فهرست مطالب

  • سال چهارم شماره 3 (پاییز 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/10/02
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
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  • میرعلی سیدنقوی، علی بابایی صفحات 451-479
    بخش وسیعی از جغرافیا و جمعیت هر کشور به روستاها اختصاص دارد؛ از این روعملکرد اقتصادی نواحی روستایی، بر شکوفایی و بهره وری ملی کشورها تاثیر بسزایی می گذارد. با این حال حتی در کشورهای توسعه یافته ای همچون ایالات متحد امریکا، واگرایی عملکرد اقتصادی روستاها در مقایسه با شهرها، به چالشی اساسی بدل شده است. پژوهشگران، ریشه این واگرایی عملکردی را در نوع نگاه دولت به روستاها می دانند و بیان می دارند که دولت ها ویژگی های منحصربه فرد روستا را نادیده می گیرند، روستا را مساوی با کشاورزی برمی شمارند، و به شهرهای مجاور روستا نیز بی توجه اند. از سوی دیگر، پژوهشگران معتقدند از آنجا که هر روستا درون یک منطقه اقتصادی واقع شده است، تصمیم گیری و تحلیل در خصوص روستا نیز باید با نگاه منطقه ای صورت گیرد. در این میان، یکی از مشهورترین و پرکاربردترین چارچوب های تحلیل و سیاست گذاری منطقه ای، چارچوب دایاموند (الماس) مایکل پورتر و نظریه خوشه های اوست، که مطالعات متعددی نیز با استفاده از آن به بررسی سیاست های توسعه اقتصادی روستایی پرداخته اند. در این مقاله، سیاست ها و نگاه دولت به روستاها در ایران بررسی شده است. برای این منظور، با انجام پیمایشی از 31 نفر از خبرگان دانشگاهی و کارشناسان سطوح میانی سیاست گذاری روستایی در سه نهاد دولتی کشور، بررسی شده است که سیاست های دولتی ایران، تا چه اندازه با دیدگاه های منطقه ای مطابقت داشته است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه اقتصادی روستایی، تئوری خوشه ها، چارچوب دایاموند (الماس) مایکل پورتر، دیدگاه منطقه ای
  • سید حسن مطیعی لنگرودی، مهدی حسام، مهدی چراغی، حدیثه آشور صفحات 481-503
    بخش کشاورزی برای تامین امنیت غذایی جامعه و ایفای نقش موثر در تقویت استقلال ملی، نیازمند گذر سریع از مرحله تولید معیشتی و سنتی به مرحله تولید پیشرفته و تجاری است. مکانیزاسیون رویکردی است که دستیابی بخش کشاورزی به مرحله تولید تجاری را ممکن می سازد و از ارکان کشاورزی مدرن به شمار می آید. بدون مکانیزاسیون، چشم انداز روشنی از کشاورزی پویا و پایدار که بتواند نیازهای غذایی را معقولانه برطرف سازد، متصور نیست. توسعه مکانیزاسیون در جوامع کشاورزی و به ویژه در نواحی روستایی کشور با مشکلاتی همراه بوده است که شناخت عوامل موثر بر آن می تواند به برنامه ریزی برای رفع آنها کمک کند. از این رو در تحقیق حاضر به بررسی علل توسعه نیافتگی مکانیزاسیون در نواحی روستایی دهستان غنی بیگلو در شهرستان زنجان پرداخته شده است. نوع تحقیق کاربردی است و به صورت توصیفی- تحلیلی، به روش پیمایشی انجام شده است. گردآوری اطلاعات به صورت کتابخانه ای و میدانی (پرسشنامه، مصاحبه و مشاهده) صورت گرفته است. جامعه آماری، 2330 بهره بردار کشاورز روستاهای دهستان غنی بیگلوی شهرستان زنجان است که طبق فرمول کوکران تعداد نمونه لازم برای تکمیل پرسشنامه، 300 کشاورز تعیین گردید. تجزیه و تحلیل اطلاعات با آزمون تحلیل عاملی و همبستگی پیرسون انجام گرفته است. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهند که شیوه تولید، درآمد و اشتغال از مهم ترین علل توسعه نیافتگی مکانیزاسیون در منطقه مطالعه شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: تحلیل عاملی، دهستان غنی بیگلو، شهرستان زنجان، کشاورزی، مکانیزاسیون کشاورزی
  • ولی الله رستمعلی زاده، علی قاسمی اردهایی، نیر رستمی صفحات 505-534
    ازجمله مسائل مهمی که امروزه روستاها با آن مواجه اند، فرایند خروج جمعیت جوان و فعال از روستاهاست که پایداری اجتماعات روستایی را به خطر می اندازد. مسئله اصلی این تحقیق بررسی عوامل موثر بر ماندگاری جوانان روستایی در روستاهاست. در این پژوهش، از روش پیمایش استفاده شده و با نمونه گیری خوشه ایچندمرحله ای، وضعیت جوانان ساکن در روستاهای شهرستان اهر مطالعه شده است. یافته ها نشان می دهند که متغیرهای وضعیت اشتغال، تحصیلات، نوع شغل، میزان درآمد ماهیانه خانوار، طبقه اقتصادی خانواده از نظر خود پاسخگویان، و محل اشتغال پاسخگویان در ماندگاری جوانان در روستا نقش اساسی دارند. مهم ترین عوامل دفع جوانان از جوامع روستایی و گرایش آنها به مهاجرت به مناطق شهری نیز به ترتیب اولویت اینها هستند: کمبود امکانات رفاهی، کمبود امکانات بهداشتی، کمبود امکانات آموزشی و فرهنگی، نبود شغل مناسب و مشکلات کاری، کمبود وسیله حمل ونقل و حاصلخیزنبودن زمین های کشاورزی. افزون بر اینها، ساخت تصویر منفی از روستا و ارائه تصویر مثبت از شهر، حس تعلق به روستا را بین جوانان تضعیف و فرایند ترک روستا را میان جوانان تسهیل و تسریع می کند. در نهایت اینکه جوانان ساکن در نواحی روستایی اهر، به ترتیب اولویت مولفه های برخورداری از امکانات رفاهی، امکانات آموزشی- فرهنگی، داشتن منابع طبیعی غنی و مرغوب، بهره مندی از امکانات بهداشتی- درمانی، امکانات شغلی، وجود وسیله ایاب و ذهاب و امکانات تفریحی و ورزشی را از ویژگی هایی می دانند که می تواند جوانان را در روستا نگه دارد و مانع سرازیرشدن آنها به سوی مناطق شهری گردد.
    کلیدواژگان: پایداری روستایی، تصویر روستایی، جوانان روستایی، ماندگاری جوانان روستایی، مهاجرت
  • سعید زنگنه شهرکی صفحات 535-557
    بررسی سلسله مراتب شهری و مطالعه شهرهای دارای سطوح مختلف جمعیتی در سرشماری های رسمی کشور، ما را با پدیده ای جدید مواجه می سازد. این پدیده، تبدیل و ارتقای روستاهای کوچک به شهر به رغم داشتن جمعیتی کمتر از آستانه تعریف شده برای شهرشدن است. این سکونتگاه ها که امروزه بیش از یک سوم از شهرهای کشور را تشکیل می دهند، کمترین امکانات، خدمات، تاسیسات و تجهیزات شهری را در خود جای داده اند. مقاله حاضر با روش توصیفی- تحلیلی و با استفاده از آمارهای سرشماری های رسمی عمومی کشور و بهره گرفتن از نرم افزار ArcGIS برای نشان دادن توزیع فضایی این شهرها، در مقیاس ملی و منطقه ای انجام گرفته است. نتایج حاصل از تحقیق نشان می دهد که تبدیل روستاهای کوچک به شهر، در همه دوره ها در نظام شهری ایران وجود داشته است، اما بیشترین تعداد آن را در آخرین سرشماری کشور می توان مشاهده کرد، که از 1139 شهر کشور در آن سال، 370 نقطه شهری جمعیتی کمتر از 5000 نفر داشته اند. از دلایل انتخاب چنین سیاست و راهبردی از طرف وزارت کشور، می تواند وجود رابطه کاملا مستقیم و معنی دار بین متغیرهای فاصله از پایتخت، فاصله از شهرهای مرکز استان و سال شکل گیری استان با تعداد این گونه شهرها باشد. بدین معنی که هرچه از تهران و از مراکز استان ها بیشتر فاصله بگیریم بر تعداد روستاهای کوچک تبدیل شده به شهر افزوده می گردد. از آنجا که تعداد این گونه شهرها در استان های تازه شکل گرفته مانند خراسان جنوبی بیشتر از استان های دیگر کشور است، می توان استنباط کرد که راهبرد تبدیل نقاط روستایی به شهر، راهبردی اداری-مدیریتی و سیاسی برای تقویت تمرکززدایی و توسعه منطقه ای در نواحی دوردست و مناطق محروم و همچنین سیاستی برای پرکردن شکاف سلسله مراتب شهری در استان ها، شهرستان ها و بخش های تازه شکل گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: اندازه جمعیت، تبدیل روستا به شهر، توسعه روستایی، خام شهر، نظام شهری
  • رشید احمدرش، یاسمن توحیدیان صفحات 559-584
    پژوهش حاضر در بازه زمانی نزدیک به دو سال و با مطالعه و مراجعه مستمر به حدود هشتاد روستای مختلف منطقه موسوم به موکریان، واقع در جنوب استان آذربایجان غربی انجام شده است. داده های مربوط به مقاله پیش رو با توجه به ویژگی های فرهنگی و اجتماعی جامعه روستایی مورد مطالعه، به شیوه کیفی و به روش نظریه زمینه ای و با استفاده از فنون مصاحبه های عمیق، تاریخ شفاهی و مشارکت میدانی جمع آوری شد. پس از انجام مصاحبه های عمقی و برگزاری جلسه های متعدد بحث گروهی با افراد عادی و نیز نخبگان جامعه، اطلاعات اولیه به دست آمد. مراجعه های چندباره به میدان مطالعه به منظور سنجش اعتبار و روایی اطلاعات گردآوری شده و نیز آزمون صحت یافته های نظری، تا آخرین مرحله تحقیق ادامه داشت. در بعد نظری، مشخصا نظریه تحول ارزشی اینگلهارت، و نظریه های جدید نوسازی و مدرنیته بازاندیشی شده گیدنز، چارچوب مفهومی تحقیق را تشکیل می دهند. با توجه به تغییرات ارزشی ایجادشده در حوزه باورهای مذهبی، ارزش های فردی و جمعی، و نگرش به نمادها و نهادهای مذهبی، می توان اذعان داشت که در نتیجه ورود عناصر مدرن به جامعه روستایی مطالعه شده، تغییرات ارزشی و هنجاری گسترده ای در زیست جهان افراد جامعه مورد نظر صورت گرفته است. تحلیل داده های میدانی حاکی از بروز و گسترش تمایلات «دنیاگرایانه» و «تمایل به زندگی ناسوتی» در میان مصاحبه شوندگان - البته با شیبی ملایم- است. به نظر می رسد که جامعه مورد بررسی با نوعی پارادوکس مواجه است، که از طرفی عقب نشینی دین در آن به چشم می خورد و از طرف دیگر شاهد سازمان یافته شدن بی سابقه دین در قالب فرقه های غیربومی و وارداتی هستیم؛ که این دومی را با اندک تسامحی می توان اسلام سیاسی نامید. به هرحال، ماهیت تغییرات به وجودآمده بیانگر تاثیرپذیری متقابل مذهب و مدرنیته در جامعه مورد مطالعه است.
    کلیدواژگان: باورها و ارزش های مذهبی، تغییرات ارزشی، هنجاری، جامعه روستایی موکریان، عناصر مدرن، نظریه زمینه ای
  • فرامرز بریمانی، عثمان بلوچی صفحات 585-613
    نواحی روستایی در کشورهای کمترتوسعه یافته ازجمله ایران به دلیل نابرابری های اقتصادی و اجتماعی بین شهر و روستا، با چالش های فراوانی مواجه هستند. از این رو شناخت و تبیین عوامل موثر بر کیفیت زندگی در این نواحی اهمیت بسزایی دارد. از آنجاکه عدم قطعیت ذاتا بر علوم انسانی به ویژه در محیط های برنامه ریزی و تصمیم گیری حاکم است و ارزش گذاری شاخص های کیفیت زندگی نیز به طور نسبی در مناطق مختلف جغرافیایی متفاوت است، بهره گیری از سامانه های هوشمند برای دستیابی به نتایج دقیق تر و واقعی تر بسیار ارزشمند است. هدف پژوهش حاضر ارزیابی و تحلیل کیفیت زندگی در نواحی روستایی دهستان مهبان شهرستان نیک شهر با استفاده از «منطق فازی» است، که از طریق شاخص های عینی (کمی) و ذهنی (کیفی) در ابعاد اقتصادی و اجتماعی انجام شده است. روش پژوهش، توصیفی تحلیلی مبتنی بر منطق فازی است. داده های پژوهش از اسناد موجود در سازمان های دولتی، آمارنامه ها، و پرسشنامه به دست آمده است. نتایج یافته ها نشان می دهند که کیفیت زندگی عینی در دهستان مهبان در طیفی از نامطلوب تا نسبتا مطلوب قرار می گیرد، به گونه ای که روستای موکی پایین با ضریب 145/0 پایین ترین درجه (نا مطلوب) و روستای کشیک با ضریب 501/0 بالاترین درجه (نسبتا مطلوب) را به خود اختصاص می دهد. کیفیت زندگی ذهنی نیز در طیف نسبتا نامطلوب تا نسبتا مطلوب جای می گیرد، به گونه ای که روستای تیتران دن با ضریب 460/0 کمترین درجه (نسبتا نامطلوب) و روستای کشیک با ضریب 607/0 بیشترین درجه (نسبتا مطلوب) را دارند.
    کلیدواژگان: دهستان مهبان، کیفیت زندگی، منطق فازی، نواحی روستایی
  • جابر علی زاده، حمید برقی، حمزه رحیمی، علی افشاری پور صفحات 615-640
    کیفیت زندگی، مفهومی است که در سال های اخیر، به دلیل نقشی که در سلامت روان افراد دارد، اهمیت بسزایی یافته است. جایگاه روستاها در فرایند توسعه اقتصادی، اجتماعی و سیاسی در مقیاس های مختلف منطقه ای آشکار است. پیامدهای توجه نکردن به کیفیت زندگی در نواحی روستایی می تواند فقر گسترده، نابرابری فزاینده، رشد سریع جمعیت، بیکاری، مهاجرت، و حاشیه نشینی شهری باشد. با توجه به آنچه گفته شد، هدف اصلی پژوهش حاضر، تعیین شاخص ها و ارزیابی و سنجش کیفیت زندگی ذهنی در مراکز روستایی دهستان میانده استان فارس است. این مطالعه از نوع «توصیفی- تحلیلی» است که داده های مورد نیاز آن از طریق تکمیل سیاهه اطلاعات دموگرافیک و پرسشنامه بسط یافته کیفیت زندگی سازمان جهانی بهداشت (WHOQOL-BREF)، به وسیله ساکنان نواحی روستایی دهستان میانده و همچنین مطالعات پیمایشی به دست آمده است. حجم نمونه با استفاده از فرمول کوکران و با در نظر گرفتن حداکثر ناهمگنی (5/0=q=p)، برابر با 385 نفر برآورد شده، که اعضای آن به صورت نمونه گیری سهمیه بندی از ساکنان هشت روستای پرجمعیت از طریق نمونه گیری احتمالی ساده انتخاب شدند. داده ها با استفاده از روش تشابه به حل ایده آل فازی تحلیل شد و به منظور تشخیص گروه های همگن برای تعیین سطح رضایت در دهستان میانده، از روش تحلیل خوشه ایبهره گرفته شد. نتایج نشان می دهد که روستای میانده با توجه به موقعیت مرکزی اش در سطح دهستان، در تمامی سنجه های کیفیت زندگی وضعیت بهتری از روستاهای دیگر دهستان دارد. با اینکه در بین روستا های مورد مطالعه، از نظر شاخص های ترکیبی کیفیت زندگی تفاوت چندانی وجود ندارد، اما در سنجه های مختلف سلامت محیط، سلامت اجتماعی، اقتصادی، روانی و جسمی افراد، تفاوت هایی در رضایت پاسخ دهندگان دیده می شود.
    کلیدواژگان: دهستان میانده، روش تشابه به گزینه ایده آل فازی، کیفیت زندگی، نواحی روستایی
  • عبدالرضا رکن الدین افتخاری، حمدالله سجاسی قیداری، مهدی پورطاهری، عادل آذر صفحات 641-660
    در دهه های اخیر همراه با رشد و توسعه گردشگری، زیرشاخه های گردشگری، از جمله اکوتوریسم یا بوم گردی نیز رشد بسیاری یافته اند. جدیدبودن این بخش از گردشگری سبب شده است که کمتر بتوان به روش یا چارچوب مناسبی در پژوهش های جهانی درخصوص انتخاب پتانسیل های اکوتوریستی در مناطق و مکان های گوناگون دست یافت. نقاط روستایی از دیرباز در زمره مهم ترین مکان هایی که جاذبه های گردشگری فراوانی دارند، قرار گرفته اند. از سویی دیگر، انتخاب روستاهای هدف در گردشگری، به ویژه روستاهای نمونه اکوتوریستی اهمیت بسیاری دارد. در پژوهش حاضر، این پرسش که انتخاب روستاهای نمونه اکوتوریستی چگونه صورت می گیرد، مطرح شد. ابتدا از طریق مدل ارزیابی اکوتوریستی با تلفیق TOPSIS-GIS بر اساس 9 معیار، پتانسیل اکوتوریستی در محدوده استان تهران به عنوان یکی از کانون های جمعیتی کشور که در حاشیه جنوبی البرز قرار دارد پهنه بندی شد. سپس با استفاده از تابع اکوتوریسم روددره ای تعریف شده، در چندین مرحله با اجرای الگوریتم و هم پوشانی لایه ها، روستاهای نمونه اکوتوریستی انتخاب شدند. نتیجه به دست آمده نشان داد که روستاهای 6گانه برگزیده، بر محدوده مناطق زیست محیطی چهارگانه انطباق دارند و مدل توانایی بالایی در انتخاب روستاهای نمونه اکوتوریسم روددره ای در کشور دارد.
    کلیدواژگان: استان تهران، اکوتوریسم، تحلیل چندمعیاره TOPSIS و GIS، روستاهای نمونه، مدل ارزیابی اکوتوریسم
  • سیده خدیجه رضاطبع ازگمی، رحیم حیدری چیانه صفحات 661-690
    دسترسی به جاذبه ها و رتبه بندی مقاصد گردشگری از ابعاد مهم برنامه ریزی توسعه توریسم به شمار می آید. در مقاله حاضر با استفاده از روش RDS از طریق منابع کتابخانه ای و با نظرسنجی از نمونه آماری مبتنی بر روش کوکران و روش نمونه گیری ساده، کاربرد فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای ANP در برنامه ریزی توریسم غرب گیلان بررسی شده است. در پژوهش حاضر با استفاده از روش ANP به کمک نرم افزارSuper Decisions ضمن مطالعه جاذبه های توریستی ناحیه کوهستانی غرب گیلان، جاذبه ها و مقاصد توریستی این منطقه نیز رتبه بندی شده است. برای این منظور، مولفه های اکوتوریستی، آثار تاریخی، سبک معیشت نیمه نومادیزم و وضعیت زیرساخت ها از مهم ترین شاخص های رتبه بندی مقاصد گردشگری انتخاب شدند. سپس با تحلیل و ارزیابی معیارها در مدل فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای، هفت گزینه از میان نواحی کوهستانی غرب گیلان پیشنهاد شدند، که به ترتیب عبارت اند از روستاهای آق اولر با 23/38 درصد، سراگاه با 23/34 درصد، سوباتان با 16/8 درصد، رندانه با 05/6 درصد، لومه دشت با 54/5 درصد، دشت دامان با 97/4 درصد و حیران با 80/2 درصد از درجه اهمیت.
    کلیدواژگان: برنامه ریزی توریسم، غرب گیلان، فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی (AHP)، فرایند تحلیل شبکه ای ((ANP، نرم افزار Super Decisions
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  • Mirali Seyed Naghavi, Ali Babaee Pages 451-479
    Introduction
    Rural areas have a considerable proportion of national land area and national population. Hence، the economic performance of these regions has a substantial impact on national prosperity and productivity. However، even in developed countries like United States، the widening gap in economic performance between rural and urban areas has become a major challenge. Scholars believe this widening gap is as a result of government''s special approach to rural areas، which overlooks the unique characteristics of each rural area، considers rural areas same as agriculture، and doesn''t consider neighboring metropolitan regions. In order to correct this approach، scholars believe that it should also be treated with a regional approach and should be analyzed as a region. This is because each rural area is located in an economic region. Meanwhile، one of the most reputable and widely used frameworks in regional policy making is Michael Porter''s Diamond Framework and his cluster theory. Numerous studies have used this framework to survey rural economic development policies. The Cluster theory is also an accepted framework among scholars who studying development driving forces in developing countries.
    Methodology
    In this article we have tried to study Iran''s governmental policies on rural areas. A survey was conducted of 31 university experts and mid-level policy makers in three government agencies in Iran which were responsible for rural development. In addition، we studied three more recent National Five Year Development Plans. Our aim was to study the extent to which Iran''s governmental policies conform to a regional approach. In the survey، we used non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Test in SPSS to analyze the gathered data.
    Results
    In this study، we will show that in Iran the government has not treated rural areas by a regional approach. In other words، the government has overlooked the unique characteristics of each rural area، has considered rural areas the same as agriculture، and has not considered neighboring metropolitan regions. In addition، we will show that in factor conditions (according to the Michael Porter’s Diamond) rural areas are not in a proper condition in human resources، knowledge resources and capital resources although communication infrastructures and transportation infrastructures are relatively in a better condition. We believe this proves that the main focus of governmental policies in rural areas in the recent decades has been mainly toward providing infrastructures and better access to rural areas. Then in demand conditions، we will show that the demand which rural firms and businesses see in front is not so much complex and innovation stimulating. Then we will show that rural firms are not located in proximity of their suppliers and relevant firms. Rural firms also show a low commitment to their industry and the intensity of rivalry between them is not intense. Our respondents believe that the above conditions is the result of government subsidies، guaranteed purchases، market protection، overlook of the surrounding clusters، central planning of education، and government owned capital markets. Furthermore، it will be shown that the Fifth National Five Year Development Plan has a more robust framework than the Third and Fourth National Five Year Development Plans. In this Plan، it is for the first time that concepts like the “linkage between rural areas and neighboring metropolitan areas”، “clusters”، and “industry chains”، and “rural business environment” could be seen.
    Conclusion
    We will conclude our article with some recommendations. First، it is recommended that the government accepts the cluster approach as the underpinning framework of its policy making for rural areas. Second، it’s recommended that any incentive for encouraging firms to be located in rural areas must be defined based on existing established clusters in the surrounding regions or based on providing some services to adjacent metropolitan areas. Third، it is recommended that government’s direct supports to firms (like subsidies، guaranteed purchases، market protection، etc.) must be stopped and instead، indirect supports should be provided in such a way that they get a more proper human resources، knowledge resources and capital resources. The supports must be in more contact with their suppliers and relevant firms، and they must be encountered with a more competition and more complex buyers. These indirect supports should be defined in such a way that make rural firms encouraged from commodities to more complex products and to niche markets of neighboring metropolitan areas. Fourth، it’s recommended that centralized education planning for rural areas become a more decentralized planning at the cluster level. Our study had some limitations and there are some needs for following studies. First، our survey sample could be expanded and other groups like rural businesses، other mid-level policy makers nearer to the rural areas، rural councils، and other important stakeholders are just included. Second، the spatial scope of the survey could be more narrowed and governmental policies are studied in more details at the province level. Third، some methods other than survey could be used including tracking of national budgets to recognize the main focus of governmental policies in reality.
    Keywords: Cluster theory, Michael Porter's Diamond Framework, Regional approach, Rural economic development
  • Seyed Hassan Motiee Langroodi, Mehdi Hesam, Mehdi Cheraghi, Hadiseh Ashoor Pages 481-503
    Introduction
    With the growth in population and increase in the demand for more food it is required to make more investments in agricultural sector. The investment involves using mechanization in agricultural activities. Among the most important measures that should be sufficient to push the modernization of the agricultural sector، it is the development and application of technology. To improve the quality and quantity of agricultural production and market competition، public sector and non-governmental actors have to adapt themselves to the conditions of application of new technologies. Studies show that the direct and indirect effects of agricultural mechanization can be in the areas of productivity، quality and profitability for farmers. Mechanization is necessary for improving the productivity of land and labor in developing countries such as Iran. Mechanization also helps farmers to increase the area under cultivation and achieve higher income.
    Methodology
    This research is applied with descriptive – analytic and the survey method. For data collection، a library and field (questionnaires، interviews and observation) survey have been conducted. The population of the study is 2330 farmers of Ghani Beyglou District. Cochran formula has been calculated for the number of questionnaires that were completed by 300 farmers. Data analysis was performed with Pearson''s correlation test and factor analysis.
    Findings
    In order to analyze the factors affecting the development of mechanization، the test factor analysis has been used. KMO index and the Bartlett test were used to determine the suitability of the data sets and the analyzed variables on the level of development of agriculture. Bartlett''s test was significant at a confidence level of 99% in the number 1756. 35 and proper KMO value (0. 746) shows that the correlation and factor analysis is appropriate for variables. The study variables were examined by factor analysis on the factors investigated. The result is a reduction of the twenty-five variables to five variables. Discussion and
    Conclusions
    Mechanization of agricultural land and horticultural producers was performed to improve quality، increase productivity and income of farmers. But there are many problems and bottlenecks in the sectors of industry، agriculture and services. In this study we have attempted to develop agricultural mechanization. Land of small farmers، small land area of the farmers and the lack of direct income from agricultural activities have been identified as the major obstacles to the development of mechanization. The fact is that the vast majority of small farmers in the agricultural sector are lower، the units are very small، and the farmers don’t have economic power to buy up agricultural machines and implements. Essentially، as mechanization increases the amount of cost and it can also increase the amounts of income. This should be borne in mind that the biggest factor is public acceptance of a new idea or a new cost and its effect on income. The study has also determined the level of mechanization and income، education levels، and there is a high correlation between the sizes of the pieces.
    Keywords: Agriculture, Agricultural mechanization, Factor analysis, Ghani Beyglou District of Zanjan Province
  • Valiollah Rostamalizadeh, Ali Ghasemi Ardahaee, Nayer Rostami Pages 505-534
    Introduction
    Census data of Iran show that about 68. 5% (1956) to 29% (2011) of rural population has decreased over the past half-century. Rural population has rapidly declined over the last half century and is influenced by several factors، one of which is rural- urban migration. Although the percentage of rural to urban migration (20%) and urban to rural one (17%) from 1996 to 2006 show less difference، but it should be noted that the individuals involved in these two types of migration are different in demographic، social and economic characteristics. The most important difference is the fact that over 50% of immigrants in the past decade were younger (29-15 years). Therefore، one of the important problems facing the rural area today is that the young and active population leaves the rural areas. Departure of migrants from the rural areas decreases rural labor and rural production. The migration makes empty rural areas from labor workforce and cause uneven pattern of the workforce. The migration has caused a severe depletion of the villages especially villages that have population less than 50 people. Rural migration caused a severe imbalance between rural and urban areas where space urbanization and expansion of unlimited cities in the area is typical of this process. Thus abandoned villages formed by migration and migration out of the main outcomes include: decreasing population، demographic structure change، rapid urban population and decrease in rural population growth. The process of migration of the young and active rural population out of rural areas threatens the sustainability of rural communities. Therefore، this study is mainly focused on rural youth particularly in demographic and social characteristics. How are impressions of rural life، Demographic characteristics، socio-economic and geographical features? And which factors could keep young people in rural areas? And what is the best and the most effective model for explaining the field of youth staying in rural areas? What is characteristics of the individual and village.
    Methodology
    The research has been carried out by using multi-stage cluster sampling surveys of young people living in the villages of Ahar District. Geographic location، distance and proximity to the city، determine the staying of educated young age in the village. Because of this، 27 villages were selected in eight vills (Dehestan). Selected sample of 570 young people between 15-30 years old was done by simple random sampling. To gather information from the people، the questionnaire and interview techniques were used. It should be noted that some of the questionnaires were excluded due to incomplete data and the final analysis was performed on 535 cases.
    Results
    Results show that many variables are playing a vital role on the staying of young people in rural including the employment status، education، occupation، family income level، household economic class respondents and their families in terms of employment of the respondents. The major trends of migration of young people from rural communities and migration into urban areas in order of preference are: lack of facilities، lack of sanitation، lack of educational and cultural facilities، lack of good jobs and work problems، shortage of transport and lack of fertile agricultural land. The imagination about rural and urban areas reveals that negative portrayal of the village and positive self image of the city undermine the sense of belonging in the rural youth. This facilitates and expedites the process of leaving the village by the youths. Finally، youth in rural areas of Ahar are prioritized based on the elements of its facilities including educational-cultural facilities، the rich natural resources، health care facilities، occupational opportunity، transportation and recreation facilities and a unique feature of rural. They are staying in rural areas and these can prevent them from being flooded in the urban areas.
    Conclusions
    Ability of developing countries to keep young people in rural areas is so difficult and requires a lot of development programs this is because of limited employment opportunities for young people in these areas. However، many factors such as education، the media and the promotion of rural tourism have increased rural youth aspirations and wishes. These lead to an increase in distance between employment opportunities in the villages with their desires and aspirations. This gap makes it faster for the youth to leave the villages and they are encouraged to migrate to big cities. Desires and aspirations of young people are including occupation، income، dignity and position، social status. The key to attract young people in rural communities is that they must be able to achieve the goals. Thus، the results show that the variables of employment status، education، occupation، family income level، family economic class are playing a vital role in the village and the staying of their young respondents. Also، there is big difference between rural communities and urban areas in having many facilities، and this can be exacerbated by the emigration of young people. To keep young people in rural areas to suit the needs of rural and urban communities is equal opportunities. We plan to develop a comprehensive rural development including social، economic and cultural and this can be effective in keeping youth in rural communities.
    Keywords: Rural image, Rural sustainability, Rural, urban migration, Rural youth, Rural youth staying
  • Saeed Zangene Shahraki Pages 535-557
    Introduction
    Many plans and programs have been outlined to solve problems including rapid increase of urbanization, unbalanced distribution of population, a plenty of urban problems, increase of unemployment, underdevelopment of rural points, immigration and specially migration of active population toward metropolitan areas. These are rampant issues throughout Iran like many other developing countries. One of the most important applications to solve these issues may be promotion of rural settlements into towns with the objective of decreasing population streams toward big cities like Tehran, Mashhad and etc. Conversion and promotion of the villages into towns is one the most acceptable strategies for decreasing zonal inequalities in most of developing countries. Rural town- making is shown to be a multi- faceted process in which the municipal state carries out a protracted social reform of its local population (Knight, 1994: 249). This strategy in Iran is based on the strategy or theory of UFRD or urban function in rural development. In this theory, transition of the village into town has introduced a way for development. Based on this strategy, promotion of villages which has the necessary capacity to be converted into towns is the basic solution for rural development. Exploring the urban hierarchy of Iran in different population and housing census data, it reveals a new phenomenon that the author has called this phenomenon, “Kham-Shahr” or “Crude-Town”. This means the new town formed without having the minimum of population defined as a town in Iranian administrative categories or new towns which have less than 5000 people as inhabitants. These settlements which lack many urban facilities, services and equipment, nowadays formed more than one third of Iranian cities. Changes in criteria for transition of villages into town in last decades led to massive changes in pattern of settlement system in Iran (Rezvani et al., 2009).
    Methodology
    The present paper has studied controversial process of transition of village into towns. The methodology of this research is descriptive – analytic using data of official census in 1955, 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2010. The scale of the study is in two levels: national and provincial levels. In addition to this, it has been tried to explore the main forces and causes of using this strategy by the State.
    Results
    The results show that in all periods of census we have the phenomenon of Kham-Shahr (towns less than 5000 inhabitants) but in three last censuses, the number of these Kham Shahr has increased to more than 370 towns out of 1139 cities of Iran in 2010. All of provinces have this kind of settlements. The number of cities in Iran has increased from 199 to 1139 cities from 1955 t0 2010. But only 26 cities out of them are new planned towns around the metropolitan areas like Pardis, Hashtgerd and Parand in Tehran and Golbahar and Binaloud in Mashhad. This means that rest of them (914 towns) has been created because of strategy of promotion and transition of rural points into towns. But from this number, many of them have been converted into towns without qualifying the criteria of population. Therefore, at the moment there are many small settlements where are a part of urban system. Some of them (33 towns) even have less than 1000 people. The smallest town of Iran is Sumar in Kermanshah province with only 20 people and Chenare in Kurdistan province with 184 people. This challenging phenomenon has pros and cons. It is going to say that in literature review, some people agree with this strategy and believe that it has many advantages and on the other side some scholars disagree.
    Conclusion
    The controversial phenomenon of very small new-formed towns has been an issue with Iranian urban system in all periods. But for answering to the question of what are the main reasons of transition of these small villages to town, we has studied the correlation between number of small new towns and other variables like distance form capital city (Tehran), distance from center of province, and the time of formation of the province. The concluded results show the meaningful correlation and relation with all three variables. This means that the main forces of strategy and policy of transition of village to town in Iran has three different reasons: administrative- managerial reason, political and defensive reason and specially development of isolated parts and settlements. Among the three causes, the last one, economic development and growth is the most important reason of the transition. So, in the last years, among all urban levels, small new formed towns (or Kham Shahrs) and rurban settlements have more than 70 percent of all Iranian cities.
    Keywords: Khamshahr, Rural development, Small city, Urban system, Urbanism
  • Rashid Ahmadrash, Yasaman Tohidian Pages 559-584
    Introduction
    During the last century and in a period of time called modern history of Iran we have seen different changes in urban communities, in general, and urban and rural areas of Kurdistan, in particular. The range and power of such changes has been such that we can claim it has changed the “life world” of Iranians noticeably. Mukerian as the case of this study is faced, in one hand, with weak interests of first generation in keeping traditional values, e.g., in the fields of religion, family and socio-cultural problems. On the other hand, it is faced with double efforts of new generation who has made more adaption with modern elements like; new education, mass media, secular values and urban life values with interests in welfare. However, it must be mentioned that among all human societies Kurdistan has dynamic and consistent process of “detradtionalisation and traditionalisation”.
    Methodology
    This research has been done during two years and by studying and consistent refereeing to almost eighty villages of a region called” Mukerian” located in southwest Azerbaijan, Iran. Data of this research have been collected by socio cultural peculiarities of rural areas studied by using qualitative methods and grounded theory and applying techniques like deep interviews, oral history and field participation.
    Results
    The facts show that our case study, Kurdisatan –Mokerian as a transitional society, has gone through a tremendous change in cultural values and life styles. But study of such kind of changes has been neglected which has not been studied academically. We here in this article, are going to answer why and how such changes happened. To do so, we have chosen qualitative approach and techniques. New theories of modernization and some of those related to interpretive sociology have been our guidance. We have used some of the theories especially Engellhart’s theory of values in evolution, new theory of modernization and reflexive modernity of Giddens have formed our conceptual framework. Anyway, observation, studies and “lived experience” of the researchers show the happening of different “objective- subjective” kind of changes in the “life world” of Kurdish rural people. This might be under the influence of environmental conditions, i.e., their location in neighboring with Iraq and Turkey, as well as historical, political and cultural conditions of the region called “Mukerian” in different fields in terms of “religious and spiritual values”. These all show modernizing of rural people. In fact, we can observe “creation of some new and modern traditions’, in one side, and “modernizing of some old traditions” in Iranian rural community and so in Kurdistan, on the other. All such changes guided us toward our field theory which we have called it “rural pseudo-modernism with Kurdish Iranian characters”. In relation to the modernization of societies, especially the modernization of third world countries, there is two approaches which seems to be far apart; quantitative approach to development, which sees itself in modernization theories. These kinds of theories emphasize on linear process of transition and its ideal is the west industrialized countries. The second approach is qualitative and interpretive which gives much importance to the roles of the social actors. They believe that actors due to their social and cultural values and norms respond to the changes actively and reflexively. Appearance of every phenomenon in Kurdistan has not been singular, but it has been multi-dimensional and multi-factoral due to peculiarities of Kurdistan. So, in one way Kurdistan has been influenced by the modern elements and Modernity and in the other way, the modernity itself has been changed up to the level that we can call it as Kurdish Modernity with Iranian peculiarities.
    Conclusion
    We can also say that Islam always has been a part and somewhat a main part of Kurds Identity. This is because it has been mingled with Kurdish culture, so it has been Kurdinized considerably. So, there is a triangle of Kurdish culture, Islamic culture and western or modern culture, these have altogether constructed the Kurds Identity. Due to the socio politic conditions of Kurdistan, we have seen the importance of one or the other. In fact, due to entrance of modern elements into Kurdistan and as the result of causative factors and facilitator elements within the process of social interaction, the values and attitudes if the people under study have considerably altered. This is what we have called it value normative changes in the life world of the people.
    Keywords: Grounded theory, Interpretive sociology, Life, world
  • Faramarz Barimani, Osman Baluchi Pages 585-613
    Introduction
    Rural areas in less developed countries, including Iran, are facing with enormous challenges due to rising economic and social disparities between urban and rural areas. Hence, identifying and explaining the factors affecting quality of life in these areas is very important. Today the Quality of life is discussed as a key element in policy making and public policy. Results of the studies can help identify problematic areas, causes of people discontent, priorities of people in life, policies evaluation, ranking of locations, and compilation of management strategies and planning for community (town, village). It also facilitates understanding and classification of priorities of society issues for planners and managers in order to promote the quality of life. New studies emphasize on two indicators to measure the quality of life in different parts of the world that are objective (quantitative) and subjective (qualitative). So, there are many methods to measure and evaluate quality of life including descriptive and inferential statistical and Non-statistical analyses. But since there are large inherent uncertainties ruling in the human sciences, especially in spatial planning and decision making, conclusive and traditional methods based on Boolean logic and having a two-value view, in case of confronting with inaccurate information and ill-defined concepts have very poor performance and is without any advantages to determine existing fact. This is due to many reasons such as relying on quantitative information more than qualitative, incomplete criteria and indicators, incompatible ideas and perceptions, risk and uncertainty and high costs of access to accurate information and etc. and it is not far less effective in precise speech of fact. Therefore, to assess the quality of life (a concept that is relatively obscure), it is important to use new methods and multi-valued approach which make it possible to utilize compound collection of quantitative and qualitative indicators in various ranges and spans and provide more realistic results. The aim of this research is to assess and analyze the quality of life in rural areas by using "fuzzy logic" through objective (quantitative) and subjective (qualitative) indicators in economic and social terms.
    Methodology
    The method of the research is descriptive-analytic based on fuzzy logic. Statistical population is all households in villages with over 20 family from Mahban Sub-district, Nikshahr Township, located in south of Sistan and Baluchestan Province. Samples (for gathering information of subjective quality of life) according to the Cochran were obtained from the results of 273 questionnaires. Choosing the number of households in each village was based on the number and geographic dispersion of the villages. Concrete data of the research (quantitative) has been obtained from existing documents in governmental agencies, statistical documents and questionnaires. Procedure of assessment and analysis of the quality of life, by using fuzzy logic, has been done in three stages including fuzzy modeling input data, making inferences and making non-fuzzy. In the first step, after collection and classification of the data membership functions to fuzzy sets was defined in a range from high quality to low quality. In the next step, variables were found in a cluster. Then, using the Subscribe operation of fuzzy, based on opinion, expert, as the knowledge base, and the Fuzzy rules of if-then in the software MATLAB, assessment and analysis was carried out. In the final stage, after reviewing the results of fuzzy rules, qualitative data during the process, as the "center", was converted into quantitative data.
    Results And Discussion
    The various natural structure of Mahban Sub-district has a great impact on the pattern of settlement and dispersion of villages, access to resources and the potential for development, the form of activities of the villagers, distribution services, network access and transportation, spatial distribution of population and finally the quality of life of rural people. This structural diversity causes differences in the villages to enjoy many blessings of life, such as water resources, land, pastures, transportation network, public services and other infrastructure. In general, natural structure of the region plays a fundamental role in unbalanced distribution of population, facilities and services between the villages. The results suggest that there is a significant difference between different rural settlements in quality of life. This difference is more significant in an objective way, so that it is fluctuated from the minimum ratio (0.145) in Moki Paein Village to the maximum rate (0.501) in Keshik. The reasons for this difference can be attributed to rural location differences (height, location and geographic conditions arising). However, in mental aspect, the rate quality of life varies from the minimum (0.460) in Titrandan Village to maximum (0.607) in Keshik. Subjective quality of life (satisfaction) in analogy with the objective quality of life is in the better state. That shows contentment and satisfaction of villagers is under the idea of fatalism. Totally in the view of objective quality of life, Keshik village stands in the highest rank and Moki Paien Village in the lowest. However, in the view of subjective quality of life (satisfaction), Keshik Village is placed in the first rank and Titrandan in the last. The research results using Pearson Correlation showed that in the studied range, there is direct significant relationship between the objective quality of life and subjective one. It means that with increasing resources, facilities and services and with promotion in their qualities, the level of satisfaction (economic and social) has also been increased and vice versa.
    Conclusions
    Results have overlapping and consistency with theoretical perspectives and research findings. This emphasizes on the remedy of the policies of economic and social development in rural areas to improve the quality of life. This is because quality of life in the study area is poor compared with other regions of the country.
    Keywords: Fuzzy logic, Quality of life, Mahban Sub, district, Rural areas
  • Jaber Alizadeh, Hamid Barghi, Hamzeh Rahimi, Ali Afsharipour Pages 615-640
    Introduction
    Recognition, measurement and improvement in quality of life are the main purpose of the research. Since 1960s, the quality of life has become as one of the favorite subjects in social science. Because in this decade it was determined that economic progress does not improve the life of people. The quality of the life of people and rural places depend on many factors, including employment, proper income, services like education, hygiene, health, natural environment. Although, the quality of the life of people and urban places depend on these factors, but challenges related to welfare and good life in the urban region is so different from those in rural region. Factors such as small scale and low population density in urban region, low employment and income in agronomy section, difficult accessibility, geographic isolation, and poor connection ways all complicate implementation of important policies. Therefore, the main purpose of this research is determination of indicators, evaluation of the quality of subjective life in rural center of Miandeh in Fars. At first, the related sources of Quality of life were observed to select the appropriate path.
    Methodology
    Then, after some rural areas were selected from Miandeh County as the most appropriate area for this research, the rate of the rate of residents satisfaction in terms of their Quality of life were measured by using field study methods. The sampling size was estimated 385 residents by using Cochran’s formula and considering both confident coefficient of 95 percent and the maximum heterogeneity hypothesis. The current research is intended to compare the obtained data of Miandeh rural-ship in terms of their view about their satisfaction of their quality of living. The researchers have used TOPSIS fuzzy technique in order to achieve the mentioned objective of the research. The obtained results have been placed in 3 categories (High satisfaction, middle and low satisfaction) using cluster analysis.
    Results
    The obtained results show that the most sustainable rural of the Miandeh rural-ship is Miandeh which has taken the highest score in 5 dimensions. In addition, it has created the absolute category itself in 3 criteria of environmental, physical and social health. In this regard, the rural of Miandeh is recognized as the most suitable area to live with the fuzzy score of 2.46 and the highest average of 0.49. The rural areas including Nasirabad, Rahim abad, Geharab with the FTOPSIS score of 2.16, 2.15 and fuzzy average of 0.43, 0.429 and 0.42 are placed in middle level of quality of life. Actually, the three mentioned areas need to get more attention than the rural of Miandeh. The rest of the rural areas such as Bidzard, Bishezard, Sadeh and Abuzarabad are not in appropriate condition in quality of life. In this case, the obtained results for mentioned rural areas have fuzzy averages of 0.409, 0.407, 0.406 and 0.403. This shows the inappropriate condition of such areas. Additionally, the related calculations to Pearson correlation indicate that among various dimensions of quality of life in rural areas, only 2 significant relationships (between physical health and social health and between environmental health and physical health) are observed as incomplete relationships. Different decisions based on the available resources to enhance the quality of rural life, conditions of local and regional areas and the needs of residents in target areas, require comprehensive and scientific knowledge. From 1960 the scientific efforts to define the term of quality of life have been developed in identifying the constituent elements and methods of measuring quality of life. The main objective of this study was to determine the parameters of the research, evaluation and assessment of subjective quality of life in rural district of Fasa Town ship. In this study, three levels of satisfaction with an acceptable quality of life (stable), medium low (unstable) were recognized. The findings suggest that in terms of the environmental health, Miandeh village were identified as the most stable village and in the next level is the village of Nasirabad. Other villages are unstable with respect to environmental health. In dimension of social health, Miandeh Village is recognized as stable. Sedeh Village is located in the next level, and other villages have been identified as unstable with low satisfaction levels. In dimension of physical health, Miandeh has the highest level of satisfaction and villages of Bidzard, Gehrab and Abuzrabad were identified has the second level in this terms. Rahim Abad villages, Sedeh, Nasirabad and bishezard with low satisfaction levels are located at the last level. In relation to mental health, Miandeh villages, Rahim Abad village in Nasirabad district of Miandeh have been chosen as the healthiest. Sedeh villages, Gehrab and Bidzard were located in the middle in terms of satisfaction. In the dimension of economic health in villages of Miandeh, Rahim Abad Gehrab as the nearest have been identified to ideally phased options. The Nasirabad village is located at the interface between a weak and acceptable content. Four other villages (Bidzard, bishezard, sedeh and Abuzarabad) have been identified with weak economy in district villages.
    Keywords: Fuzzy TOPSIS, Linguistic variables, Myandh Villages, Quality of life, Rural areas
  • Abdolreza Roknoddin Eftekhari, Hamdollah Sojasi Qeidari, Mehdi Purtaheri, Adel Azar Pages 641-660
    Introduction
    Although the concept of ecotourism as the ideal of Environmental Protection and Sustainable Development is based on the global current the role of human interference in the nature is more than that of natural conditions. Because of this, there is still a vulnerable stability condition. Other scholars including Carter and Caudal are in doubt about tourism and environmental sustainability; they believe that sustainable tourism, despite its obligations on environmental conditions, would not be achievable. However, some people like Butler believe that in spite of numerous investigations in this area, we must await the results and the related successful outcomes in the future. However, using the appropriate setting for the leisure environment, population is catchy. Ecotourism is able to use the increased powers of environmental cooperation, its economic impact, environmental protection, sustainable development and mobility and dynamism in the local and regional economy. Climatic and natural attractions along with different geographical heritage of human civilization and ethnic and racial diversity of the expensive-for-people stock in the field of economy has brought up the sustainable exploitation.
    Methodology
    Firstly, ecotourism planning, as a multi-criteria decision making problem is formulated using the TOPSIS technique. Criteria and indicators are evaluated using GIS, remote sensing techniques, coupled with field data and literature. All the scores are standardized because they are not non-commensurate. Preferences on the criteria and indicators are expressed as weights that are assigned by decision makers. Combining the weights and the indicator maps generates ecotourism priority maps of the decision makers. They are then integrated using compromise programming techniques where a separation distance is calculated. Potential ecotourism areas are generated using thresholds on the separation distance image for delineating potential new protected areas. Based on the rural portions in the case study the tourism plan is generated that contains the ecotourism areas and the recommended ecotourism actions.
    Results And Discussion
    Data in the maps are divided into 5 suitability classes for ecotourism, namely, very highly suitable, highly suitable, moderately suitable, marginally suitable, and not suitable. From the suitability map for ecotourism, it was found that the area of marginally suitable and not suitable are located in the central and south part of the province. The area of moderately suitable is in the eastern and western parts of the province. Only a few percentages of the area were classified as very highly suitable and highly suitable. With regard to the analysis of the results and ecotourism requirements, the typical sites recommended are summarized based on 3 classes. ‘Very highly suitable and highly suitable and ecotourism potential category involves the most sensitive area and development activities within this area which will lead to disaster and threaten the natural characteristic of the area. It could serve as main ecotourism attractions but with the use of certain limitations and guidelines. Example of guideline to be used to limit the number and duration of access to the area is the code of conduct. This area is suitable for tourism development category and includes the areas with low sensitivity and available for exploitation. Still, development should be conducted in an appropriate manner with respect to minimizing development negative impact. Physical structures such as green hotels, lodge, restaurants and public convenience facilities are needed to support ecotourism in these areas. Activities suggested for these areas include education and research related activities, site seeing and trekking. ‘Moderately suitable or ecotourism potential category allows for mild development but with high consideration on construction work and detail assessment of environmental impact. These areas can still be considered for ecotourism attractions due to passive tourist activities such as camping, trekking, bird watching, site seeing and any activities with minimum development or inference to the site. Marginally suitable and not suitable area and currently not suitable category includes areas with several impacts of development and degraded environment. The development of ecotourism is further enhanced by geospatial approaches. This study is an integrated approach of ecotourism development by identifying ecotourism sites and constructing methodology to assess the ecotourism sustainability by matching the characteristics of an area with those attributes most appropriate for ecotourism.
    Conclusion
    Then by using of ecotourism function sample ecotourism villages were selected by implementing algorithm in several stages and overlapping layers. Results showed that 8 villages are selected as consistent with the four environmental areas and the selected villages have a high ability in the country's River valley eco-Tourism.
    Keywords: Ecotourism, Ecotourism assessment model, Multi criteria analysis, Sample rural, Tehran, TOPSIS, GIS
  • Seyedeh Khadijeh Rezatab Azgoumi, Rahim Heydari Chiyaneh Pages 661-690
    Introduction
    Access to tourism destinations and ranking of them are the main aspects of tourism development planning. Although the Analysis Network Process (ANP) is based on Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) but network structure or feedback is dominated in decision making of the options. This article tries to respond to following questions in order to prove the main goal of the research as selection of the best tourism target in west of Guilan mountainous region: What are the tourism destinations in west of Guilan mountainous area? What indices and criteria are considered for investigation and evaluation of these destinations? Rural development strategy (RSD) is investigated in this article. Thus, it is the city development strategy (CDS) with only the difference in case of study. The main goals of RDS are promotion of the villagers lifestyle, environment quality, offering appropriate services and energy resources efficiency, promotion of rural location form and foundations, providing financial resources for rural development and promotion of management plans in the rural areas. Although RDS components and elements change according to different characteristics and conditions of the villages, but the main elements are including designing and evaluation involving organizational formations for proceed of village situation (current situation), plans and strategies involving setting long term plans and strategies, implementing and supervision involving implementation of the plan, institutionalization of RDS, and control of implementation by appropriate approaches. The expected results of application of this approach are: management of mental and institutional changes, investment plans (social, cultural and principles foundation), institutionalization of supervision mechanisms.
    Methodology
    In order to collect the data and investigate the statistical population half of the population was selected as sample (200 from 400 persons) for interview. The population includes tourism sector managers, experts and counselors, mountaineers and natives. Simple sampling method is used and the required data were collected by investigation of the documents, resources and questionnaire and interview. Cronbach test was used for measuring validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The reliability of ANP model was confirmed by ratio of pair wise comparison matrix compatibility. The used compatibility ratio is based on incompatibility and random indices. In order to prioritize the tourism destinations, goals, and determination of the studied indices, two questionnaires were prepared. The counselors, experts, mountaineers and the native residents were asked to respond. The first questionnaire involved prioritization of the tourism destinations and its recognition and development trend. In this questionnaire, five grades were considered by attention to qualitative indices according to Likert scale. The fifth grade is about superior and the other grades are good, fair and very bad, in order. After survey of the questionnaires and compilation of the tourism destinations for prioritization, the second questionnaire was prepared based on ANP of the tourism destinations. It was distributed among statistical population.
    Results
    At first the problem is defined as hierarchical structure of sub-factors and strategy options. Tourism target is selected in the first level in model ANP. Ecotourism criteria, semi nomadic lifestyle and foundations situations are in the second level. The third level involves tourism destinations proposed options. The proposed options in the mentioned matrix are following villages: A1: AGH EVLAR, A2: LOMEH DASHT, A3: SARAGHA, A4: SOBATAN A5: HEYRAN A6: RENDANEH A7: DASHT DAMAN. Clusters inner and outer relations with elements are also defined. There is an inner relationship between all clusters and criteria, except target cluster. The target cluster has outer relation with all clusters and there is an external relationship among ecotourism criteria and clusters, historical monuments and options cluster. There is an interactional relationship between option cluster and criterion cluster. Options of AGHE VLAR, LOMEH DASHT, SARAGHA, and DASHT DAMAN as tourism destinations of west Guilan mountainous zone have inner relations. All pair wise comparisons and matrix of all criteria and clusters are defined by 1-9 using prioritization scale or importance of judgments. Rate should be less than 0.1. This level of error is acceptable by considering number of judgments and result error of interviews. According to judgments, Software Super Decision proposes 0.8123 as the best value for incompatible judgments. According to final importance and normalized results (WANP), the three criteria of semi nomadic lifestyle (8C=0.198), access to lake view (6C=0.483), and using healthy drinking water (16C=0.109) are the most important with significant effect on prioritization. The main tourism destinations of west Guilan mountainous zones are EVLAR %38.23, SARAGHA %34.23 and SOBATAN %8.16 as the first, second and third priorities, respectively. The managers, tourists and native residents were interviewed about the results. The results were confirmed by %98.20 indicating reliability of the ANP model. The Cronbach alpha was used for validity of the model by %98.52 indicating validity of the model. It can be inferred that ANP model is highly accurate and it can be based on priority of tourism destinations. It should be noted that the results of this process is conformed to the results of intuitional insight. Conclusion and Implications: The results show that RDS is not dominated in tourism planning since the expected results from application of this approach are not obvious in one of the management, institutional, and investment plans. Thus, this condition indicates lack of identification and introduction of these intact areas and lack of allocation of financial resources for development, lack of clear polices plans and management of tourism industry in this region.
    Keywords: AHP, ANP, Super decisions software, Tourism planning, West of Guilan