکان و تحلیل رابطه خود و دیگری، نشان داده می شود که گرایش نویسندگانی چون وزیروف به طنز، بیش از آنکه ناشی از جهل و خرافه پرستی مردم مسلمان قفقاز باشد، بر بحران هویت روشنفکران قفقاز در برابر نگاه تحقیرآمیز استعمارگران روس دلالت دارد و همچون نوعی نهاد اخلاقی خیالی، میل سرکوب شده آنان به مشارکت در ساختار اداری و سیاسی جامعه را جبران می کند. بررسی نمایشنامه های وزیروف به ترتیب تاریخ نگارش، نشان می دهند که این بحران هویت در حد مضمون باقی نمانده و فرم آثار وزیروف را گرفتار آشفتگی و دوپارگی فزاینده ای کرده است
    کلیدواژگان: وزیروف، کمدی، طنز، استعمار، ژاک لاکان
  • محبوبه سجادی فرد، فرزان سجودی صفحات 23-36
    مقاله حاضر مطالعه تطبیقی دو ترجمه فارسی از نمایشنامه اتللوی شکسپیر، به ترجمه ابوالقاسم خان ناصرالملک و م.ا. به آذین است. هدف از نگارش این مقاله، نشان دادن ضرورت آشنایی مترجم با نشان هشناسی فرهنگی در مطالعه متون نمایشی است. در گام نخست، هدف از این پژوهش، یافتن پاسخ برای این پرسش بوده است: آیا مترجم علاوه بر تسلط به دو زبان مبدا و مقصد، می بایست به نشانه های فرهنگی این دو زبان تسلط داشته باشد و آنها را با هم مطابقت دهد یا نه؟ از منظر پژوهشگران این مقاله، حوزه چالش برانگیز ترجمه متون ادبی - و در این پژوهش متون نمایشی- که مترجمان اغلب در آن با تنگنا و دشواری روبه رو م یشوند، با آگاهی از نشانه شناسی فرهنگی دو ملت و قیاس میان آنها و آشنایی با لهجه فردی تا حد زیادی قابل حل است. هر نویسنده، لهجه فردی مخصوص به خود را دارد. لهجه فردی، حاصل جها نبینی فرد و زمانه او، تجارب و اقلیم و تمدن و مطالعات و مذهب و سیاست های حاکم بر عصر فرد و بسیاری عوامل دیگر است. لهجه فردی در فرایند ترجمه از آن رو مسئله ساز است که مترجم نیز علاوه بر نویسنده، لهجه فردی خاص خود را دارد و آن را در فرایند ترجمه مداخله می دهد
    کلیدواژگان: ترجمه، اتللو، نشانه شناسی فرهنگی، لهجه فردی، فرهنگ
  • محمد جعفر یوسفیان کناری صفحات 37-53
    مقاله حاضر با تکیه بر پاره ای از مهم ترین گفتارهای دریدا، به قرائت تازه ای از اشارات تئاتری او در فاصله نظری میان آرای آنتونن آرتو و ساموئل بکت پرداخته است. پیمایش دقیق گفتارهای دریدا درباره تئاتر و یافتن پاسخی قانع کننده برای این پرسش که تا چه اندازه می توان از نقد او بر زیبای یشناسی تئاتر مدرن به عنوان رویکردی معتبر برای مواجهه با دیگرآثار نمایشی استفاده کرد، در اولویت پژوهشی این نوشته قرار دارد. رویکرد غالب تحقیق از پساساختگرایی تاثیر می پذیرد و مطالب آن حوزه ای از مطالعات میا نرشته ای فلسفه و تئاتر را دربر می گیرد. مقاله حاضر با استناد به شواهد معتبر کتابخانه ای و سنجش داده های زبا نشناختی مستخرج از نمونه آثار اصل و ترجمه انگلیسی گفتارهای دریدا، سعی دارد ضمن آسی بشناسی اعتبار استنادهای علمی به دریدا و نیز رعایت بی طرفی کامل در مواجهه با محتوای گفتار او، به دریافت تازه ای از دکنستراکسیون و کاربردش در تئاتر دست یابد. در نهایت، گزاره هایی مطرح م یشوند که حاکی از لزوم بازنگری پژوهشگران تئاتر ایران در نحوه قرائت دریدا، اعتماد به گفتارهای تئاتری او و سپس مقایس هاش با ساموئل بکت و حدود کاربردی پروژه دکنستراکسیون وی خواهد بود.
    کلیدواژگان: فلسفه و تئاتر، ژاک دریدا، دکنستراکسیون، آنتونن آرتو، ساموئل بکت، نقد و نظریه
  • مهدی ازهری راد، علی شیخ مهدی صفحات 55-68
    موضوع نسبت تصویر سینمایی و واقعیت همواره مورد توجه نظریه پردازان فیلم بوده، و از نحوه مواجهه با تکنولوژی سینما نشئت گرفته است. مناقشه اصلی نظریه پردازان واق عگرا و فر مگرا در دوران آنالوگ، بر سر پذیرفتن یا رد کردن نسبت سینما و واقعیت بوده است. ورود تکنولوژی دیجیتال به سینما بر اهمیت این امر افزود. در این مقاله کوشش می شود تا با استفاده از روش توصیفی تحلیلی و چارچوب نظری شک لگرفته بر اساس مفهوم نشانه از دیدگاه پیرسی و پساساختارگرایی با تاکید بر نظریات ژان بودریار، به ارزیابی وضعیت واقعیت در گذر از سینمای آنالوگ به دیجیتال پرداخته شود. نتیجه این مقاله معلوم م یگرداند که تکنولوژی سینما در دوران آنالوگ، نشانه های شمایلی نمایه ای تولید می کرده است؛ اما در دوران دیجیتال، تکنولوژی تصویرسازی فوتورئالیستی در مسیر تشابه با صورت ظاهری واقعیت، بر آن چیره شده است. این نوع سینما در وجه تصویرساز یاش نشانه ای شمایلی نمادین اما بی مرجع را جایگزین واقعیت م یگرداند. از سوی دیگر با استفاده از تکنولوژی تصویربرداری آسان دیجیتالی و همگانی سازی تولید و انتشار تصاویر و قابلیت تکثیر بی انتها در فضاهای مجازی، دال هایی تولید می شوند که تنها به یکدیگر ارجاع می دهند.
    کلیدواژگان: واقعیت، سینمای آنالوگ، سینمای دیجیتال، نشانه شناسی، پساساختارگرایی
  • شهاب الدین عادل، حسین حیدری، سید بهنام حسینی سنگتراشانی صفحات 69-82
    ساختار زمانی نو و به ویژه روایت شبک های فیلم در سینما، شیوه ای برای بیان روایت داستان فیلم است که با دستکاری در ساختار زمانی خطی روایت فیلم، تماشاگران را با ساختن دوباره فیلم در ذه نشان به تعامل با آن وامی دارد. کارگردان این دسته از فیلم ها، با ارائه داستان های پیچیده یا ایجاد پیچیدگی در زمان روایت، نوعی از سینمای اندیشمندانه و تفکر برانگیز را خلق میک ند. رویکرد نظری این تحقیق بر پایه اندیشه های دو نظریه پرداز شهیر حوزه روایت در سینما ژرار ژنت و دیوید بوردول استوار است. ژنت در مبحث استراتژی روایت به مفهوم کانون یشدگی در روایت می پردازد که به معنای ادراک بصری و حتی مفاهیم کل یتری از ادراک است، و در هر لحظه دامنه اطلاعات روایت به یکی از شخصیت های داستان کانونی یا متمرکز می شود؛ در حالی که رویکرد بوردول بیشتر ساختاری است. او در نظریه پردازی اش که نوعی پوئتیکای سینمایی است، روایت شبک های و زمینه های تاریخی پیدایش آن را تشریح میک ند. روش این تحقیق برپایه مقاله های استادان و نظریه پردازان متاخر در حوزه روایت استوار است و در آن کوشش شده است که در هر مبحث، ضمن ارائه کلیاتی درباره موضوع بحث، نمونه فیلم با تشریح ساختار آن ارائه گردد. در مجموع، نتایج حاصل از طرح این مسئله که چگونه روایت شبکه ای فیلم توانسته است تاثیری گسترده بر خلق سینمای اندیشمند معاصر بگذارد، مورد توجه قرار می گیرد.
    کلیدواژگان: زمان روایت، ساختار زمانی نو، روایت فیلم، روایت شبکه ای فیلم، نقطه دید، خط داستانی
  • مسیح موسوی زادگان، احمد ظابطی جهرمی صفحات 83-99
    فیلم های مستند همواره از مهم ترین ابزارها در آموزش و پژوهش های علمی گوناگون و از جمله باستا نشناسی اند. متاسفانه در کشور ما این کاربرد فیلم های مستند در رشته باستان شناسی کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. این در حالی است که در دیگر کشورها، به این امر بسیار توجه شده است، به گونه ای که امروزه به عنوان رشته ای مستقل در دانشگاه ها تدریس می شود. در این مقاله با توجه به کاستی یادشده، کوشش می شود تا ضمن ارائه تعریف از سینمای مستند باستان شناختی (با هدف ایرا نشناسی)، به طبق هبندی زیرگونه های آن پرداخته شود و تاریخچه آن در ایران و جهان مورد بررسی قرار گیرد و افزون بر اینها، مزایا و کارکردهای پژوهشی و علمی آن تب یین گردد. این پژوهش از نوع نظری و توسع های است و روش انجام آن، کتابخانه ای و اسنادی (فیلم). از آنجا که عرصه سینمای مستند باستا نشناسی ایران، بر خلاف دیگر ژانرهای سینمای مستند همچون سینمای مرد منگار (اتنوگرافیک) از مباحث نظری خالی است، مولفان بر آن شدند که با انجام این پژوهش، نخستین گام را در این زمینه بردارند. نتایج این پژوهش نشان می دهد که فیلم مستند در زمینه باستان شناسی، فیلمی است که در آن با اتکا به پژوهش علمی، به مقوله هایی چون روش های متداول و چارچوب نظری و نیز محدوده پژوهش و اهداف کلی باستان شناختی و دیگر علوم مرتبط پرداخته شده باشد
    کلیدواژگان: باستان شناسی، سینمای مستند، فیلم مستند باستان شناختی
  • مسعود وسی پور، علی اصغر شیرازی صفحات 101-113
    منابع موسیقی اصیل ایرانی عمدتا جنبه های روحانی و عرفانی داشته اند و بسیاری از ویژگی های آن مانند کمال، حال، قرینه سازی و تکرار و جز اینها، با شعر عجین اند و دارای پیوند تنگاتنگ با عرفان اسلامی. این موسیقی مبتنی بر نظامی به نام «ردیف» است، و دستگاه ها و آوا زهایی را در بر می گیرد که هر کدام از آنها بیا نکننده حالات و مضامین روحانی و عرفانی خاصی است. در این مقاله، به چگونگی بیان مضامین عرفان اسلامی در موسیقی اصیل ایرانی پرداخته می شود. روش تحقیق در این مقاله از نوع توصیفی تحلیلی است و بدین منظور مضامین عرفان اسلامی در موسیقی اصیل ایران و دستگاه ها و آوازهای آن تشریح می گردد و بر اساس دیدگاه های افراد صاحب نظر، جنبه تحلیلی آن نیز مطرح می شود. مهم ترین نتایج این تحقیق را می توان چنین برشمرد که برای بیان مضامین و حالات عرفانی، از موسیقی اصیل ایران بسیار می توان کمک گرفت درواقع استفاده بجا و مناسب از سازهای موسیقی و دیگر ابزارهای مادی، فقط در کنار جنبه های روحانی و عرفانی این موسیقی و ضمن توجه به حالات دستگاه ها و آوازها می تواند منجر به بیان مضامین عرفانی گردد
    کلیدواژگان: عرفان اسلامی، موسیقی اصیل، ایران
  • ایلناز رهبر، هومان اسعدی صفحات 115-132
    دوره صفوی از دوره های شاخص هنر ایران محسوب می شود، و به همین دلیل برای دستیابی به اطلاعات ناگفته ای از تاریخ موسیقی، رجوع به مدارک تصویری دوره مذکور امری ضروری است. تصاویر حاکی از آن اند که بانوان در این دوره به فعالیت های موسیقایی می پرداخت هاند. با توجه به منابع مکتوب و تصویری، به نظر م یرسد که رقصندگان عموما در زمره روسپیان شناخته می شدند؛ اما درباره نوازندگان زن، این نکته به صراحت عنوان نشده است. تصاویر نیز نشان می دهند که نوازندگان زن غالبا در مجالس مخصوص به خودشان، که در آنها فقط یک مرد که آن هم احتمالا شخص پادشاه بوده است حضور دارند. با این حال، گاه نوازندگان زن در همراهی با مردان نوازنده نیز به تصویر درآمده اند. همچنین به نظر م یرسد که بین جنسیت و نوع ساز نیز رابطه وجود داشته است؛ بدین معنی که بانوان در نوازندگی سازهای خاصی، بیش از مردان مهارت داشته اند. در این دوره، با توجه به شواهد موجود، در عین حال می توان به نوع آموزش موسیقی زنان نیز پی برد. نتایج به دست آمده در این مقاله با بررسی 22 تصویر از نگارگری های دوران صفوی و مقایسه آنها با برخی از منابع مکتوب، بر اساس روش تحقیق از نوع تاریخی، توصیفی و تحلیلی، و تطبیقی بوده است
    کلیدواژگان: نگارگری، دوره صفوی، موسیقی، نوازندگان و رقصندگان زن
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  • Mohammad Sepahi, Kamran Sepehran Pages 5-22
    bstract zerbaijanis are among the pioneers of drama and theatre in the Middle East nations. ajaf Bey azirov (1854-1926), the second Azeri dramatist after Mirza Fathali Akhundzadeh. He had reated ive comedies, before he produced Tragedy of Fakhreddin (1896) the first tragedy ritten by Caucasus uslims. It is generally believed that Vazirov followed the dramatic style of his orefather’s omedies, but there are evident deviations, the most important of which is rejecting khundzadeh’s endency towards a final reconciliation. This structural division is in parallel with the ontrast between omedy and satire in Northrop Fry’s genre theory, where both of them are regarded as arrative literary genres. Comedy favors reconciliation while the aggressive spirit of satire rejects it. Satire is not merely a genre, and is more generally considered as a mode -i.e. a way of representing charactersnamely ‘low mimetic’ in Fry’s account. This paper is reveals a sociological approach of satire in first six plays written by Vazirov, based on concepts borrowed from the psychoanalysis of Jacque Lacan. Based on interplay of the Imaginary and the Symbolism in ‘mirror stage’ theory, it is shown the Vazirov’s emphasis on the ignorance of his people is intermingled with the ideological hegemony of the Russian colonialism. Then it is shown how the possibility of a sexual satisfaction as the traditional symbol of reconciliation in comedy, is usually hindered by a feminine character, known in psychoanalysis as the dominance of Maternal Superego. This is interpreted as a reflection of the exclusion of Muslim inhabitants of Caucasus from the symbolic (political and institutional) structure of their society that is a way of ‘foreclosure’ of the ‘Name of Father’. This crisis of identity causes a chaos that gradually disintegrates the moral and formal coherences of Vazirov’s narrative on one hand, and leads to moral aggressiveness towards people on the other, that makes satire an imaginary subjection of them to an indigenous institution. Finally Tragedy of Fakhreddin is interpreted as a fantasy where the author imagines that the satisfaction of the losses has led him to satire. In summary, the author’s approach to form and structure as a whole is interpreted as a reaction to the politico-social discriminations imposed by the colonial conditions.
    Keywords: Najaf Bey Vazirov, Comedy, Satire, Lacan, Genre
  • Mahboobe Sajadifard, Farzan Sojoudy Pages 23-36
    Abstract This article is a comparative analysis between Shakespeare’s Othello and two persian translations of this drama by Abol Ghasem Khan Naseralmolk and M.A. Beh’aazin. The current study tries to consider problems of dramatic translation of the text. The main objective of this article is to consider the necessity of cultural semiotics in translating of dramatic texts. Although in these texts, it is impossible to separate text from performance, since theatre consists of the dialectical relationship between both of them, and also dramatic texts are not complete without performance. But the authors have tried to look at dramatic texts as independent elements. They mainly tend to find some answers to the following questions: In addition to dominance to the source language and target language, is it necessary that the translator dominate cultural semiotics? Should translator compare signs- and especially the cultural ones- meaning in the source and the target languages? Culture and cultural code have an essential role in sign decoding especially in translation process. Culture is made of various kinds of discourses as artistic, literal, politic, religious, etc. Therefore literary discourse is just one part of culture in each society. In translation, especially in literally ones, cultural code should be considered as important as metaphoric and metonymic relations and indeterminacy of signs and semantic deviation. The signs are different in each language. They are encoded by language readers and context. In literary translation, poetic sense should be conveyed as well as intended message and sign meaning. That is why some of the signs are transformed without any change, some transform according to the cultural code of target language and some disappear. Some times in this process, translator adds signs to the text. Because of different meanings of the signs, it is impossible to attain to the author’s mind. In the process of translation, the cultural differences cause to not relate with text. Besides each writer has his/her “personal accent”. It is a product of personal ideology, the period and climate, experiences and continents, cultures, observations, religions, contemporary politics and other factors. In translation the” Personal accent” of the writer is as important as the translator’s one. It is clear that Shakespeare’s “personal accent” in not exactly the same as M.A. Beh’aazin or Abol Ghasem Khan Naseralmolk’s accent. In other words Shakespeare’s cultural lung had been filled with different kind of oxygen. Such factors act as finger prints that everyone has his/her own special one. Whilst it seems that the source text and target text are equal and tantamount, translating act is a process of renovation and recreation of text. The processes of translation involved in making another culture comprehensible. There are direct relations between Languages and literary texts and culture. If there is an interconnection between language and the thought, and culture and what the writers write, understanding the culture is very essential factor. Translation of dramatic texts is formed in two steps. First the task of translator is to translate text to the target language and then the director, again, translates the text into a specific language which belongs to the stage. In this process, culture and cultural semiotics have important roles
    Keywords: Translation, Othello, Cultural Semiotics, Personal Accent, Culture
  • Mohammad Jafar Yousefian Kenari Pages 37-53
    Abstract This paper aims to deal with some of the most important ideas of Jacques Derrida on theatre in terms of the existing philosophical gap between Antonin Artaud and Samuel Beckett. Assessing Derrida’s notions on theatre studies lead to find an exact reasonable solution for this main question that how his critical views on aesthetics of modern theatre might been employed today as recognized approaches to face with dramatic artworks; and the mentioned issue is actually in priority of this research. The leading approach of this paper is based upon post-structuralism and it covers a range of interdisciplinary records concerned with philosophy and theatre. The fundamental style of collecting and processing the linguistic signs as well as the philosophical facts, follow a descriptive-analytical method that is common in qualitative researches. Referring on many reliable library facts and assessing several linguistic data which are extracted from Derrida’s original contributions and his translated texts in English, this study attempts to lead any possible reader to a new reception of his key technical term, Deconstruction, and its all engaged and related meanings in theatre. It is pre-supposed that Derrida’s perspective on “Theatre of Cruelty and the enclosure of Representation”, in a general sense, could not be simply conceived as his theatrical standpoint but rather, it is a philosophical chance for him to avoid his own real positions on the nature of performance. Beckett, furthermore, has a secret absence in his contributions on modern theatre and literature. Meanwhile, his perspectives on literature and philosophy which are often associated with a branch of poststructuralist studies would act as the starting point of propounding a theoretical challenge for the present study. Artaud and Beckett as two prominent theatre practitioners of modern era are in their own selves typical of a paradox in terms of their performative attitudes and techniques. Deconstruction, as a new philosophical approach to literary texts and signs, could be applied for theatre studies. Re-exploring the matter that whether Derrida and his philosophical teachings are naturally applicable in contemporary challenges of theatre and doing a critical reflection on measuring the interpretability of dramatic artworks based on his view points, are among the main purposes of the study. On the other hand, it intends to present reliable judgments on Derrida’s terminology and the manner which they are broadly used in Iranian academic papers and discourses. The limits of its verifiability, accessibility as well as the accuracy of his critical point of views on theatre would be examined. In conclusion, some new propositions on deconstruction there will be propounded which emphasize on the importance of Iranian scholars to reconsider their conventional views on Derrida and his late neologism.
    Keywords: Philosophy, Theatre, Jacques Derrida, Deconstruction, Antonin Artaud, Samuel Beckett, Theory, Criticism
  • Mehdi Azharirad, Ali Sheikhmehdi Pages 55-68
    From the beginning of cinema invention, the problem of relation between reality and the cinematic image has been very important for filmmakers as well as the scholars. Cinema’s dependence on technology, as one of its basic features, has led to the main causes of theoreticians, disagreement about films. With the arrival of digital technology in movie production and distribution, two basic issues became important; higher reproduction power of digital technology in comparison to analog one (while the copy images had the lower quality than the original ones), and creating realistic images by using this technology than analog images. These issues have been created a new challenge for representing the reality in cinema. So the question of this article is: What condition reality has found in transition from the analog cinema to the digital? The descriptive-analytical method is used for this article. The theoretical framework of this research is based on the concept of sign in C.S. Peirce’s viewpoint and Baudrillard’s post structuralism approach. Semiotic analysis of cinema technology can look for the type of signs and how they refer to reality, in the message of this media. The result of this study makes clear that the produced signs by the cinema, in analog era, due to a mechanical recording technology, are also depending physically to object and somewhat similar to it, and thus these are the indexical-iconic signs. The analog film technology has advanced so much that this similarity is obvious. But in digital filming, the factor which joins the images to their reference is the figures that set in binary based. And according to that symbolic aspect of sign saying that is based on contract, here, the image can be seen as symbolic-iconic sign. But in Baudrillard’s perspective, with the arrival of digital technology, gradually the relationship between cinematic image and real signified or reference is completely disconnected. Real reference is replaced by reality in the virtual world that is alled “hyper reality”. This type of reality has been used to make an illusionary reality and it has dominates, the images made by digital technology by the apparent similarity with reality. On the other hand, due to the ease of digital filming, and create the possibility of producing and publishing images, infinitely, in the virtual spaces, the signifiers that are produced, can only refer to one each other.
    Keywords: Reality, Analog Cinema, Digital Cinema, Semiotics, Post Structuralism
  • Shahabeddin Adel, Hosein Heidari, Behnam Hosseiny Pages 69-82
    New temporal structure, especially in two recent decades, is a method to articulate the narration of film story, in which storytelling uses game or manipulates in film temporal structure, challenges or interacts with film audiences to participate in film remaking in their mind or final interpretation. Actually, directors, of these films present complex stories or create complication in time to tend especial intellectual spectator and create a kind of thoughtful pondering cinema. One of these films, New temporal structure, amed Network Narrative in which director intends to present single or multiple stories from the point of view of multiple characters telling through the film, represented different conception of reality or similarities of an event of multiple stories from the POV of multiple characters via these differences or similarities accomplishes to make culture on the issue of globalization of human worlds. On the other hands, this is a kind of xtension of human knowledge to the outer space, makes, thus, network of humans have the similar destinies. Actually, another film of this kind, new temporal structure, named puzzle or mind-game complex narrative films. This extension of human thought is to the inner space of human mind to represent their dreams, hallucinations, memories, and thoughts. New temporal structure, is an answer to the millennium films in two recent decades or a reaction against the extreme extension of human relations in the realm of knowledge, culture, science, economy, etc. therefore, at the beginning of new millennium, a group similar destiny for human beings have been created. Theoretical approach to this research is on the base of thoughts of two famous theoricians of narrative discourse, Gerard Genette & David Bordwell. The former debates on the strategy of narrative discourse to the focalization of narrative in which he means visual concepts and even total conceptions of the concept every time and focalizes area of narrative information to one of the fiction characters, whereas the latter’s approach is more constructive or structural. He debates about it in the Poetics of Cinema’s and analyses Network Narrative and historical basis of creation in movies. In an essay called Mutual Friends and Chronologies of Chance of Poetics of Cinema, he has explained the kinds of Network Narrative, and has exemplified and analyzed some of the important movies made by NN. He believes that ‘Narration Makes Networks’. Narration of each film, in coaxing us to build the story world a particular way, must expose the relationships among the characters. In a network tale, the narration does this with an elaborateness seldom seen in the more ordinary movie. The narrations should often reveal onnections, anticipate and conceal them too. Moreevidently, the narration of a movie must show how characters are separated by a few links. Network Narrative film as a New Temporal Structure can reveal and anticipate connections by employing unrestricted narration, skipping and back and forth among people and places. On the other hands, method of research in this essay is surveying on the base of other masters and theoricians in this field and the related ones, in which each one of courses is accomplished to the special subjects and analysis of instance film made by Network Narrative
    Keywords: New Temporal Structure, Network Narrative of Film, Time of Narrative, Narrative of film, POV, Line of Fiction
  • Masih Mousavizadegan, Ahmad Zabeti Jahromi Pages 83-99
    Documentary films are among the most important media in archaeological researches and education, which unfortunately have not been under consideration. This article attempts to provide the definition and classification of subspecies of archaeological documentary films, examine the history of such films in Iran and all around the world and talk about its benefits and functions. This research has been done based on library and documentary (films) resources. Unlike other genres of documentary films such as ethnographical documentary films, archaeological films of Iran are not supportive of theoretical issues. The results show that archaeological documentary film is a documentary film which by relying on a scientific research deals with current methods, theoretical framework, scope and general goals of archaeology, and other related sciences. According to their goals, we can divide archeological documentary films into inspirational, training, interpretive, educational categories or according to their audiences; we can divide them into professional or specialized films for professional audiences and “educational films” for students and general audiences. Another way to study archeological films is dividing them by their subjects. Making archaeological films began from the late silent film era. Two silent documentary films on the ancient world made in 1931 and 1932-33 exist in the “Peabody” film museum at Harvard University that show “Dorothy Garrod’s” excavations, English archaeologist, in “Carmel” Mountain in Palestine. In 1955, Archaeological Institute of America by establishing Committee for film and television took the first step to take initiative and responsibility in making archaeological films under the direct supervision of archaeologists. The trend continues till today and with the development of the cinema, these films also improve. For a detailed study ofthe history of archeological films, it can generally be divided into five periods: Period I: “1297 – 1330 SH”; Period II: “1330 – 1357 SH”: the institutionalization of documentary cinema in Iran. At this time we are faced with several processes. These processes based on their formation date and activities are: - Department of Syracuse University; - A group of students studied in west universities and institutions of filmmaking, after returning to Iran made archeological films privately or with the support of Ministry of Culture and Fine Arts. Among these students, Fereydoon Rahnama and Mostafa Farzaneh did great services for their next generation; - Golestan film organization (under management of Ebrahim Golestan); and - National TV of Iran with Iranzamin Group. Period III: “1357 – 1370 SH”: Revolution and War. The main charge of making documentary films in this period and later periods is national television. One of the prominent filmmakers in this period is Hamid Soheili. Period IV: “1370 – 1380 SH”: Orod Zand, Mohsen Abdol Vahab and Muhammad Moghadam are eminent filmmakers in this period. Period V: “1380- 1390 SH”: in this period these groups are active: - TV and documentation group of Channel Four; - Private sector; and - Center of Documentary and Experimental Films. Orod Atapour, Ali Akbar Valadbeigi, Vahid Bagherzadeh and. .. are prominent filmmakers of this period.
    Keywords: Archaeology, Documentary films, Archaeological documentary films
  • Masoud Moosapoor, Ali Asghar Shirazi Pages 101-113
    The influence of Persian Music on inner realm is mentioned by well known Post-Islamic music theorists. Persian Music is known as a factor affect spiritual growth, moving toward perfection and purification of the soul. Since a very long period, the mystical and spiritual effects of this music have been repeatedly noted by Persian Music theorists such as Safiyeddin Ormavi; And even mystics like Emam Mohammad Ghazzali, have considered the relationship between music and mysticism. Contemporary Specialists such as Sayyed Hossein Nasr have emphasized this relationship too. The so-called “Traditional Music” in Iran, has reached us through oral instruction, and a major part of its sources contain spiritual and mystical aspects and have a close correlation with Islamic mysticism. Perfection, ecstasy, symmetrization and repetition, as well as the inseparable relation of Iranian Traditional of Music with poetry have been among the specifications of the mentioned music that jointed it with mysticism. This kind of music is based on a system called “Radif”. Radif contains “Dastgah” or modes and “Avaz” or songs, each one xpresses specific spiritual and mystical themes and moods. The stages of Islamic mysticism are as follows: religion, creed, wisdom and truth. These are classified in certain Dastgah and vaz. for example, the wisdom stage was associated with Nava (one of the 7 “Dastgah”s in Iranian Traditional Music; and these Dastgahs, along with five “Avaz”es, make a Radif-series of twelve each). Although these effects cannot be issued a general warrant, but the correct selection and usage of Dastgah for the expected themes and moods is instrumental. This article shows how Iranian Traditional Music expresses Islamic mysticism themes. This research is descriptive-analytic. Theauthors have described Islamic mystical themes in Dastgahs and Avazes, as well as the mentioned Music specialty context, and have analyzed the statements based on opinion of authorities. The relationship between this music and Islamic mysticism, with this aim in the article has been the in forming of correct and appropriate usage of qualitative and spiritual characteristics of Iranian Traditional Music and it’s relying on the Radif, based on its mystical themes which can be expressed. The authors have shown that Persian the mentioned Music has a great potential to help expressing Islamic mystical themes and moods. An important point that has been tried to be proved in this article is showing that how this expression was in search of spiritual possibilities of this music; Using material means, pretending to be so and the mere shaking of the head and strange gestures and the use of instruments such as Tanbour and Daf, Pretend forming a kind of music, called “mystical”. In fact, the goal is the same mystical and spiritual ecstasy that has a superior place, comparing with technique. There fore, musical instruments, physical materials and tools concern spiritual and mystical aspects of this kind of music, and paying attention to Dastgah and Avaz states, leads to expressions of Mystical themes. Also, matching Dastgahs and Avazes with Islamic mysticism stages were analyzed that however, some matches seem appropriate, but some are obscure and far from reality.
    Keywords: Islamic Mysticism, Persian Original Music, Iran
  • Ilnaz Rahbar, Hooman Asadih Pages 115-132
    Abstract This article has been written in order to consider the female musicians in the Safavid Period based on some written sources and specifically Persian Miniatures. Generally speaking, there is no specific explanation about female musicians, in Safavid - or even Timurid - written history. Besides few references rarely just refer to the names of musicians. Therefore, in order to survey the female musicians and any information about them it is necessary to consider the existed paintings. In Timurid period, female musicians were active in their professional life and this point can be obtained only from iconographical sources; because in the written one, generally, it is ignored to cite the name of female musicians despite the considerable number of them. Safavid period is one of the most glorious periods in Iranian art history. Thus in order to get unknown musical points, it is necessary to refer to iconographical sources. Pictures show that females have played active important roles as players, singers and dancers. Generally the number of male players in pictures was more than female ones and it came back to the cultural situation of that time. In Safavid period, due to many specific reasons, the life of music declined compare to the Timurid glorious musical era. The most prominent features of parties were prostitutes. According to the written and iconographical sources, it seams that dancers were generally known as prostitutes. The names of some of them have been mentioned in written sources and documents. Although, the very point does not refer to any players clearly; the pictures show the female players usually in their special parties that just one man, probably the king, had been there, however they are rarely seen in accompanying male players. It can be inferred that the only man beside female musicians at the picture was the king, so most pictures illustrate the court or harem of king; and it probably reveals playing and singing of the king’s wives. It seems that there is a relationship between the players’ gender and the kinds of instruments. It means that female were more professional in playing particular instruments like Qānoon and Chang. In other words, women, just in their female groups, played different instruments; but when they were. Accompanying with male players, their only instruments were Qanoon or Chang. Besides, if should be stated that many pictures, in Isfahan school, show two Daf female players between male and female players, but it is one of the style of that school that painters generally depict musicians in their paintings. In the mentioned period, little information could be found about music training of women. In this article, these deductions have got through analysis of 22 Safavid miniatures in comparison to various written documents. The pictures, which were related to main school of Safavid miniatures, belonged to Tabriz, Qazvin, and Shiraz and Isfahan schools
    Keywords: Persian miniature, Safavid period, Music, Female musicians, dancers