فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:2 Issue: 1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/11/22
  • تعداد عناوین: 12
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  • Shahram Bolandparvaz, Hamid Reza Abbasi, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand Pages 1-2
  • Hernando Raphael Alvis, Miranda, Sandra Milena Castellar, Leones, Luis Rafael Moscote, Salazar Pages 3-14
    The patient with head trauma is a challenge for the emergency physician and for the neurosurgeon. Currently traumatic brain injury constitutes a public health problem. Knowledge of the various supportive therapeutic strategies in the pre-hospital and pre-operative stages is essential for optimal care. The immediate rapid infusion of large volumes of crystalloids to restore blood volume and blood pressure is now the standard treatment of patients with combined traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS). The fluid in patients with brain trauma and especially in patients with brain injur y is a critical issue. In this context we present a review of the literature about the history, physiology of current fluid preparations, and a discussion regarding the use of fluid therapy in traumatic brain injury and decompressive craniectomy.
    Keywords: Brain trauma, Colloid solutions, Fluid resuscitation
  • Nima Pourhabibi Zarandi, Parisa Javidi Parsijani, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Shahram Paydar Pages 15-21
    Objective
    To evaluate the accuracy of surgeons’ intraoperative diagnosis in open appendectomy and compare it with the histopathology examination results afterwards.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional retrospective study accomplished in Namazee hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, in a one-year period from 2007 to 2008. Medical charts of all the patients who were admitted with impression of acute appendicitis and underwent open appendectomy in our center were included. Demographic information, intraoperative findings as in the operation note based on a method used by our surgeons, and histopathology examination of the removed appendix were recorded and reported.
    Results
    A total of 342 patients were studied including 229 (67%) males and 113 (33%) females, with the mean age of 16.02 ± 9.89 (range 3 to 76) years, with a large proportion from 10 to 15 years. Surgeons reported 97.4% of the patients to have acute appendicitis,29.5%, 10.2% and 5.6% with severe, moderate and mild inflammation pectively, whereas 26.6% and 9.4% with suppurated and gangrenous appendicitis separately, 14.6% to have perforated appendicitis and only 1.5%hadperforated appendicitis with peritonitis. However, 79.5% of cases showed appendicitis in the histopathology review. The accuracy of surgeons’ intraoperative diagnosis is 81.6%, 85.2% for men and 72.6% for women.
    Conclusion
    The method used by our surgeon is not completely indicative in mild to severe inflamed appendix but it is almost always compatible with the pathology results in suppurated, gangrened, and perforated appendix. Therefore surgeons’ gross observation of the inflamed appendix may not always be in concordance with the histopathology examination of the resected appendix.
    Keywords: Appendicitis, Surgical findings, Histopathological findings, Intraoperative observations, Negative appendectomy
  • Seyed Mohsen Mousavi, Shahram Paydar, Sedigheh Tahmasebi, Leila Ghahramani Pages 22-26
    Objective
    To determine the effects of intravenous Acetaminophen (Apotel®) on pain severity and clinical findings of peritonitis in patients with acute appendicitis.
    Methods
    This randomized cross-over clinical trial was carried out duringa 6-month period from August 2012 to February 2013 and comprised 107 patients diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Patients were randomly assigned to received placebo (n=) or Apotel® (n=). Patients were evaluated before, 30 minutes, 1 hour and 4 hours after administration of Apotel® or placebo,and were told to fill in two forms. The first form required patientsto measure their painintensityaccording to visual analogue scale (VAS). The second form was filled by a surgeon who examined the patients and recorded his or her findings using Alvarado score criteria for diagnosis of acute appendicitis at foregoing time points.
    Results
    Of 72 patients, 37 (51.4%) were men and 35 (48.6%) were women. The mean age of the patients was 34.1±13.5 years. The mean pain score in 107 patients included in this study was 7.96±2.3. Those who received Apotel® had significantly lower pain scores when compared to placebo at 30 minutes (p<0.001), 1 hour (p<0.001) and 4 hours of administration. There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the frequency of Alvarado score; however the frequency of fever was significantly lower in those who received Apotel® (p<0.001). We found that Apotel® was not associated with resolved physical findings of acute appendicitis in different time intervals.
    Conclusion
    Apotel® does not affect the clinical findings of acute appendicitis and dos not interfere with the accurate diagnosis. Therefore, it could safely be used as a reliable pain relieving agent, in patients with acute appendicitis.
    Keywords: Acute appendicitis, Apotel®, Clinical findings, Analgesic
  • Masoud Pezeshki Rad, Hassan Ravari, Aria Bahadori, Orkideh Ajami Pages 27-31
    Objective
    To determine the etiology, signs and symptoms, angiography indications and angiography findings in patients with limb penetrating injuries suspected to have arterial injury.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study being performed in Imam Reza Hospital affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran between September 2011 and March 2013. We included those patients with extremity blunt and penetrating injuries who were referred for angiography according to standard indications including abnormal distal pulses, complex fracture or dislocation, vascular proximity, fixed hematoma, distal nerve deficit, arterial bruit, thrill and massive soft tissue injuries.
    Results
    During the study period, 148 patients (15 women and 133 men) with a mean age of 31±14.9 (11-82) years were evaluated. The most common cause of injury was motor vehicle accident (127 patients 85%). Angiography indications included abnormal distal pulse examination (124, 83.8%), complex fracture or dislocation (7, 4.7%), near arterial trauma (4, 2.7%), fixed hematoma (3, 2%), nerve damage (1, 0.7%). The angiography was found to be normal in 49 (33.1%) patients. In patients with abnormal angiography findings, 60 (60.6%) had cutoff with distal runoff, 21 (21.2%) had cutoff without runoff, 14 (14.1%) had arterial spasm. Other uncommon findings included active bleeding in 2 patients (2%), pseudoaneurysm in 1 (0.7%) and arteriovenous fistula in 1 (0.7%). Out of 4 patients (2.7%) with vascular proximity, only 1 (0.7%) had abnormal angiography.
    Conclusion
    The most important factor in prediction of result of angiography was distal arterial pulses examination. But these data confirm the low incidence of vascular injury in asymptomatic patients with proximity. So the use of angiography when proximity is the sole indication in an asymptomatic patient with a normal vascular examination should be questioned.
    Keywords: Vascular proximity, Angiography, Vascular injury, Trauma
  • Hamid Reza Kamravan, Ali Haghnegahdar, Shahram Paydar, Mohammad Khalife, Mahsa Sedighi, Fariborz Ghaffarpasand Pages 32-37
    Objective
    To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with cervical spine injury admitted to Rajaee hospital, Shiraz, Iran.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional study includes all patients admitted with impression of cervical column injury with or without cervical cord injury from October 2009 to March 2012 to our level I trauma center in Shiraz. We recorded the patients’ characteristics including age, sex, marital status, mechanism of injury, level of injury, concomitant injury, treatment(non-operative or operative) and clinical outcome. The data were described and compared with the international literature.
    Results
    Among 261 patients referred with impression of spinal cord injury, the diagnosis of spinal column injury (with or without spine cord injury) was confirmed in 206 patients. The mean age of patients was 37.2±15.9 years with Male/Female ratio of 3:1. Car turn-over and car-collisions were the leading causes of injury. The most common spine fracture was C6 vertebra involving 60 (29.1%) patients. Fracture of upper and lower extremities were the most concomitant fractures observed in 31(15.1%) patients. Open surgery was performed in 65(31.6%).Mortality rate was 7.3% (15 patients).Patients with brain, lung and cord injuries had increased risk of death, among 15 deaths,9 patients had brain injury, 5 individuals had lung injury and 10 patients suffered from cord injury.
    Conclusion
    Cervical spine injuries mostly affect young males, and comprise 206 (10%) cases out of 2100 spine injuries in our country. Preventive measures should be taken to reduce cervical spine injuries especially in young age group.
    Keywords: Cervical column injury, Spinal cord injury, Epidemiology, Trauma, Iran
  • Amene S. Sarvestani, Gholamreza Pishdad, Shahram Bolandparvaz Pages 38-43
    Objectives
    To determine the epidemiological aspect of mucormycosis, the nature of malignancies complicated by mucormycosis, the initial site of involvement and the subsequent outcome.
    Methods
    This was a cross-sectional study which was performed by reviewing the medical records of 95 patients with leukemia complicated with biopsy-proven mucormycosis admitted to the educational hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences over a 21-year period. We recorded demographic information including age and sex and disease characteristics such as type of leukemia, site of involvement, paraclinical findings at the time of admission and the outcome of the patients. The incidence of mucormycosis in leukemia was determined by identifying the number of leukemia patients diagnosed within the last 17 years.
    Results
    The male to female ratio was 2.39:1 in of 95 patients studied. The overall incidence rate of mucormycosis was 4.27 per 100 leukemic patients in last 17 years which showed a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2011. The most frequent type of leukemia was acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) which was found in 58 patients (61.5%). The most common site of initial tumor involvement was sinonasal (90.16%). The mortality rate was about 54%, compared to the mortality rate of about 43.24% in patients with best prognosis of AML.
    Conclusion
    The incidence of mucormycosis in leukemia showed a decreasing trend in our country and its recent incidence is comparable to that of other regions. The best preventive method against this lethal infection is to modify and control the environment which reduces the risk of exposure to air-born fungal spores.
    Keywords: Mucormycosis, Leukemia, Iran
  • Mahnaz Yadollahi, Narges Shamseddini, Leila Shayan, Abbas Rezaianzadeh, Shahram Bolandparvaz Pages 44-51
    Objective
    To compare and evaluation of scores of trauma research center of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in Iran with other trauma research centers in Iran.
    Methods
    The assessment scores of each center were gathered from Iran medical research and Ministry of Health and Medical Education website. Each score is recorded in helical year which is defined from the 21th of March of every year until the 20th of March of the next. They are ranked and scored by knowledge production, capacity development, and research projects.
    Results
    The total evaluation scores of the trauma research center of Iran's Universities of Medical Sciences have increased from establishment. The highest increase in assessment scores was related to Tehran Trauma Research Center. An upward trend was observed in the total indicators of knowledge production index of all the trauma research centers from 2001/2002 to 2011/2012. An ascending trend was showed in the published articles score of Shiraz and Kashan Trauma Research Centers through the recent years.
    Conclusion
    The increasing trend in scores of trauma research centers in Iran indicated a significant role in the knowledge production but it is need to find barriers of research and doing interventional projects to promote trauma care and prevention.
    Keywords: Trauma research center, Evaluation score, Shiraz, Iran
  • Farooq Ahmad Ganie, Mohd Lateef Wani, Abdul Gani Ahangar, Gholam Nabi Lone, Shyam Singh, Hafeezulla Lone, Shadab Nabi Wani Pages 52-54
    The aim of the current study was to determine the pattern, presentation and management of foreign body aspiration in our population. This prospective study comprised 55 patients with foreign body aspiration admitted to our department from January 2009 to December 2011. All patients underwent rigid bronchoscopy under local or general anesthesia. The patients’ demographic information along with clinical characteristics and their outcome were recorded and reported. The mean age of the children was 13.3±3.6 years. There were 32 (58.2%) females and 23 (41.8%) males. The frequent symptom was an attack of chocking followed by cough. The predominant sign was wheezing. Rigid bronchoscopy was successful in removing foreign body from 52(94.5%) patients. Three (5.5%) patients who had undergone thoracotomy with bronchotomy needed exploration, after failure of bronchoscopy to remove the foreign body. There was no mortality in our series. Average hospital stay was 12 hours. It could be concluded that rigid bronchoscopy is modality of choice in management of foreign body aspiration especially in pediatric population.
    Keywords: Foreign body aspiration, Rigid bronchoscopy, Pediatrics, Computed tomography
  • Sam Moslemi, Maryam Tahamtan, Seyed Vahid Hosseini Pages 55-58
    Psoas abscesses could originate from an adjacent source of infection in the abdominopelvic cavity known as a secondary complication of acute appendicitis. However, it is considered as a very rare event when occurring late after the presentation of appendicitis. Whether it is the source or complication of acute appendicitis following appendectomy remains unclear. A 25-year-old man was admitted to our center with fever and abdominal pain. His past medical history was unremarkable except for having an acute appendicitis and complicated appendectomy 4 years before presenting illness. On admission, the patient was febrile with right lower quadrant abdominal tenderness and moderate leukocytosis. The Abdominopelvic CT- scan revealed a large right psoas muscle than the opposite site, that contained a hypodense mass measuring 6 cm in diameter with extension into right iliacus and internal oblique muscles..The patient underwent subsequent percutaneous abscess drainage under image guide and concurrent broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy.
    Keywords: Late, onset psoas abscess formation, Complicated acute appendicitis, Appendectomy
  • Hernando Raphael Alvis, Miranda, Nancy Carolina Duarte, Valdivieso, Gabriel Alcala, Cerra, Luis Rafael Moscote, Salazar Pages 59-61
    Bee stings are commonly encountered worldwide. Various manifestations after bee sting have been described including local reactions which are common, systemic responses such as anaphylaxis, diffuse intravascular coagulation and hemolysis. We report a case of a 74-year-old man who developed neurologic deficit 5 hours after bee stings, which was confirmed to be left frontal infarction on brain CT-scan. The case does not follow the reported pattern of hypovolemic or anaphylactic shock, hemolysis and/or rhabdomyolysis, despite the potentially lethal amount of venom injected. Diverse mechanisms have been proposed to give an explanation to all the clinical manifestation of both toxic and allergic reactions secondary to bee stings. Currently, the most accepted one state that victims can develop severe syndrome characterized by the release of a large amount of cytokines.
    Keywords: Bee stings, Stroke, Rhabdomyolysis, Shock
  • Saeid Pasban, Noghabi, Ali, Reza Moslem, Naser Godarzi Pages 62-63