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Computational and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering - Volume:3 Issue: 2, Spring 2014

Journal of Computational and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering
Volume:3 Issue: 2, Spring 2014

  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/12/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
  • Rouhollah Hosseini, Keikhosrow Firoozbakhsh, Hossein Naseri Pages 85-95
    Because the underlying physiology of pathological tremor in a Parkinson''s patient is not well understood, the existing physical and drug therapies have not been successful in tremor treatment. Different mathematical modeling of such vibration has been introduced to investigate the problem and reduce the existing vibration. Most of the models have represented the induced vibration as a sinusoidal wave for mathematical simplification. In this study, a more realistic model based on random vibration was used to attack the problem of tremor suppression. A simple approach for suppressing the tremor associated with Parkinson''s disease was presented. This paper was concerned with a multi-objective approach for optimum design of linear vibration absorber subject to random vibrations. Analytical expressions, for the case of non-stationary white-noise accelerations, were also derived. The present approach was different from conventional optimum design criteria since it was based on minimizing displacement as well as accelerating variance of the main structure responses without considering performances required against discrepancy in response. In this study, in order to control the tremor induced on biomechanical arm model excited by non-stationary based acceleration random process, multi-objective optimization (MOO) design of a vibration absorber was developed and performed using modern imperialist competitive optimization algorithm for multi-objective optimization. The results demonstrated importance of this method and showed that multi-objective design methodology provided significant improvement in performance stability and giving better control of the design solution choice.
    Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Vibration absorber, Random vibrations, Imperialist competitive algorithm, Multi, objective optimization
  • P. R. Mashaei, S. M. Hosseinalipour, K. Esmailpour Pages 95-103
    In recent years, impinging streams have received increasing interest for their high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. This numerical study was conducted to investigate flow and heat transfer characteristics of one-way opposing jets of non-Newtonian fluids. Effects of Reynolds number impinging angle, momentum ratio and flow behavior index on mixing index were evaluated. The results showed improvement of thermal mixing due to an increase in Reynolds number, flow behavior index and momentum ratio in impinging zone. This study also demonstrated that thermal mixing along the channel increased as the Reynolds number and momentum ratio decreased. Nevertheless, augmentation of the flow behavior index resulted in higher thermal mixing along the channel. The impinging angle had no significant effect on thermal mixing along the channel; but, with increasing impinging angle, thermal mixing improved in the impinging zone.
    Keywords: Opposing streams, Mixing index, Non, Newtonian, Flow behavior index, Impinging angle
  • Mahdi Ghamami, Masoud Shariat Panahi, Maryam Rezaei Pages 105-113
    In today''s design, system complexity and increasing demand for safer, more efficient and less costly systems have created new challenges in science and engineering. Locomotives are products which are designed according to market order and technical needs of customers. Accordingly, targets of companies, especially designers and manufacturers of locomotives, have always been on the path of progress and seek to offer products with higher technology than other competitors. Quality of body structures is based on indicators such as natural frequency, displacement, fatigue life and maximum stress. Natural frequency of various components of the system and their adaption to each other are important for avoiding the phenomenon of resonance. In this study, body structures of ER24 locomotive (Iran Safir Locomotive) was studied. A combination of imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA) and artificial neural network was proposed to find optimal weight of structures while natural frequencies were in the determined range. Optimization of locomotive''s structure was performed with an emphasis on maintaining locomotive abilities in static and dynamic fields. The results indicated that use of optimization techniques in the design process was a powerful and effective tool for identifying and improving main dynamic characteristics of structures and also optimizing performance in stress, noise and vibration fields.
    Keywords: Locomotive, Artificial neural network, Natural frequency Optimization, Imperialist competitive algorithm (ICA)
  • M. Ghalambaz, A. Noghrehabadi Pages 113-123
    In this paper, natural convection heat transfer over a vertical plate in a Darcy porous medium saturated with a nanofluid subject to heat generation/absorption was theoretically studied. The governing partial differential equations were transformed to a set of ordinary differential equations using similarity transformations and solved using finite difference method. The influence of parametric variation of the Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis parameter and heat generation/absorption parameter on velocity, temperature and nanoparticles concentration profiles was graphically shown. Impact of non-dimensional parameters on the reduced Nusselt number and reduced Sherwood number was also investigated. The results showed that an increase in the heat generation/absorption parameter would increase temperature and velocity profiles; but, it would decrease concentration profiles. Increase of thermophoresis parameter increased magnitude of concentration profiles while not showing any significant effect on velocity and temperature profiles. The results also indicated that increase of Brownian motion parameter did not demonstrate any significant effect on the magnitude of velocity and temperature profiles. It was found that an increase in the heat generation/absorption parameter decreased the reduced Nusselt number whereas it increased the reduced Sherwood number. For negative values of the Brownian motion parameter, increase of the thermophoresis parameter increased the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers.
    Keywords: Nanofluid, Natural convection, Porous media, Heat generation, Drift flux model
  • Hashem Zamanian, Mehdi Bostan Shirin, Ahmad Assempour Pages 125-134
    In this work, an inverse finite element formulation was modified for considering material anisotropy in obtaining blank shape and forming severity of deep drawn orthotropic parts. In this procedure, geometry of final part and thickness of initial blank sheet were known. After applying ideal forming formulations between material points of initial blank and final shape, an equation system was obtained in terms of unknown initial positions on the blank sheet. Initial positions of material points were obtained by solving this equation system. In this algorithm, the Hill''s anisotropic plasticity and associated plastic flow rule were used. Strain distribution on the final part was obtained by comparing the initial blank and final part. The method was applied for the simulation of drawing an orthotropic blank to a rectangular cup. Accuracy of the presented method was evaluated by comparing the results with numerical forward method and experiment results.
    Keywords: Initial blank design, Orthotropic materials, Inverse finite element method
  • S. Khalilpourazary, P. M. Kashtiban, N. Payam Pages 135-144
    Nowadays, in order to reach minimum production cost in machining operations, various optimization methods have been proposed. Since turning operation has different parameters affecting the workpiece quality, it was selected as a complicated manufacturing method in this paper. To reach sufficient quality, all influencing parameters such as cutting speed, federate, depth of cut and tool rake angle were selected as input parameters. Furthermore, both surface roughness and tool life were considered as the objectives. Also, ST37 steel and M1 high speed steel (HSS) were selected as workpiece material and tool, respectively. Subsequently, grey relational analysis was performed to elicit optimal values for the mentioned input data. To achieve this goal, first, degree of freedom was calculated for the system and the same experiments were performed based on the target values and number of considered levels, leading to calculating grey relational generating, grey relational coefficient and grey relational grade. As the next step, the grey relational graph was sketched for each level. Finally, optimum values of the parameters were obtained for better surface roughness and tool life. It was shown that the presented method in the turning operation of ST37 led to high surface quality and tool life.
    Keywords: Turning, Optimization, Grey analysis, Sourface roughness, Tool life
  • M. Zamanian, S. A. A. Hosseini Pages 145-159
    This article studied static deflection, natural frequency and nonlinear vibration of a clamped-clamped microbeam under discontinues electrostatic actuation. The electrostatic actuation was induced by applying AC-DC voltage between the microbeam and electrode plate. In contrast to previous works, it was assumed that length of the electrode plate was smaller than that of the microbeam. In addition, it was assumed that a layer whose length was equal to that of the electrode plate was deposited on the lower side of the microbeam. Equation of motion was derived using Newton''s second law. The static deflection due to the DC electrostatic actuation and the natural frequency about this position were obtained using the Galerkin method. Nonlinear vibration of the system due to the AC electrostatic actuation was obtained using the multiple scale perturbation method. Variations of static deflection, pull-in voltage, natural frequency and frequency response of vibration about the static deflection of microbeam with respect to variations of second layer length, second layer thickness, electrode plate length and value of electrostatic actuation were also studied. It was shown that, depending on the value of these parameters, static deflection and natural frequency of vibration about static deflection increased or decreased. Moreover, it was demonstrated that, depending on the value of these system parameters, nonlinear vibration of the system due to the AC electrostatic actuation might be realized as a softening or hardening behavior.
    Keywords: Microbeam, Electrostatic actuation, Natural frequency, Nonlinear vibration, Galerkin method, Perturbation method