فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/11/04
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • S. Mohana, L. Nandhakumarb Pages 1-6
    Basically flavonoids are naturally occurring phenolic compounds that are distributed in plants. They contain wide range of biological activity and lot of research has been carried out on their potential role in treating diabetes and other diseases. Most importantly the flavonoids and their related natural compounds are known to encompass antidiabetic potential, demonstrated in various animal models. Such beneficial flavonoids are less utilized on account of its deprived solubility, decreased bioavailability; first pass metabolism and intestinal degradation. However, flavonoids are capable of improving, stabilizing and long sustaining the insulin secretion, human islets and pancreatic cell respectively. In this article we propose, remarkable antidiabetic activity of flavonoids as well as few approaches on nanoparticulate systems in diabetes induced animal models. The proposed nanoparticulate system of flavonoids is projected to improve the solubility, bioavailability, by passing the first pass metabolism and decreasing susceptibility to intestinal environment as compared to pure flavonoid isolates. Further, this hypothesis exemplifies to enhance the efficacy of flavonoids in a novel way of antidiabetic treatment.
    Keywords: Flavonoids, Diabetes, Nanoparticles, Antidiabetic activity
  • Mehri Hajikhan Mirzaeia, Abdolreza Esmaeilzadehb Pages 7-13
    The annual incidence of thyroid cancer worldwide is alarming. Despite current various treatments such as surgical resection, radioiodine therapy and chemotherapy/radiotherapy, thyroid carcinoma remains a lethal cancer. Assuredly, the operative and new treatment strategies are necessary to control this malignancy. Gene therapy is regarded as one of the most reliable novel therapeutic methods for hopeless cases of thyroid cancer and those who do not respond to the prevalent treatments. Accumulated evidence suggests that interleukin-24 (IL-24), also known as melanoma differentiation-associated gene-7, has very important roles in regulation of cell differentiation, cell growth and apoptosis, and it is also a promising anticancer agent. Here, we propose that it could be advantageous to evaluate the anti-tumoural effect of IL-24 in a mouse xenograft model of thyroid cancer.
    Keywords: Thyroid carcinoma, MDA, 7, IL, 24, Xenograft mouse model, HTori cell, Immune gene therapy
  • Mehrdad Mohammadpoura, Mahmoud Jabbarvanda, Elham Delrishb, Ahad Khoshzabanb Pages 14-20
    Corneal neo-vascularisation (NV) is a major sight-threatening condition and is caused by infections, degenerative disorders, inflammation and long-time contact lens wear. Corneal NV occurs when the balance between angiogenic and antiangiogenic factors is tipped towards angiogenic molecules. The abnormal vessels may decrease corneal clarity and vision, lead to inflammation and corneal scarring and worsen the prognosis of penetrating keratoplasty if needed.There is no definite therapeutic approach for cornea NV. Medical and surgical therapies used to reduce corneal NV include corticosteroids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, laser photocoagulation and needle diathermy. Many of these therapies not only have demonstrated limited success but also have associated adverse effects. Therefore, it is very necessary to provide novel therapeutic approaches. Recently, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VGEF) therapy has been introduced for the management of corneal NV.Herein, we hypothesise the use of silicate nanoparticles (SiNPs) as a novel treatment for corneal NV. The penetration rate of SiNPs into the cornea is attributed to the size of nanoparticles. Therefore, different sizes of SiNPs (20–50 nm) would be prepared and loaded onto the tissue to determine corneal permeability towards them. In addition, SiNPs would be administered into the eye by topical, subconjunctival and corneal intrastromal injection and accumulate in newly formed vessels. This hypothesis has been developed by emphasising on the synthesis of SiNPs, characterisation of size-dependent properties and surface modification for the preparation of homogeneous nanocomposites, generated by a reverse micro-emulsion method. As the importance of concentration, shape and/or size of SiNPs could be key factors exerting their antiangiogenic effects, we suggest using 20–30-nm SiNPs to enhance their ability to penetrate into the corneal epithelium. We hypothesise that topical, subconjunctival and corneal intrastromal injections of SiNPs may effectively inhibit and treat corneal NV. Controlled experimental studies on rabbits are needed to test whether SiNPs are able to effectively inhibit VEGF-induced angiogenesis in every segment of the eye including anterior, middle (ciliary body and trabecular mesh work) and posterior segments.
    Keywords: Silicate nanoparticle, Corneal neovascularisation, Vascular endothelial growth factor
  • Ingrid Skornova, Jan Stasko, Amalia Ocenasova, Peter Kubisz Pages 21-22
    Brahimi et al. in this journal formed a hypothesis that “the platelet count is underestimated, by an automated cell counter, each time platelet aggregates are present in the sample tube.” The addition of a platelet agonist to a stimulated sample tube will lead to the formation of platelet aggregates and hence to a drop in the platelet count. In the case of a hereditary platelet dysfunction, platelet aggregates cannot be formed upon addition of a platelet agonist and the platelet count will remain unchanged. The authors propose a hypothesis to develop “a more accessible screening technique for these hereditary platelet dysfunctions.” In our reply, we critically evaluate this screening method and focus on the importance of the differences between impedance aggregometry in whole blood versus aggregometry in platelet-rich plasma.
    Keywords: Thrombopathies, Impedance aggregometry, PRP aggregometry
  • Su-Xia Lianga, Ying-Bin Yanb Pages 23-26
    Trauma is the leading cause of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bony ankylosis. The treatment of the condition poses a significant challenge because of the high incidence of recurrence. We previously proposed a new view that the development of traumatic TMJ bony ankylosis may be a course similar to hypertrophic nonunion, and the ensuing animal experiments preliminarily verified this view through histological analysis and molecular biology examination. In view of the similarity between bone healing and bony ankylosis, and the importance of recruitment and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the course of bone healing, it is reasonable to select MSCs as the breakthrough point for prevention of bony ankylosis. Recent studies reveal that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a key mediator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), can promote adipocyte differentiation, inhibit osteoblast differentiation of MSCs and stimulate osteoclast activity by activation of PPARγ. Therefore, we hypothesize that local FGF21 injection may prohibit the onset of traumatic TMJ bony ankylosis through formation of a fat pad separating the condyle from the glenoid fossa, inhibition of new bone formation and promotion of bone resorption in the joint space, which thus may be a potential novel treatment for TMJ bony ankylosis.
    Keywords: Trauma, Temporomandibular joint, Bony ankylosis, Mesenchymal stem cells, Prevention
  • Lei Wanga, Da Duanb, Zhenyu Zhaob, Xiaohua Tengb, Lite Gea, Bin Liua, Ming Lub Pages 27-29
    Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is an effective method of giving a supplement of cells lost and promoting functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). Nonetheless, owing to hostile environments at the injury site, such as ischaemic hypoxia conditions and inflammatory cytokines, poor cell survival and uncontrolled differentiation are consistent problems encountered following NSC transplantation in ischaemic neural tissue. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1α) provides profound protection to NSCs against negative factors at the injury site. On the other hand, HIF-1 can induce NSCs to differentiate into neurons. We predict that transplanted NSCs modified by an HIF-1α gene would have a better efficacy for promoting neural regeneration and functional reconstruction.
    Keywords: Spinal cord injury, Neural stem cells, Hypoxia, inducible factor, 1a
  • Farzaneh Khademia, Javad Verdia, Masoud Soleimanib, Reza Roozafzoona, Saeed Heidari Keshela, Reza Raeisossadatia, Jafar Ai Pages 30-33
    Liver transplantation is the only choice for patients with end-stage liver diseases. Hepatocyte transplantation is a promising alternative for treatment of these groups. However, the major challenge is insufficiency of donor organs that can provide good-quality cells. Therefore, numerous experimental and clinical studies have evaluated the potential of different sources of adult stem cells, which differentiate into hepatocytes, for cell therapy. Endometrial (stem) stromal cells are readily isolated and expandable; moreover, these cells have more clonogenicity and pose less technical problems, so they are considered to possess great autologous therapeutic potential.We propose that endometrial stem (stromal) cells could be an invaluable and realistic source in this regard.
    Keywords: Endometrial adult stem cells, Differentiation, Hepatocyte
  • Ai-Juan Shena, Hai-Lin Zhub, Jian-Hua Duanc, Min Zoub, Ying Jianga Pages 34-38
    Negative pressure drainage (NPD) technology is required to extract chyme from the gastric cavity of the patient suffering from stomach disease in order to observe the mucosal condition of the gastric cavity clearly and to avoid being misdiagnosed in gastroscopy. However, there are problems, such as insufficient vacuum and easy clogging, in the current NPD devices. To deal with these problems, by applying the principle of hydraulic check valve, a novel device, convenient to extract chyme from gastric cavity, is discussed in this article, which will meet the clinical demand. The proposed new device has the advantages of enough vacuum degree, smooth drainage without backflow and blockage, and has a better application prospect as compared to existing devices.
    Keywords: Gastroscope, Drainage device, Negative pressure drainage, Chyme, Extraction
  • Hassan Niknejada, Ghasem Yazdanpanaha Pages 39-41
    There are controversies about the effects of amniotic membrane (AM) on angiogenesis. It was recently hypothesised that denuded AM (without epithelial cells) can induce angiogenesis. The results from the dorsal skinfold chamber method in an animal model and aortic ring assay showed that the epithelial side of the AM inhibits vessel sprouting and reduces capillary numbers, while the mesenchymal side of the AM increases angiogenesis. These data answered the controversies about the angiogenic capability of the AM and raised some questions about the mechanisms by which the AM affects angiogenesis. In this article, mechanism(s) by which the AM affects angiogenesis and viability state of amniotic cells and its effect on angiogenesis have been propounded.
    Keywords: Angiogenesis, Amniotic membrane, Epithelial cells
  • S.M.J. Mortazavi Pages 42-43
  • Shirin Moossavi Pages 44-47