فهرست مطالب

هنرهای زیبا - معماری و شهرسازی - پیاپی 53 (بهار 1392)
  • پیاپی 53 (بهار 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/12/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • علیرضا عینی فر، سوده کی پور صفحه 5
    هنر که به نوعی عمیق ترین تجربیات ادراکی هنرمند را بیان می کند، همسو با تغییرات زندگی و دریافت های ذهنی انسان، شکل های نو و تازه ای به خود می گیرد. در دهه های اخیر از نقاشی های انتزاعی و مجسمه های مدرن تا انواع هنرهای دیجیتالی، در زمره هنرهای پیشرو بوده اند. همراه با این تحولات، مکان نمایش هنرهای جدید نیز نیازمند فضاهایی درخور آثار و معرف ذات پویای آنها شده است. در این مقاله رابطه هنرهای جدید و چگونگی شکل گیری فضای معمارانه نمایش آنها مطالعه شده است. به این ترتیب که ابتدا با دسته بندی انواع هنرهای جدید که در دهه های اخیر به وجود آمده اند، نمونه هایی از فضاهای معماری که برای نمایش آثار هنری جدید طراحی شده اند، بررسی شده و با مقایسه ایده های طراحی و بسط مبانی نظری، ویژگی های مورد نیاز فضای معماری متناسب با هنرهای مذکور، تحلیل شده است. نتیجه مطالعه، هرچند تداوم طراحی فضاهای نمایش آثار فاخر هنری و یا احجام تندیس گونه موزه های جدید را نفی نمی کند، برای نمایش گونه های مختلف هنرهای جدید فضایی تعاملی پیشنهاد می کند که در بخش هایی از آن، فضای طراحی شده در تناسب با آثار به نمایش گذاشته شده، به عنوان اثری هنری نمود پیدا می کند و محیط تعاملی حاصل، با محوریت رابطه هم ارز اثر و فضای نمایش، بستر مناسب تری برای درک مخاطبان و تحقق منظور هنرمندان خالق آثار فراهم می آورد.
    کلیدواژگان: هنرهای نو، هنرهای دیجیتالی، فضای تعاملی، پویایی فضا
  • مصطفی کیانی صفحه 15
    هنرآجرکاری به عنوان پدیده ای برجسته در تاریخ معماری این سرزمین، دارای اصالت و پیشینه ای غنی است و با گونه های تصویری و تزیینی مختلف، حضور و هویتی دیرینه داشته است. در دوره معاصر، همزمان با میراث داری این اصالت از گذشته، با معماری معاصر جهانی (از نئوکلاسیک تا مدرن) تلاقی داشته که در فرآیند این همنشینی، ترکیب، تلفیق و تاثیرپذیری خود، شکل ها و بیان های تصویری متفاوت و یا تازه ای آفریده که منجر به بروز شکل های جدیدی از تزیینات در معماری معاصر ایران گشته است. این نوشتار، بدنبال پردازش و بیان آن است که هنر تزیینی آجرکاری در دوره معاصر و به ویژه در عصر پهلوی اول (1320-1299شمسی)، علیرغم تنوع سبکی در معماری، توانسته است تعدد ترکیبات طرح و تنوع نقش و فرم را ایجاد کند که در مقطع معاصر به عنوان شیوه شاخص، منحصر به فرد و بازگوکننده هنری ایرانی است. در این تحقیق، با شیوه پژوهش کیفی و سپس با استناد و انطباق به 32 اثر تزیینی در 7 حوزه کاربری تزیینی که در آثار معماری با کاربری های متفاوت و در شهرهای مختلف این دوره انجام گشته، نتایجی را حاصل شده که نشان می دهد، هنر آجرکاری تزیینی در دوره پهلوی اول، چه در طرح و نقش، چه در ترکیب مصالح تزیینی و در بستر حوزه های مختلف سبکی معماری این دوره (طبق جدول و نمودار های ارائه شده)، به چه میزان در فرآیند نوپردازی تزیینی خود، متاثر از آثار گذشته ایرانی اسلامی و یا کلاسیک ایرانی و غربی بوده است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری معاصر ایران، معماری دوره پهلوی اول، هنر آجرکاری، هنر تزیینی
  • بازشناسی کاربرد اصول هندسی در معماری سنتی / مطالعه موردی: قصر خورشید و هندسه پنه ان آن
    مجتبی رضازاده، مجتبی مجتبی ثابت فرد صفحه 29
    استفاده از ترسیمات هندسی در هنر و معماری ایران سابقه ای طولانی دارد. طرحمایه های هندسی مخصوصا پس از اسلام، برای معین کردن اندازه های بنا و به دست آوردن تناسبات مطلوب مورد استفاده قرار گرفته است. مقاله حاضر تلاشی است در جهت یافتن ترسیمات هندسی پایه در قصر خورشید کلات نادری. این بنا به دستور نادر شاه افشار در اوایل قرن 12 هجری ساخته شد. آیا طرح این بنا بر اشکال هندسی خاصی استوار است؟ برای یافتن پاسخ این پرسش، ابتدا مبانی نظری کاربرد هندسه در معماری بررسی می شود. در این زمینه مروری بر آرا فلاسفه و دانشمندان مسلمان و همچنین اصول نیارشی کاربرد هندسه در معماری خواهد شد. پس از آن بنا با متدولوژی خاصی شناخته می شود که شامل مختصری از تاریخ و جغرافیای اثر، معرفی اثر، سبک شناسی و مطالعه نمونه های مشابه است. سپس بر مبنای دو مقوله پیشین طرح هندسی شکل دهنده به قصر خورشید ارائه می شود. این هندسه بر مبنای شش ضلعی منتظم است. شکل به دست آمده در نما و مقطع صدق می کند و در عین حال بدون تغییر بر پلان قابل انطباق است. یافته های این مقاله می تواند در کنار مطالعات مشابه دیگر در جهت باز شناسی آثار معماری ایران و بازیابی هویت اصیل اسلامی- ایرانی آن به کار رود
    کلیدواژگان: قصر خورشید، معماری سنتی، سبک اصفهانی، هندسه
  • زهرا برزگر، شاهین حیدری* صفحه 45
    در این تحقیق از آنالیز رگرسیون چند منظوره و روش انتخابی گام به گام جهت بررسی تاثیر انرژی خورشیدی بر میزان مصرف انرژی اولیه، سرمایش و گرمایش در بخش مسکونی استفاده شده است. در شهر شیراز (با قابلیت بالای بهره گیری از انرژی خورشیدی در تامین بخشی از انرژی)، ساختمان های مسکونی بر اساس جهت گیری ساختمان به دو گروه شمال شرقی- جنوب غربی و شمال غربی- جنوب شرقی تقسیم گردیدند و با استفاده از تست دوربین- واتسون فرضیه وجود همبستگی میان خطاها رد گردید. همچنین، جهت حذف تاثیر عوامل نامطلوب ساختمانی از مصرف انرژی اولیه، با بهره گیری از نرم افزار EC9.5 فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی وزن هر یک از عوامل تعیین گردید. با توجه به ارتباط بین میانگین تابش دریافتی بدنه های عمودی با مصرف انرژی اولیه، سرمایش و گرمایش در هر دو گروه، فرضیه اولیه تحقیق محقق گردید. این فرضیه بیان می نماید که خانه های دارای جهت گیری اقلیمی دارای مصرف کمتری می باشند. به عنوان یک نتیجه مشخص گردیدکه 74.99% تابش دریافتی خانه ها مربوط به سطوح افقی می باشد. در پایان راه حل هایی جهت بهره گیری از انرژی خورشیدی در کاهش مصرف انرژی خانه ها در شهر شیراز و پیشنهاداتی به منظور گسترش و ادامه تحقیق ارائه گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مصرف انرژی، بخش خانگی، انرژی خورشیدی، جهت گیری ساختمان، رگرسیون، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی
  • افرا غریب پور صفحه 57
    در این مقاله با رهیافت اصطلاح شناسی و واژه شناسی به بررسی اصطلاحات و واژگانی پرداخته ایم که در تاریخ نظریه پردازی معماری، بر مفهوم عملکرد معماری دلالت داشته یا در شرح آن به کار رفته اند. بر این اساس، در بخش نخست، با رجوع به متون نظری معماری، اصطلاحات دال بر مفهوم عملکرد و نیز واژگان مرتبط با آنها به مثابه واژه و اصطلاح بررسی شده است. در بخش دوم، مبتنی بر یافته های بخش نخست، تعابیر برآمده از دلالت های اصطلاحات و واژگان بررسی شده، هم از منظر معنای لغوی و کاربرد آنها در متون نظری و هم از منظر تعبیرهای مرتبط با معماری، بررسی و مقایسه شده است. این مقایسه نشان می دهد که این اصطلاحات و واژگان عموما با چهار تعبیر در معماری مرتبط بوده که تعددشان تاثیر بسیاری بر تنوع مفهومی عملکرد معماری داشته است. بنابراین، تنوع اصطلاحات و معنای آنها از یک سو و تنوع خاستگاه ها و تعابیر آنها از سوی دیگر نشان می دهد که همه اصطلاحات و واژگان بر یک مفهوم دقیقا واحد دلالت ندارد. پس برای رسیدن به تعریفی روشن تر از مفهوم عملکرد معماری، باید به پیوندهای آن با معماری به سان یک کل اندیشید و به نظر می رسد که تعریف واحد از عملکرد معماری تنها در چهارچوب تعریف واحد از معماری ممکن می شود
    کلیدواژگان: معماری، مبانی نظری، عملکرد، عملکردگرایی، اصطلاح شناسی
  • مطالعه رفتار حرارتی مصالح رایج در ساخت دیوار / مطالعه موردی: ساختمان های مسکونی شهر تهران
    شقایق محمد صفحه 69
    پوسته ساختمان به عنوان واسطه اصلی بین فضای بیرون و درون، نقش اساسی در کنترل شرایط محیطی و تامین آسایش ساکنین ساختمان ایفا می کند. در سال های اخیر، با توجه به ضرورت کاهش و جلوگیری از صدور گازهای گلخانه ای، اهمیت مسئله طراحی و اجرای سیستم های ساخت و ساز که با کم ترین استفاده از سیستم های فعال توانایی تامین آسایش حرارتی برای ساکنین را دارا باشند، آشکار است. بررسی این امر که مصالح جدید و سیستم های ساخت دیوار رایج تا چه حد می توانند آسایش حرارتی ساکنین را تامین کنند، پرسشی است که این تحقیق در پی پاسخ آن است. این تحقیق با استفاده از نرم افزار شبیه سازی انرژی IES-VE، به شبیه سازی نحوه رفتار گونه های مختلف دیوار که از ترکیب بلوک های سفالی، لیکا، هبلکس و عایق حرارتی ساخته شده و در ساختمان های مسکونی شهر تهران متداولند، می پردازد. ضمن پرداخت و تحلیل نتایج، مواردی از قبیل نقش متفاوت جرم حرارتی و عایق حرارتی، تعریف ویژگی های حرارتی دینامیک و رفتار دوره ای مصالح در مواجهه با شرایط ناپایدار محیط بیان می گردد. نتایج تحقیق نشان از لزوم استفاده از محاسبات شرایط ناپایدار به جای روش مرسوم محاسبات پایدار می دهد. همچنین از میان گونه های دیوار معرفی شده، دیوار ساخته شده از دو ردیف بلوک لیکای 10 سانتیمتری با 5 سانتیمتر عایق در میانه آنها مناسب ترین عملکرد را از نظر توانایی تامین آسایش حرارتی داراست.
    کلیدواژگان: پوسته ساختمان، آسایش حرارتی، جرم حرارتی، رفتار دینامیک مصالح، محاسبات شرایط ناپایدار
  • الهام اندرودی صفحه 79
    مستندسازی دانش بنیان میراث معماری با ثبت صفات ابنیه تاریخی در فهرست های تحلیلی فراداده آغاز شده و دارای رویکردی همه جانبه است؛ بدین معنی که کالبد بنا را از آغاز پیدایش و در طول تحولات، نه تنها به صورت منفرد، بلکه در پیوند با محیط، رخدادها، افراد و یا سبک ها بررسی و دانش پایه را جهت شروع عملیات حفاظت ارائه می کند. این پژوهش به دنبال تهیه فهرست تحلیلی پایه و تفصیلی برای میراث معماری در ایران، به عنوان هسته مرکزی فرآیند مستندسازی است. در بررسی روش های مستندسازی درکشور، کمبود چالش برانگیز شناسنامه ابنیه تاریخی محسوس است. بنابراین استانداردهای جهانی فراداده مطالعه و فهرست پایه داده ها (وابسته به ایکوم) برای مستندسازی گونه های مختلفی همانند مسجد، خانه، کاروانسرا و یا بازار انتخاب شده است. در نتیجه برداشت های میدانی و کتابخانه ای ابنیه منتخب، فهرست پایه جهت ثبت شاخصه های معماری ایرانی تعدیل شده است. همچنین به منظور شرح تفصیلی خصوصیات بنا، اطلاعات محیطی و یا آسیب شناسی ابنیه، فهرست تفصیلی با الگوی دستورالعمل های ملی و جهانی ثبت آثار طراحی شده است. در پایان فهرست پایه و تفصیلی مقایسه و بر ایجاد سیستم های مدیریت دانش میراث معماری ایران تاکید شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مستندسازی میراث معماری، فهرست پایه و تفصیلی فراداده، پایگاه دانش
  • سهیل میری نژاد صفحه 91
    از سبک های موجود متاثر از غرب در ایران، رمانتیسم می باشد. نوشتارهای اندکی درباره معماری رمانتیک ایران وجود دارد که دو کمبود در آنها محسوس است. الف: هیچکدام از آنها توضیح نمی دهند براساس چه قراینی سبک بنایی را رمانتیک می خوانند ب: اکثر آنها دوره پهلوی اول را در نظر گرفته اند در حالیکه به نظر می رسد، نمونه هایی از این سبک در دوره پهلوی دوم نیز بوجود آمده اند. لذا این مقاله در نظر دارد با مطالعه ویژگی های معماری رمانتیک در آرای محققان غربی از طریق جمع آوری اطلاعات به شیوه کتابخانه ای و تطبیق این ویژگی ها با نمونه های موجود در ایران از طریق توصیف، مقایسه و تحلیل محتوای اطلاعات بدست آمده، دلایل اطلاق این سبک را به نمونه های ایرانی، مورد بررسی قرار دهد و با اتکا به مطالعات انجام یافته، سبک شناسی رمانتیک را گسترش داده، انواع گرایش های موجود آن را در دوره پهلوی دوم شناسایی کند. با استناد به یافته های این تحقیق می توان اظهار کرد الف: سبک بوجود آمده در معماری معاصر ایران، نه رمانتیسم غربی، بلکه «شبه رمانتیسمی» است که تاثیرات زیادی از الگوی اصلی خود در غرب گرفته است. ب: این سبک در عصر پهلوی دوم دارای گرایش های مختلفی است.
    کلیدواژگان: رمانتیسم، ناسیونالیسم، بومی گرایی، سنت گرایی، معماری معاصر ایران
|
  • Alireza Einifar, Soudeh Keypour Page 5
    Art، that somehow expresses the deepest perceptional experience of the artist، will take new forms in accord with changes inone’s life and subjective perception. In recent decades many art forms، from abstract paintings and modern sculptures down to various forms of digital arts، have been considered avant-garde. Based on these evolutions، the place of representation for these new or postmodern arts needs to beimproved tobecome compatible withtheir characteristics and dynamic essence. The basic question in this regards is that how can one create an interactive relationship between the museums’ spaces and the different forms of representation in new arts? In other words، what effect wouldthis interactive relationship have on the process of designing museums compatible with representation of these kinds of arts? In this article the relationship between new arts and the process of forming architectural spaces representing them in the best way،is studied. For this purpose، the new arts emerged in recent decades are first being categorized followed by examples of architectural spaces designed for representation of each category. Finally،by comparing the different design ideas and developing theoretical basis، the necessary characteristics which the architectural spaces need in order to become the best context representing new arts، are analyzed. The new arts including land art، happening art، performance art، video art، interactive art، digital art، art in the web، video art and virtual reality are divided into five categories. Three of themwhich need certain physical placesfor their representation are considered. Some existing museums were selected in a purposeful manner and were divided into three kinds،based on emphasize on the ‘artistic product’، ‘exhibition space or interactivity’ and ‘having similar emphasize on the artistic product and the place of representation. ’An analyticalmatrixmodel was organized، which includes three kinds of new arts on the one side and three kinds of new museums on the other. Regarding the three kinds of museums the relationship between the artistic product and the place of representation are analyzed in three macro، middle and micro levels. An interactive space for representation of different forms of new arts، in parts of which the designed space will itself be considered as artistic work in harmonywith the works presented there. The resulted interactive space whose emphasize will be on both the work and its place of representation will provide a better context for the audiences’ perception and realizing the aims of the artists who created the works. Introducing an interactive relationship between art and its place of representation does not mean that a single architectural solution to the subject is prioritized. For such interaction there may be different architectural responses based on different cultures and geographical conditions. Moreover، the desired interaction between the art work and its place of representation does not dismiss the need for constructing cultural spaces for exhibiting great works of art or constructing monumental buildings in those cities lacking a history of considerable cultural background.
    Keywords: New Arts, Digital Arts, Interactive Space, Dynamic Space
  • Mostafa Kiani Page 15
    Art of brickwork as an outstanding phenomenon in this land’s history of architecture is of a rich background and authenticity. This art which comes in various decorative and visual types، has always been present and accompanied by its undeniable identity. In contemporary era، in keeping with the legacy of this authenticity from the past، this art has collided with global and international contemporary architecture in the context of new expressions of embellishment and ornaments (from Neoclassic till modern era) which has created new and different shapes and visual expressions through this collision or this process of companionship، composition، combination and itsimpressionability. This has resulted in emerging of new forms of ornaments in contemporary architecture of Iran. The hypothesis states that the architecture of the First Pahlavi era 1299-1320 (1920-1941) has been of exceptional and astonishing existence in the field of decorative brick work and it seems as though these valuable decorative brickworks and the presence of Iranian master craftsmen and their manufacturers have been neglected and have not been regarded with the kindness and importance that they should have been bestowed upon in between the issues or the transformed architecture of this period. In other words the artistic presence of past generations and the role of artists and masters of traditional architecture can be traced and recognized in this 20 year period. This text is pursuing the processing and expressing of the fact that even though the decorative art of the brickwork in the contemporary era and especially in the First Pahlavi period had been collided with and influenced by modernization movement and modern architecture revolution (particularly primary modernism) and in other words in despite of variety in architecture styles، it has succeeded in creating a multitude of design compositions and a variety of patterns and forms. This as a distinguished method is unique and explanatory of an Iranian Art. This research، through qualitative research methods and then via citation and adaptation to 32 decorative works in 7 different fields of decorative functions which were placed in this era’s works of architecture with different functions and locations in various cities، has obtained results which indicate the amount of which the art of decorative brickwork has been under the impression of previous Islamic Iranian or classic Iranian and western works of architecture in its own process of decorative renovation، in First Pahlavi era، whether in design and pattern، or the combination of decorative materials and in context of different fields of architecture styles in this period (based on the schedule and presented diagrams). The majority of buildings and important worksin this period which are intertwined with the art of brick work were built in the years before 1313 (1934). This was the period in which the style of almost all the buildings were based on the artistic style of the Iranian، Islamic and ancient architecture. Gradually، with these years passing by and approaching modern architecture with the presence of other materials such as stone and cement، this style of architecture and art of brick work becomes scarce. However، this decorative art is still in use and has not been less of value to this day.
    Keywords: Contemporary Architecture of Iran, Architecture of First Pahlavi Period, Art of Brickwork, Art of Decorative Architecture
  • Mojtaba Rezazadeh Ardabili, Mojtaba Sabetfard* Page 29
    ocated in Kalate Naderi، in northeast side of Khorasan province، Qasre khorshid (Palace of The Sun) is one of few buildings remained from Afsharid dynasty. In this article، after introducing the building، we try to identify geometrical principles which form the building. Considering the prominence of geometry in art and architecture of Iran (and generally throughout the whole ancient world)، studying such geometrical principles are of special value. There have been similar studies for instance works of Hardey on the building of Neysar، and works of Pope on tomb of Amir Esmaeil Samani. Such these studies are still not done comprehensively on instances of Islamic Iranian architecture. This on the one hand makes these principles undetected and mysterious، and on the other hand attenuates genuine identity in contemporary architecture. Geometrical drawings and proportions has been utilized in Persian architecture for a long time. Geometrical layouts have been used specially in Islamic age to determine the dimensions and proportions of buildings. This article is an effort to recognize basic geometrical principles in Qasre khorshid، Kalate Naderi، Khorasan، Iran. This building was constructed by Nader Shah’s order in eighteenth century. The question is if this architectural heritage is based on special geometric forms? In order to answer the question theoretical bases of application of geometry in architecture are considered first. Theories of Muslim scientists and philosophers are reviewed in that section and static geometrical principles are mentioned also. Then the building is introduced through a special method which consists of brief information about history of Qasre Khorshid and its geographical context، introducing the building itself and its components، recognizing its architectural style، and a study on similar cases. Then the geometric pattern which forms the building is concluded according to the two previous discussions. It is found that this geometric pattern is based on hexagons. The pattern can be traced on elevations and sections of the building simultaneously and it can also be traced on its plan too. The pattern is drawn progressively and each of its phases determines some of the building’s important locations or dimensions. These phases identify the building from basic total forms to some minute details. Conclusions of this article، along with other similar studies، can be used in recognition of architectural heritage in Iran and to reproduce its genuine Islamic-Iranian identity. At the first glance Qasre Khorshid seems extremely influenced by Indian architecture. Finishing materials and its carvings give the building an Indian look. But، as mentioned in the article، the building has features of Isfahani order in its inner levels and is totally an Iranian work of art from inside. One of the hidden features of the building، which has been discussed comprehensively in the article، is its geometry. This feature، along with other features of the building makes it a valuable sample of Persian architecture. Recognizing such geometrical features as well as other concepts and characteristics can help reviving genuine identity of Iranian architecture.
    Keywords: Qasre Khorshid, Traditional Architecture, Isfahani Order, Geometry
  • Zahra Barzegar, Shahin Heidari* Page 45
    Energy has been considered as one of the most important factors for formation and development of industrialized countries. Furthermore، countries accessibility for different types of energy can be indicated as a sound development index، as well as political and economical power. Restrictions on resources of non-renewable energy، on one hand، and high cost of production and also low efficiency of distribution and transfer process، on the other hand، have encouraged the politicians and stakeholders of the field of energy to adopt optimal policies for optimal use of the produced energy because different types of energy production depends on high capital investment and is possible in long term. In this study، multiple-regression analysis with stepwise selection method was employed to investigate the effect of solar radiation (Er) on energy consumption (E Primary، E cooling، E heating) in residential sector in one of semi arid cities of Iran. In Shiraz city (with high capacity of solar energy utilization to provide some parts of the required energy and with different types of house)، residential buildings were divided based on orientation into two group (i. e. NW-SE، and NE-SW). The houses were selected randomly in different parts of city with different characteristics and type. The presence of autocorrelation in the residuals، checked by Durbin- Watson test، was rejected. To remove the influence of adverse factors (as step no.، window to wall ratio، length to width) from E Primary، AHP was used to define the adverse factors’ weights using software (i. e. EC 9. 5). The received solar radiation in samples has divided into three main parts; horizontal envelope (roof)، main vertical envelope (south elevation) and other envelopes. Each of mentioned envelopes has an effective role in annually and monthly energy consumption behavior. In investigation of each house about the effect of solar radiation of building envelope on E Cooling، E Heating، and E Primary، it was indicated that two types of house have closer correlations: the houses with low energy consumption and climatic Er، and those with high energy consumption and high non-climatic Er. According to the relation between average radiation on vertical envelope (Evr)، and E Cooling، E Heating، and E Primary in each group، the primitive hypothesis (climatic orientated houses can achieve lower E Cooling، E Heating، E Primary) was proved. The annually vertical surface radiation from whole radiation on buildings has 28. 89 % in group 1، and 15. 72 % in group 2. The results indicated houses with climatic orientation have low energy consumption. On the other hand، one of the results indicated that about 74. 99% of received radiation in houses is related to the horizontal envelope. The annually horizontal surface radiation from whole radiation on buildings is 68. 50 % in group 1 and 81. 48 % in group 2. Therefore، in both group the role of roof in absorbing radiation is more significant. Finally، some solutions for deploying the solar radiation in order to decrease the residential energy consumption in Shiraz city were proposed and suggestions for future researches were presented.
    Keywords: Energy Consumption, Residential Sector, Solar Radiation, Building Orientation, Regression, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)
  • Afra Gharibpour Page 57
    a long time “function” has become one of the key terms widely applied in architectural theory، design، critics، history and education. Therefore it seems it has a clear meaning and simply can be used in different fields of architectural practice، design، education and theory. Thus function is considered as the most obvious concept in architecture and its very beginning point. But even a simple review of the concept and meaning of “architectural function” in history of architectural theory reveals many complications in the meaning and designations of “function”. The concept of function in architectural theory has begun in Roman era with the introduction of “utilitas” (utility) by Vitruvius and has since been continued and in some instances replaced by other terms، mainly “commodity” and “convenience”. The term “function” was introduced to architectural theory no sooner than 18th century. In this article the author has attempted to review the terms and words indicating the concept of “architectural function” throughout the history of architectural theory along with other terms that have been used to describe them، i. e. “use”، “practicality”، “fitness for purpose” and “necessity”، in order to reach a terminological and etymological analysis of the concept. So the research can be considered as a basis for a clearer explanation of the architectural function as a fundamental term. The article has two main parts. In the first part، the related terms and words have been selected from the literature of architectural theory، and studied terminologically; i. e. in their corresponding context and etymologically، i. e. as general words. In the second part the interpretation of the terms in architectural theories are comparatively discussed. The results show that the meaning and application of these terms and words in architectural theory is related to four main interpretations of the concept of function; “Pragmatic”، “Organic”، “Mechanical” and “Systemic” interpretations. In “Pragmatic” interpretation، concept of function deals with the use of architecture in accordance with the human needs. “Organic” interpretation describes function as a natural interrelationship of all parts and the whole as an organism. In “mechanical” interpretation، concept of function deals with the interrelationship of all mechanical forces inside the architecture as a thing. Finally، the “systemic” interpretation describes function as the fitness for an end in architecture as a system. The multiplicity in number and origins of these four interpretations has played a main role in the complexity and ambiguity of the concept of function. Therefore، the meaning and concept of function is strongly related to the interpretations which are corresponded to the different and multiple theories of architecture. The study shows that the multiplicity of origins of the term “function” and its potentiality to correspond with different interpretations has been a strong reason for application of “function” as a general term. But the author has concluded that no clear explanation of the concept of architectural function is possible without a corresponding theory of architecture. So a single definition of architectural function is merely possible in the context of a single theory of architecture
    Keywords: Architecture, Architectural Theory, Function, Functionalism, Terminology
  • Shaghayegh Mohammad Page 69
    This study examines thermal performance of conventional wall construction materials and systems used in typical residential buildings in the city of Tehran; these materials are used instead of traditional heavyweight materials used in vernacular architecture of the region and represented appropriate potential in moderating outdoor weather conditions and providing thermal comfort for occupants. The necessity of this study is due to the important role of the building envelope، as an interface between indoors and outdoors، in control of the heat transfer and moderating weather conditions. With growing concern about climate change and global approach to cut CO2 emissions، application of construction systems which can help reduce energy consumption and associated carbon emissions are desired. As the wall area constitutes the largest part of the building envelope، its contribution to heat loss through the fabric is significant. Moreover، due to growing rate of the number of residential buildings in Tehran، there is a great potential of energy saving in improvement of the residential building’s envelope. The steady state thermal analysis is not an appropriate/ sufficient way of evaluating thermal performance of the building envelope as the indoor condition is the result of the dynamic response of the building fabric energy system to dynamic outdoor weather conditions. Therefore، apart from insulating capacity of the wall، its useful thermal mass which is a function of heat capacity، density and thermal conductivity of the composing layers of the wall، has an important role on its cyclic performance especially when the outdoor temperature starts cycling below and above indoor temperature. Therefore، a dynamic simulation tool (IES-VE) was used to analyse thermal performance of common wall construction alternatives in Tehran. These wall types are mostly made of hollow clay، LECA (Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregates) and AAC (Autoclaved Aerated Concrete) blocks in combination with insulating materials (Expanded Polystyrene) and were tested on a reference building selected as a sample of typical residential buildings in Tehran. Indoor temperature resulted by each wall type was plotted against comfort temperature of the residents of Tehran in order and the deviation on indoor temperature from comfort temperature was measured to evaluate the level of comfort provided by each of these construction details. According to the results from the simulations، wall type L2 made of two layers of LECA blocks (100 mm) with a layer of polystyrene (50 mm) in between has the best performance in terms of providing indoor comfort condition among total six wall types introduced. Results show that there is a potential of 50% energy saving by application of wall type L2 instead of L1 (made of 200 mm hollow LECA blocks) which have the best and worst performance in terms of deviation of indoor temperature from comfort temperature
    Keywords: Building Envelope, Thermal Mass, Thermal Comfort, Non, Steady State Calculations, Dynamic Thermal Performance of Materials
  • Elham Andaroodi Page 79
    Knowledge-based documentation of architectural heritage initiates from recording interconnected attributes of historic buildings in analytic inventories. Features of a building in relation with its context and environment، history and evolution، people and creators، historical events، alternations and different functions during time should be recorded. Therefore a building cannot be described isolate by its physical attributes or architectural elements. Formation of a historic building is strongly related to several phenomenon such as time، place، people، etc. Besides، it is altered during time depending on historic events، life styles، change of use، etc. Consequently different levels of information are needed to be gathered. Basic data consists of name، location or history and date of a building. Complementary information includes evolution and usage during time. For instance details of pathology and damages of a building or its context such as the adjacent fabric، the cultural landscape، the surrounding environment، etc. can be documented. For this purpose the systematic inventories must follow detailed categorizations of metadata standards. They must be accepted by organizations، authorities، professionals or individuals involved in recording heritage buildings and used as a coherent reference. Besides، analytic inventories are fundamental part of cultural heritage databases. They speed up the onsite surveys by heritage experts though providing a detailed list of attributes، and help the standard distribution and retrieval of cultural heritage data specially over the internet. In this paper we aimed to propose an analytic inventory for recording the architectural heritage of Iran. At first we have studied the available inventories for registered buildings of the country. Study of several dossiers of recorded buildings showed various lists from 1930 to present and lack of a coherent and standard system was evident. This is the challenge of recognition and conservation of heritage buildings in Iran which must be solved. We surveyed metadata standards or inventories available in the world for cultural heritage. Our reference was Core Data Index for Monuments and Sites that is distributed by ICOM for documenting architectural heritage of Europe. Accordingly we have surveyed case studies of major typologies of Iranian architecture such as mosque، caravanserai، bazaar or house and completed the inventory in Persian. During the process of data survey، we have faced some detailed specifications that could not be listed under the Core Data Index items، such as attributes of Persian architecture، the environment and setting of a building، its pathology record، etc. Therefore we have extended our core inventory to a specific list of items using national or international principles such as the Recommendation for Record of National Heritage Buildings in Iran، or ICOMOS Sofia Document، and added items to describe the context and setting of a heritage building such the environment، the detailed physical situation and the sizes and dimensions. Finally we have completed the extended detailed inventory for the selected case studies. We have concluded our research with discussing the necessity of information management systems or knowledge bases for maintaining analytic inventories of heritage buildings and distributing them over internet to the end users.
    Keywords: Analytic, Systematic Inventory, Metadata, Architectural Heritage of Iran
  • Soheil Mirinezhad Page 91
    Romantic Movement is one of the most important movements of the early 19th century in European art and architecture. It had a definite impact on the formation of the architecture of the 19th century and the architecture of the modern era in Europe. This movement came to Iran by intellectuals، western (such as Godard) and Iranian architecture، who had studied in European universities، in late Qajar and early Pahlavi era. The observation of some of the contemporary architectural works in Iran،which have evidently been under the influence of some of the stylistic tendencies of this movement، shows the entry of this western artistic movement into theIranian contemporary architecture in Pahlavi period. But there are a few researches about the start and influences of this movement and its impacts on Iranian contemporary architecture. Generally in these few studies، two deficiencies are quite sensible. First، none of them could explain that based on what evidences the style of a building is romantic? And also howdo we could predicate the Romanticism to the style of a building? And Second Most of these researches have studied the buildings which were made on first Pahlavi period whereas there are also manyexamples of this style onsecond Pahlavi era which have not been much discussion about them. Therefore this research first tries to answer this question that why we tell Romantic to the style of a building? And then tries to come close to a new stylistics of this western architectural movement in Iranian contemporary architecture with the help of comparative analysis of the Romantic architectural tendencies and it is social contexts in the west and a logical comparison of them in Iran. Also in the pursuit of this objective، this research will probe the possibility of classification of different branch of this style in the Iranian contemporary architecture with emphasizing to second Pahlavi era. In order to gain the objectives of this research، we will at first study and critique the opinions of the critics in recognition of the style and stylistic specifications of Romanticism inthe backdrop of its formation and then we will classify different branch of this movement in the Iranian contemporary architecture by reviewing the examples of architecture influenced by this movement in Iran. At the end، this research will show that Iranian Romanticism is not exactly such as European Romanticism. It is only similar to that movement in some important contents. It also will show that there are three important sub-category of Romantic Movement in the architecture of the second Pahlaviera in Iranian contemporary architecture. These three sub-categories are respectively: vernacular architecture، traditionalism and historicism. Although these three sub- categories have a little difference in the stylistic analyses but they can be considered parts of the Romantic vast movement because all of them with taking advantages of the properties and values ​​of Iranian vernacular and local architecture have resisted against the spread and absolute acceptance of modern architecture in Iranian contemporary architecture.
    Keywords: Romanticism, Nationalism, Nativism, Traditionalism, Iranian Contemporary Architecture