فهرست مطالب

نامه هنرهای نمایشی و موسیقی - پیاپی 5 (پاییز و زمستان 1391)
  • پیاپی 5 (پاییز و زمستان 1391)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/10/27
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • رضا کوچک زاده، فرهاد مهندس پور صفحات 5-17
    شبی هخوانی که مهم ترین و منسجم ترین نمایش ایران و بخشی از جهان اسلام است در نخستین سال های پیدای ش بر مراسم و آیین هایی استوار شد که اساسا مبتنی بر اعتقادات شیعه ی ایرانی بود. به همین دلیل، مایه و پای هی داستانی آن در آغاز برگرفته از وقایع مهمی مانند شهادت حضرت علی و امام حسین و عاشورای سال 61 ق. در تاریخ شیعه بود. اقتدار حکومت، دگرگونی ساختار جامعه، ارتباط با دیگر کشورها و تمد نها، تغ ییر شیو هی زندگی و گسترش و رشد شبی هخوانی، ضرورت شک لگیری نمایش هایی با روای تهای نوین را پدید آورد. پس شبی هخوانی به دور هی دوم و سوم زندگ یاش روایت های دینی فراتر از اسلام وارد شد. در این دوره هاست که گستره ی نمایش ها به داستان ها و شخصیت های ادیان دیگر و زندگی معاصر نیز می پردازد. شبی هنویسان و شبی هگردانان گرچه مسلمان بودند، نی منگاهی به دیگر ادیان نیز داشتند و تلاش میک ردند توجه تماشاگران غیرمسلمان را همانند هم یک شان خویش جلب کنند. پس عجیب نبود شبیه سرایی که به تماشاگران و واکنش آن ها می اندیشید، حکایت های خود را به گستره ی شخصیت های ادیان دیگر بکشاند؛ او در پی ارتباط بود. شخصیت های مسیحی، یهودی، هندو و نیز دین های زردشتی و مانوی در شبی هخوانی، حضور پررنگ تری نسبت به دیگر ادیان دارند. پس شبی هخوانی در دوره ی گسترش برخلاف نمایش مذهبی اروپا تنها به پیروان کی دین، محدود نبود بلکه همانند نهادی تئاتری و نه آیینی یا صرفا ایدئولوژیک به ارتباطی گسترده می اندیشید.
    کلیدواژگان: شبیه خوانی (تعزیه)، دین، زردشتی، مسیحی، یهودی
  • ویژگی های زبانی گفتمان درام رادیویی / نمونه موردی: نمایشنامه پل آلبرت
    بهروز محمودی بختیاری، غزاله مرادیان صفحات 19-38
    نقش رادیو در گستره وسیع وسایل ارتباط جمعی، به ویژه آنجا که سخن از ارتباط با گروه انبوهی از مخاطبان با خصوصیات نا همگون به میان می آید، برجسته تر از سایر رسانه های جمعی است و نمایشنامه رادیویی نیز به عنوان کیی از برنامه های پر مخاطب رادیو، در کشورهای مختلف دنیا رونق ویژه ای دارد. در این مقاله، ضمن تشریح ویژگی های منحصرب هفرد رادیو، به بررسی ویژگی های زبان در رسانه رادیو پرداخته شده است. همچنین نمایشنامه رادیویی و ویژگی های ساختاری و زبانی آن، و به طورمشخص؛ چهار الگوی زبانی شرح صحنه، اشار هگرهای مکانی، کن شهای گفتاری و انسجام و پیوستگی معنایی بررسی می شوند. در نهایت، این ویژگی ها بر نمایشنامه رادیویی پل آلبرت اثر تام استوپارد) 1969 (بررسی و سپس نتایج حاصله ارائه شده اند. براساس نتایج حاصله، معلوم شد که در میان تمامی نق شهای زبانی نقش ارجاعی)موضوع(بیشترین کاربرد را در رادیو دارد، و رادیو از رهگذر فرآیند تر یکب و میل به همنشین سازی واحدهای زبانی، گرایش به ساخت های استعاری دارد. همچنین نظر به اینکه در جریان ادراک نمایشنامه رادیویی مخاطب باید صحنه را در ذهن خودش فرض کند، لازم است که در روساخت متن نمایشنامه های رادیویی به مواردی کلامی مانند عبارات ارجاعی و کن شهای کلامی عنایت خاصی مبذول شود
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل تطبیقی، تحلیل گفتمان، نمایشنامه رادیویی، تام استوپارد، پل آلبرت
  • محمدرضا حسنایی، سعید کشن فلاح صفحات 39-54
    با توجه به این مسئله که روند تاریخی اقتباس از کی اثر ادبی برای تولید اثری نمایشی همواره با موفقیت همراه نبوده است. در این مقاله فرآیند اقتباس از متون ادبی در تولید فیلمنامه تصویر متحرک بررسی می شود. از این رو، این مقاله در گام نخست به معرفی عوامل تاثیرگذار در امر اقتباس برای دستیابی به فیلمنامه و مطالعه چگونگی کارکرد آنها در برقراری ارتباط با مخاطب می پردازد. در گام بعدی کسب شناخت صحیح از منابع اقتباسی مناسب برای فیلمنامه تصویرمتحرک از اهداف این پژوهش است. در روند این پژوهش چگونگی تبدیل متن ادبی به متن نمایشی با توجه به برخی عناصرمهم در ساختار داستان و فیلمنامه بررسی می شود. شیوه تحقیق گردآوری مطالب به صورت کتابخانه ای و مشاهده میدانی آثار تصویر متحرک و تحلیل و بررسی آنها است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر این نکته است که در روند اقتباس از منابع ادبی برای استفاده در فیلمنامه، به همان اندازه که با منبع ادبی مورد استفاده آزادانه تر برخورد شود، اثر به دست آمده تاثیر گذارتر خواهد بود. این برخورد آزاد از آن جهت در اقتباس از آثار ادبی موفق اهمیت دارد که این آثار قبلا در ارتباط با مخاطبان به موفقیت هایی دست یافت هاند که ریشه در ساختار محکم داستا نسرایی غیرتصویری آنها داشته است و حال لازم است که عوامل تصویری اضافه شده به متن ادبی، ضمن حفظ این ساختار، بیان جدیدی را به مخاطب ارائه کند.
    کلیدواژگان: اقتباس، متن ادبی، فیلمنامه، تصویر متحرک
  • تحول بیانی سینمایی هایبرید و بازتولید واقعیت / مطاله موردی: فیلم های کینگ کونگ ساخته شده در سال های (1933) و (2005)
    علی شیخ مهدی، لاله خرازیان صفحات 55-71
    در فرهنگ تصویری سینمای معاصر، هایبرید کردن واقعیت و خیال به دلیل دسترسی انسان به فنون نوین دیجیتالی، از طریق شبیه سازی کاملا امکان پذیر شده است. بر اساس تحلیل اقتصاد سیاسی نشان هشناختی فردریک جیمسن، شیوه بیانی نشانه های تصویری برای بازتولید واقعیت در سینما در دوره های مختلف سرمایه داری با دگرگونی مفهوم واقعیت همراه بوده است، همچنین با توجه به اظهارات ژان بودریار، نشانه های حادواقعی هیچ ارجاعی به واقعیت عینی ندارند و صرفا واقعیتی مجازی و برساخت هی رسانه ها هستندکه او از آن ها با عنوان وانموده یاد کرده است. چارچوب نظری این مقاله بر مبنای ترکیب نشان هشناسی و اقتصاد سیاسی رشد و توسعه ی سرمایه داری برای تحلیل جایگاه هایبرید در بازتولید واقعیت در سینما است. مهم ترین هدف این پژوهش، شناسایی انواع قابلیت های ترکیب فیلم زنده با فیلم متحرک سازی شده (انیمیشن) درتاریخ سینمای هایبرید است. دو فیلم از داستان تخیلی کینگ کونگ ساخته شده در 1933 و 2005، دو مرحله سرمایه داری اولیه و متاخر با دو منطق فرهنگی واق عگرایی و پسامدرنیسم تحلیل و بررسی شده است. نتیجه حاصل از این پژوهش نشان می دهد که شیوه بیانی سینمای امروز از طریق عملکرد سامانه های دیجیتالی توانسته است نظام چندپاره سینمای هایبرید را منسجم کند و از بیان سینمایی به شیوه میزانسن برای استفاده از لایه پردازی های نامحدود رایانه ای بهره مند شود
    کلیدواژگان: سینمای هایبرید، واقع گرایی، سرمایه داری متاخر، کینگ کونگ
  • سید مصطفی مختاباد، شهاب الدین عادل، فریبا رستمی جلیلیان صفحات 73-85
    یکی از اشکال قدیمی مستند، مستند مردم شناسی یا قوم نگارانه و به تعبیر جدید انسان شناسی تصویری است که در ارتباط مستقیم با علم انسان شناسی، با طرح پرسش در ماهیت و منشا رسوم ها و نهادها و چگونگی کاربرد فرهنگ در زندگی انسان ها، به دنبال تاملی در معنای تفاوت های فرهنگی و اجتماعی است. انسان شناسی در نگره سنتی مستند شامل دو رویکرد روایی مشاهده ای و مشارکتی است که در آنها سوژه- فیلمساز به مثابه عاملی بیرونی و عالمانه به افراد بومی نگریست. اما در عصر معاصر متاثر از شیوه های تازه ای که در مستند پدید آمده اند که نوعی خود بازتاب دهندگی دارند و نیز باور عصر پسامدرن به وجود واقعیت های دست کاری شده، انسان شناسی تصویری به مسیر تازه ای کشیده شده است، در حوزه مستند نو انسان شناسی با دو شیوه انعکاسی و اجرایی به تعبیر و تاویل امر واقع می پردازد و در آن سوژه- فیلمساز موضعی تازه نسبت به ابژه اتخاذ می کند، که بدین صورت امکان به وجود آمدن موقعیتی بیناذهنی میان سوژه، ابژه و مخاطب حاصل آید. به هر رو، این طور به نظر م یرسد که گونه های روایی در انسان شناسی تصویری را با تاکید بر موضع سوژه- فیلمساز نسبت به ابژه باید بررسی کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: مرد م نگاری، مرد م شناسی، انسان شناسی، انسان شناسی تصویری
  • سیدمحسن هاشمی، هانی صباحی صفحات 87-104
    دغدغه آغاز یک اثر هنری، اضطرابی همیشگی برای هنرمند و مخاطب به ارمغان می آورد. هنرمند مایل است در همان ابتدا مخاطب را جذب کند تا بعدتر بتواند وی را کاملا تحت تاثیر قرار دهد. مخاطب نیز در ابتدا آماده است که از عالم واقع فاصله بگیرد و ازاین رو اشتیاق بیشتری برای دریافت و ادراک دارد. هنر سینما نیز از این حکم برکنار نیست. در طول تاریخ سینما، شاهد آثاری بوده ایم که با شروع اعجا بانگیز و مسحورکننده شان، اشتیاق تماشاگر را برانگیخته اند و تمرکز او را تا پایان نمایش معطوف خود کرده اند.مه مترین اصل در سکانس افتتاحیه، القای حس شروع داستان به مخاطب است. این مسئله در طول تاریخ سینما مورد توجه فیلمسازان بوده است. نقش موسیقی در این انگیزش و جلب توجه، انکار ناپذیر است. موسیقی سکانس افتتاحیه می تواند در القای زمان و مکان داستان بسیار موثر باشد. این موسیقی همچنین می تواند در معرفی شخصیت، تعین سبک،تشخص گونه (ژانر)، پذیرش فضا و ایجاد حال و هوا نقش بسزایی داشته باشد. این مقاله ضمن بررسی انواع فیلم ها و موسیقی های سکانس افتتاحیه آنها، از طریق تقسی مبندی گونه های شاخص سینمایی، نمونه هایی را برای مورد پژوهی ارائه می کند. البته تنوع بیش از اندازه موسیقی افتتاحیه فیلم هایی که در ژانر ملودرام قرار م یگیرند و گستردگی فراوان آنها، بحث و پژوهشی مستقل را طلب میک ند. ازآنروی بررسی موسیقی افتتاحیه را به ژانرهای نوار [1] (سیاه)، جنگی، موز کیال، حماسی و وسترن منحصر کرده ایم
    کلیدواژگان: سینما، ژانر، موسیقی فیلم، سکانس افتتاحیه، موسیقی سکانس افتتاحیه
  • اتابک الیاسی، آرش آرامش نژاد صفحات 105-112
    ایجاد روش های نوین برای هدایت اصوات موسیقایی که با سیستم های قدیمی به جا مانده از دوره های کلاسیک و رمانتیک متفاوت باشد، همواره دغدغه اصلی آهنگ سازان قرن بیستم بوده است. تلاش برای رسیدن به صدادهندگی جدید برای بیان مواردی که زاییده این قرن بوده اند باعث شده است که سیستم های تازه ایی از طرف آهنگ سازان ایجاد شود و در خلق آثار بکار برده شوند. بعضی از این روش ها با استقبال گسترد هتری از طرف آهنگ سازان و شنوندگان آثار موسیقی مواجه شده اند. یکی از این روش ها که در ابتدای قرن بیستم رواج یافت و سپس بعد از جنگ دوم جهانی دوباره مورد توجه قرار گرفته است، ایجاد ساختارهایی از اصوات براساس ایجاد مجموعه های صوتی بوده است. به کمک این سیستم، آزادی عمل گسترد هایی در اختیار آهن گساز قرار می گیرد تا بتواند افکار خود را در قالب اثر موسیقایی بیان کند. ایجاد ساختارهای پای هایی یک اثر مثل موتیف ها یا بافت همراهی به دور از نگرانی بابت رعایت قوانین هارمونی یا کنترپوان اجازه می دهد که مسیر ساخت یک قطعه موسیقی از مسیر خلاقیت آهنگ ساز بگذرد. مبانی مجموعه های صوتی امکان گسترش اثر را در اندازه های بزرگ فراهم می کند. این مهم، همواره از دغدغه های اصلی آهنگ سازان است چراکه با بیشتر شدن مدت زمان یک اثر کنترل موارد مختلف و ایجاد رابطه منطقی بین آنها عموما به یک چالش جدی بدل می شود. مقاله ایی که پی شرو دارید کوشش می کند که به زبان ساده قوانین ساختار مجموعه ها را بررسی کند.
    کلیدواژگان: ساختار مجموعه ها، مفهوم مجموعه، فرم اولیه، مجموعه های مادر، تغییرناپذیرها، ارتباطات مکمل
  • سیروس یگانه، سید محمدرضا سیدین صفحات 113-129
    کشف چگونگی رابطه بین پایگاه اجتماعی افراد و گرایش آنها به انواع مختلف هنری که سلیقه یا ذوق هنری نامیده می شود، یکی از دغدغه های عمده جامعه شناسان فرهنگ بوده است. این تحقیق که به روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و به دو شیوه کتابخانه ای و میدانی صورت گرفته است، تلاش می کند که رابطه بین شاخصه های پایگاه اجتماعی و مصرف ژانرهای موسیقی را در بین دانشجویان دانشگاه های تهران بسنجد. در ابتدا نظریات معاصر و متناسب در مقوله سلیقه هنری تبیین شده اند و سپس بر پایه این نظریات و با بهر هگیری از تحلیل نرم افزاری داده های حاصل از پرسش نامه، وجود رابطه بین شاخصه های پایگاه اجتماعی افراد و گوش فرادادن به ژانرهای مختلف موسیقی در جامعه آماری سنجیده شده است. با تحلیل نتایج میتوان رابطه مستقیم بین مصرف موسیقی و پایگاه اجتماعی را به وضوح دید و همچنین مصرف ژانرهای گوناگون موسیقی در طبقات بالاتر و گرایش به یک ژانر موسیقی در طبقات پایین تر را مشاهده کرد
    کلیدواژگان: مصرف موسیقی، سلیقه، طبقات اجتماعی، ژانر موسیقی، دانشجویان دانشگاه های تهران
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  • Reza Kouchek, Zadeh, Farhad Mohandes, Poor Pages 5-17
    Shabih-khani (Ta’ziyeh) which is the most important and coherent performance from in Iran and world of Islam from beginning based upon rites and rituals which involved in Iranian Shiites religious creed. So its narrative basis derived from important event of Shiite history such as of martyrdom Imam Ali and Imam Husain. Governments’ authorities, evolution in structure of societies, relations with other countries a civilizations, changes in lifestyle of people and development of Shabih-khani led to establish new performances with new narratives. So Shabih-khani entered into its second and third stage of life (religious narratives apart from Islamic ones). In third stage and thereafter the domain of this performances extend to other religions characters and stories and contemporary life. Although the writers and performers of Shabih-khani all were Muslims, but they ometimes interested in other religions and tried to draw other religions spectators attention as well as Muslim spectators to their performance. May be for this reason this performance from has been registered in European itineraries and political reports. Then it is not surprising that the writer of Shabih-khani in those days who thought about spectators and their reactions would extend the domain of his stories to other religions; he looked for communication. Perhaps the earliest followers of other religions in the characters Shabihkhani, Sub-sectors in the Goshes like a narrative rooted in the belief that the writer and director, slowly into the old familiar stories. Previously was Innovation made in character, speech and versions were considered in the context of previous versions; Writers and directors of religious belief of not crossing the limits. But getting into the personalities of other religions, attending Shabihkhani Opened the way for innovations in the frame narrative. Do not know exactly what the author of this feature when added to the texts, Or any director, on the run, the success of the organization accepting the eyes of other people in the community and had quite a following; But obviously that was not the object of this new approach and even led others to follow, the result of the sub-accounts in Shabihkhani. Seems to be quite the martyrdom of Imam Hussein in Christian characters, Author’s work is perhaps the earliest followers of other religions to enter the text quite; in the ancient texts, we found the remains of a sign. Perhaps the Jewish characters was the second group of followers of other religions, were added to the text of Ta’zieh. Also Among the texts Ta’zieh, there are few texts of Hindu characters. We can also see signs of other religions or religion in Shabihkhani texts. Christian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Hindu and Manichaeism characters are more prominent among other religions followers. So Shabihkhani is not like European religious dramas which dedicated just to one religion followers, But rather as a ritual, or merely the theater of widespread communication ideological thought
    Keywords: Shabih, khani (Taziyeh), Religion, Zoroastrian, Christian, Jewish, Shiite
  • Behrooz Mahmoodi, Bakhtiari, Ghazaleh Moradian Pages 19-38
    The role of radio as a special medium within mass media, especially when lots of audiences are concerned, becomes more vivid and important. As a result, radio paly as one of the most successful entertaining programs among radio works, gains a specific value. In this article, the unique features of radio are discussed, and the role of language in this medim is studied. Afterwards, radio drama and its linguistic features have been analysed, and four linguistic patterns (stage directions, place diexix, speech acts, and textual cohesion) have been checked. Finally these features have been applied to the radio play Albert’s Bridge by Tom Stoppard (1969). The issues coverd in this study encompass all the major features studied in the linguistic analysis of conversation. Therefore, issues such as speech act theory and its several subcategories, as well as diexis analysis, cohesion and coherence have been considered. Speech act as the main feature of the current study revealed some very interesting results. As we know, Speech acts can be analysed on three levels: A locutionary act, the performance of an utterance: the actual utterance and its ostensible meaning, comprising phonetic, phatic and rhetic acts corresponding to the verbal, syntactic and semantic aspects of any meaningful utterance; an illocutionary act: the pragmatic ‘illocutionary force’ of the utterance, thus its intended significance as a socially valid verbal action; and in certain cases a further perlocutionary act: its actual effect, such as persuading, convincing, scaring, enlightening, inspiring, or otherwise getting someone to do or realize something, whether intended or not. There are five illocutionary speech acts which were considered in this study, which are assertives (speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition, e.g. reciting a creed), directives (speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. requests, commands and advice), commissives (speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g. promises and oaths), expressives (speech acts that express the speaker’s attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g. congratulations, excuses and thanks), and declarations (speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration, e.g. baptisms, pronouncing someone guilty or pronouncing someone husband and wife). The other feature studied in this paper is the extent of cohesion and coherence of the text in radio drama. Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical relationship within a text or sentence. Cohesion can be defined as the links that hold a text together and give it meaning. It is related to the broader concept of coherence. There are two main types of cohesion: grammatical, referring to the structural content, and lexical, referring to the language content of the piece. A cohesive text is created in many different ways. On the other hand, Coherence is what makes a text semantically meaningful. It is especially dealt with in text linguistics. Coherence is achieved through syntactical features such as the use of deictic, anaphoric and cataphoric elements or a logical tense structure, as well as presuppositions and implications connected to general world knowledge. All these factors have been checked on the play Albert’s Bridge, and the results have been put forward in several tables.
    Keywords: Discourse analysis, radio play, Tom Stoppard, AlbertsBridge
  • Mohammad Reza Hosnaee, Said Keshanfallah Pages 39-54
    Dramatic arts, theatre, cinema and animation film, compounded by a hand and the other hand literature in the form of such artistic independent media, has a great potential that are in many cases. these facilities together with the joint funds are fitted, for this reason the issue of adaptation of literary works smoothly as one option in the construction of Dramatic arts, including the animation have been raised.On the other hand, we are seeing this issue from that historical process, an adaptation of a literary work to Dramatic artshas been associated with success in dramatic and sometimes successful adaptation of a literary work to build a successful effect has not been dramatic arts.In this article the process of adaptation of the literary texts for use in the production of script for Animation and then run the production of animation filmswill be studied. Hence, this article in the first step will be introducing the effective factors in the successful and effective adaptation of a literary work to access the script of animations and study how the operation of these factors in the process of communicating in the dramatic arts (and especially compounded by the animation films), with the audience and they are going to, analysis.The next step in a correct understanding of the process, as well as fundamental components in adaptation resources for use in script animation are the purposes of this article. In the course of this study, how to convert literarytext to dramatic text according to some important elements of the literature and the structure of the story and the film script,will be reviewed and analyzed.One of the most important functions of adaptationis that the old literary works, whomfor some reasons They lost the ability to connect with the audience, live up again. So the results of this paper may be returnthe missing ancient literary works of grace in the form of a new work of art: that is animation. The method of data accumulation is by way of a library, and to observe the animation and cinematic works and field analysis and reviews of them. The results of this research indicate this note is in the process of adaptation of the literary sources the more freely use the sources, the more effective will be achieved work.This freely looking to the successful literary works is important for adaptation because this works has already been in touch with the audience and to reach some of the success.The reason is in the structure of the coherent story and non pictorial of them. And now it is necessary to be added the pictorial elements to the literary text.In fact, in a adaptation the audience will be encounter with a new art work.
    Keywords: adaptation, literary work, Dramaticarts, animation
  • Ali Sheikh Mehdi, Laleh Kharazian Pages 55-71
    Expressive evolution of hybrid cinema in reproduction of reality and cultural logic of capitalism is the aim of this article. Hybrid is a new method for production of laboratory and commercial goods, with modern composition and implication characteristics. It has been posed firstly, in animal and plant species biology and then extended to industry and culture. The cultural logic of late capitalism which is rooted in diversity seeking has promoted such an aesthetic. In contemporary cinema culture, hybridization of reality and imagination has been basically changed; because of access to the modern digital techniques through simulation, in which reality approach has been replaced by virtual strategy. According to political economy analysis of the Fredric Jameson’s typology the way of expressing imagery signs applied in reproducing the reality in cinema has been accompanied by the reality concept changes in various capitalism areas. Also, Jean Baudrillard believes that the hyper reality signs do not refer to any object and are just media-made virtuality which has been referred as simulacrum. The theoretical ackgrounds of the present study were formed based on review of the key reasons for the reality success in cinema concerning style and technology, and with regard to various cultural logic eras, as well as capitalism development. The research theoretical framework is based on a combination of typology and political economy growth and capitalism development, aimed at analyzing the hybrid position in reality reproducing. Among the post-modern thinkers’ ideas, we have used those of Fredric Jameson and Jean Baudrillard; because of their critics on capitalism developments and the typology application in imagery media. Studying the pro and con ideas in this regard requires explaining that promotion of the visual images’ quality in digital cinema has removed the distance between reality and imagination. The main goal of this research is to recognize different capabilities of combining a live film and animation, in hybrid cinema history. It doubtlessly is beneficial for the Iranian cinema, theoretically and practically. The basic hypothesis of the research states that: in hybrid cinema, the reality reproduction both in live film and animation has been realized based on simulating the imitative signs in symbolic signs according to capitalism’s cultural logic. Therefore, imaginary signs don’t refer to any real object, but to the film world. Here, we are going to consider and analyze two films made based on the King Kong (1933 and 2005) in the early and late capitalism era, under the influence of realism and post- modernism cultural logic. The findings of the research show that the modern expression mode of the current cinema has consolidated the hybrid cinema’s multiple systems, through digital systems performance. It also uses miseenscen’s general expression, in order to apply the computerized unlimited layer age. The comparative analysis of the two era’s cinema reveals that applying live film in hybrid cinema has led to dominance of the hyper reality space; also it has entered the real personages into the virtual space
    Keywords: Hybrid cinema, Realism, late capitalism, King Kong
  • Seyyed Mostafa Mokhtabad, Shahabaldin Adel, Fariba Rostami Jalilian Pages 73-85
    Study of narrative genres in documentary depends on narrotology and theories of narration in cinema. However, it seems what differentiates documentary from other genres of cinema, is immediate reference to the events occurred in the historical world. Hence, this inseparable connection of documentary to the issue of reality has led to lots of controversies in analysis of this type of cinema, efforts made to study narrative genres have only resulted in enumeration of its diverse forms. But the documentary position relative to reality must be investigated in order to expound the main traditional and new narrative approaches, since the belief of the present time which considers reality as manipulated reality has brought a new strike to body of the traditional conventions and had opened a new chapter in the field of documentary analysis, On the other hand, one of the oldest documentary forms is ethnology or ethnography documentary, or in new terms, visual anthropology which in direct relation to the science of anthropology by posing question in the nature and origin of customs and institutions, and the way culture is applied to humans’ life looks for contemplation in the meaning of cultural and social differences. In the traditional view, anthropology includes two observational and participative narrative approaches in which subject-filmmaker viewed native people as an external and wisely factor. However, in the present time, influenced by new methods appeared in documentary which have a kind of self-reflection as well as the belief of post-modern in existence of manipulated realities, visual anthropology has been led to a new path. In the area of neo-documentary, anthropology interprets the real fact by two reflexive and per formative methods in which subject-filmmaker takes a new stand versus object so as an inter-mental position between subject, object and audience is obtained. At any rate, it seems that the narrative genres in visual anthropology ought to be investigated by emphasis on the position of subject-filmmaker versus object
    Keywords: documentary, ethnography, ethnology, Anthropology, visual anthropology
  • Seyyed Mohsen Hashemi, Hani Sabahi Pages 87-104
    The concern how to begin an artistic work always brings up a perpetual anxiety for the artist and his or her audience as well. The artist tends to absorb the audience from the very first moments to be able to affect him thoroughly in the later sections. The audience is ready to keep distance from the world of reality and therefore has more passion for perception.Cinema - as an art – is not an exception. One can observe works along the history of cinema which have inspired the passion of the audience with their enticing and charming openings. The most important principle in the opening score is to impart the beginning of the story to the audience. This has always been under consideration of the filmmakers in the history of cinema. Even though they did not take deep consideration to this at first, the filmmakers and studios started to understand the important and essential role of the opening score and opening scores, through the creativity and innovation of the filmmakers, turned into one of the basis of film structure. Meantime; the studios asked for some frameworks and patterns to be observed for cinematic productions as well. The role of music in this inspiration and drawing attention is undeniable. The opening score can be too effective in imparting the time, location, introducing the characters, style, genre, atmosphere acceptability and inspiring the senses of the audience as well.Opening score consist of the principles of the film script, directing, cinematography and music, each of them must form a special design for the opening score to impart the sense of commencement in the audience and draw his attention and lead him into the structure of the film to follow the story coming next. The viewer’s four main questions about the location, time, character and subject of the story make the artist to answer them. These questions and their answers are in fact cinematic stratagem which are employed through shooting script with the usage of the rules like distance of framing, gradual entrance from the outer space to the inner space and through film script in the form of nondiegetic sound as main character’s voice and through music the usage of orchestra and choosing instruments in connection with the time and location of the story.The usage of commencing overture forms, as patterns and specific rules for the opening scores which were employed in the studio systems in the classic era of cinema, are now employed with vast alterations and changes in the today cinema. This paper is an attempt to case study and analyzes different films and their opening scores through different cinematic genres. Vast variety of the opening scores of the films in the melodrama genre and the variety in this very genre need an independent discussion in an independent research. Therefore, this investigation in opening scores in confined to the genres: noir, war, epic, western and musical.
    Keywords: Cinema, Genre, Film Score, Opening Sequences, Opening Scores
  • Atabak Elyasi, Arash Arameshnezhad Pages 105-112
    Developing new methods to direct music sounds differing from those remained from classic and romantic era in old systems has always been the main concern of the 20th century composers. Efforts to achieve a new sounding for expressing issues that descended in this century led to establishing new systems and using them in creating pieces by composers. Some of those methods have received more expanded anticipation by music composers and listeners. One of the methods that was first prevailed in the beginning of the 20th century and after the Second World War received attention again, has been establishing structures of sounds based on creating sound sets. By this system, the music composer experiences an extensive freedom in action to express his thoughts in form of a music piece. The present paper tries to study the structure rules of sets in a simple language. Efforts to establish a theoretic framework named sets structure has been an effort to analyze works that could not be possible by tonal or Cyril 12-note systems. Composition of those works started in the first half of the 20th century and generally, without being carefully studied, they were considered superficially and became classified under a general title; Atonal”. This type of works could be seen from the music composers of Second Vienna School to their contemporary composers such as Stravinsky or Ives. Scriabin. In continuation, efforts have been made to know the concept of sets and understanding the relationship among sets for opening a better path to understand those pieces.With respects to the subjects discussed in this paper, it is evident what an open hand music composers have in selecting sounds and directing them. Music composer knows how to work with this knowledge and form in music to fulfill what he considered. The re-approach of music composers to this system in post-second world war shows that the notes sets have high capacities for creating pieces. Extensive use of sets techniques could be seen in the works of great composers such as Briton, Shostakovich, schnittkeand lutoslawski. Preparing new sounds as one of the most important materials of composition is what this method provides for the music composer in a good way. of pitch-class sets, namely, 220. Each of these pitch class sets has been assigned a name consisting of the cardinal number of the set followed by hyphen followed by a number that gives the position of the set on a list of sets, the ordinal number. The set may also include the character Z, which indicates that the set so designated has a counterpart of a particular nature. For example 4-Z15, this name indicates that the set contains 4 elements that it is item 15 on the list of 4-elementpitch-class sets. The interval between two notated pitches is measured by counting the number of half steps that separate them. The distance from C to E is 4 half steps. Specifically, the interval between two any notated pitches as represented by pitch-class integers can be reduced to one of the interval classes represented by the integers 1-6.There is, however, one basic from associated with each pitch-class set type, and this basic form is called the prime form. It is also possible to define relations of similarity between pitch class sets of the same cardinal number based upon pitch class similarity and upon interval class similarity. The notion of pitch class is implicit in ordinary musical language whenever we speak of 12 notes of the chromatic scale. That is, it is assumed that only 12 different pitches comprise the basic stock of the chromatic system. More precisely, this means that the 12 notes can be represented in a single octave by assuming octave equivalence and that a particular for a pitch is not unique by assuming enharmonic equivalence.
    Keywords: Pitch, class set, Pitch, class set concept, Primeform, Super set, Invariance, The Complement Relations
  • Cyrus Yeganeh, Seyyed Mohammad Reza Seyedein Pages 113-129
    Discover how social relationships between people and their attitudes to different types of art that taste or artistry is called, is one of the major concerns of sociologists of culture. This study how the cross - section of the library and field two have been working on is the relationship between social characteristics and usage university students in Tehran weigh musical genres. In the contemporary theories and explanations are appropriate in the matter of artistic taste. The software analyzes the data from the questionnaire ere used. Using social indicators of how the relationship between people and listening to different genres of music in society is measured statistically. Direct relationship etween the analysis results can be used to clearly see the music and social base. Also, different genres of music in higher classes and lower classes tend to be seen in a music genre. In this research is tried to finding a reasonable relation between music consumption as taste culture and social classes. Firstly, the music genres generally used in Iran society, is determined. This music genre determined as relevant variables. econdly factors of social classes derivate as indipended variables. Questioners evaluated relativity of social class and music taste whit relation between independent variables and relevant variables. Tehran Universities student’s is chosen as sample society. Dates that produced from questioners analyzed whit, Spss and Eviews, Computer software. People can learn music forms whit educating. Persons in more high classes have more pportunity whit more money, time and social capital to learning music forms also they are more opted to understanding and enjoying more complicated music genres, as another aspect high classes use this ability for indicating their distinction whit other classes. Wheras popular person don’t have possibilities to educating complicated music forms, then simple form music like popular music are more interesting for popularepaersons. Peter Bordeaui expressed a direct relation between taste culture and culturalcapital derived from social class, in 1975’s French society. Contemporary sociologist, Richard Peterson composed a new idea about this relation, he expressed persons whit more cultural capital, consume more genres whit more verities. Analyzing final results whit computer software indicates that both theory from bureau and Peterson can be viewed in contemporary Iran’s society. Cmusic consuming have a direct relation whit social class and high classes have more variety in genre consumption than other classes. Other results show that ethnic person’s consuming folk music than others, and ethnicity has effect on consuming religious genres, also economic condition affected on religious music consumption. Final data comparing indicates that transition to modern society divorced two part of Iran’s contemporary society. Understanding complicated forms needs education and high lasses have more opportunity to learning them, therefore high classes musical taste formed by education, and pop music whit their simplifications forms are more interesting for popular classes, so peoples enjoying that music that they can understand, but modern theories also applied that high classes whit respect to other classes musical taste use their interest music genres, so high classes have more variety to music genre consumption.
    Keywords: music consumption, tastes, social classes, music genre