فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:6 Issue: 1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/12/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Abdolkazem Neisi, Shahram Moshashaian, Afshin Takdastan Pages 213-219
    Introduction
    Shadegan is a city and the capital of Shadegan County in Khuzestan Province, Iran. It has an area of 3197 m2 and located 84 km south of Ahvaz. Water distribution system serves 70,000 people in the city and the total consumed drinking water is 28525 m3per day (3,4). This descriptive, cross sectional study examined water quality of Shadegan distribution system and its corrosion potential. Methods and Materials: In this study, eight water distribution stations were selected and samples were taken and examined in a five-year period from 2007 to 2011. Standard methods were performed to examine all the parameters. Sculler classification method was used to classify chemical water quality. All the water quality parameters were compared with the Iranian national standards for drinking water.
    Results
    The results indicated that the highest level of pollution occurred in autumn. Residual in 97% of samples were 0.2 to 0.8 mg/l. Wilcox water quality classification was C2S4. Electrical Conductivity (EC) was 3019 µs/cm, and 2.9% of all the samples for fecal coliforms were positive.
    Conclusion
    Based on Langelier, corrosion index of water in the distribution system was balanced.
    Keywords: Water quality, Shadegan, distribution system, corrosion
  • Hamed Tabesh, Abolfazl Payandeh, Mohammad Taghi Shakeri, Mohammad Safarian Pages 221-226
    Introduction
    Reference curves are useful tools to monitor children’s growth status and can promote growth velocity in infants. In this regard, various parametric and semi-parametric methods are frequently used in the last decades. In the present paper, nonparametric quantile regression method is used as apowerful and applicable methodology to estimate height curves and normal values of height-for-age in children aged 0 to 5 years. The results of this study are compared with World Health Organization (WHO) references and semi-parametric LMS method of Cole and Green. Methods and Materials: As part of a national survey, 70,737 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years were recruited in July 2004 for 20 days from among those referring to the community clinics for routine health check-ups. Anthropometric measurements were conducted by trained health staff using WHO methodology. To estimate curves and normal values, we applied the nonparametric quantile regression method obtained by local constant kernel estimation of conditional quantile curves.
    Results
    Studying a population of boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years living in the northeast of Iran, the weight-for-age growth curves were derived. The results were consistent to those obtained by a semi-parametric LMS method with the same data. The median values of the children’s weight in all the age groups were lower than the corresponding values in WHO reference data. The weight curves of boys were higher than those of girls in all age groups.
    Conclusions
    The differences between growth patterns of children living in the northeast of Iran versus the international ones are considerable which necessitate applying local and regional growth charts. International normal values may not properly recognize the populations at risk for growth problems in the Iranian children. Quantile regression (QR) which does not require restricted assumptions is a flexible method, which is proposed for estimating reference curves and normal values.
    Keywords: Nonparametric quantile regression, growth curves, normal values
  • Masoomeh Reyshahri, Saeed Malmasi, Seyed Ali Jozi, Zahra Anoosheh Pages 227-224
    Introduction
    This research was undertaken to evaluate and determine the risk of gas fluids and leakage of Persian Gulf Star Refinery on the environment in Bandar Abbas Methods and Materials: Through collection and compilation of research findings, we attempted to identify and work on factors leading to environmental risks. The risk factors were identified by HAZOP team and the risk score was calculated by multiplying the probability of intensity using the default PHA-Pro software. The intensity was calculated using Roline Geronsine. An environmental risk assessment is vital in terms of environmental safeties and protection. To determine the distribution of contamination PHAST software was used.
    Results
    According to the results of the assessment, seven units of the total 17 refinery units turned out to pose major hazards. In total, 28 risks factors were identified, of which 46% (12 risks) attributed to SRP. The fuel-gas unit had the minimum number of risks (1 risk, 4%). The study showed that 75% of the plant’s environmental risks were caused by failure of equipment (OR poor performance of equipment) and the rest caused by human errors. In addition, we found that 24 risk factors (85%) were in grade 3, and the rest were in grade 2.
    Conclusions
    In HAZOP method, equipment and economic damages caused by unexpected events as well as the environmental damage are not of high priority, just as in the other methods of risk assessment that are based on process safety management. Hence, in this study, applying PHAST software, impacts of pollution on the region environment were identified. According to the results obtained in the Persian Gulf region, it was found that environment could be affected by unexpected events in terms of sensitivity together with PHAST output. Thus, vigorous controls need to be exercised to prevent accidents.
    Keywords: Risk assessment, HAZOP method, PHAST software, condensation refinery, Bandar Abbas
  • Gholam Abbas Shirali, Sharare Azadian, Azadeh Saki Pages 245-256
    Introduction
    Awareness and preparedness for prevention of crisis plays an important role in minimizing its impacts and fatalities. This study suggests how to enhance the efficiency of crisis management through applying a Resilience Engineering (RE) approach. The aim of this study was to design a questionnaire to assess crisis management based on RE approach. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive survey, four principles of Resilience Engineering including top management commitment, flexibility, learning and awareness were assessed using a self-designed questionnaire. This research was conducted in seven public hospitals in Iran in the year 2013, and 113 nurses completed the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha), and intraclass correlation coefficient analyses. Furthermore, content, and face validity were assessed and the factor structure of the questionnaire was extracted by performing exploratory factor analysis.
    Results
    The mean age of participants was 32.7 (SD=7.18) years. Reliability evaluation showed high internal consistency and good reliability. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was 0.951 (p<0.001) and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was 0.95. The mean scores for the content validity index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR) were 0.85 and 0.75, respectively. The results of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated four factors for the questionnaire that jointly explained 69.9% of variance observed.
    Conclusions
    The findings of this study suggest that assessing crisis management applying a Resilience Engineering approach-based questionnaire is beneficial and advantageous in assessing crisis management in hospitals.
    Keywords: Crisis management, Resilience Engineering, hospital, safety
  • Mansour Zahiri, Pardis Allivand, Roya Ghasemzadeh, Seyed Mahmood Latifi, Keyhan Fathi Pages 257-263
    Introduction
    Hearing loss can affect physical, mental and social health of deaf adults and lead cause depression, anxiety, isolation, suspicion and stress. This study was aimed to compare mental health in the hearing-impaired elderly with hearing aid and hearing-impaired elderly without hearing aids referring to Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital. Methods and Materials: In this cross- sectional study, the participants included 72 hearing-impaired elderly elderly aged 60 years or older who referred to Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital, 36 of which were with hearing aids and 36 without. Each group consisted of 18 women and 18 men. Data collecting tool included Goldberg General Health Questionnaire–28 (GHQ-28). GHQ-28 included general health and four subscales of anxiety, depression, physical symptoms and social dysfunction. The independent t-test was used for analyzing the data.
    Results
    The mean mental health scores in hearing-impaired elderly without hearing aids and with hearing aid were as 48.13 (57.2%) and 35.66 (42.4%), respectively. Comparing the two groups means through t-test, it was concluded that differences between them is statistically significant (p=0.001). The mental health mean score between men and women in the two groups was significant p≤0. 049. In addition, the difference in the mean mental health subscales between the two groups was significant. Thus the hearing-impaired elderly without hearing aids compared to those with hearing aid are more likely to experience depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and social dysfunctions (p≤0. 003).
    Conclusions
    The results suggest that the hearing-impaired elderly with hearing aid compared to those without hearing aid have more mental health score
    Keywords: Hearing aid, hearing, impaired elderly, mental health
  • Karim Rezadoost, Marzieh Shahryari, Marzieh Sepahvand Pages 265-272
    Introduction
    Our Country, Iran is one of the countries in the world population it has become a social problem. Iran''s population growth despite decreased rate in recent years is still relatively high and due to the young population, there is also the possibility of increased population growth in the coming years. This study aimed to assess the reproductive status of working women (in Education and Training Department) and homemaker, and social-economic factors associated with it in Andimeshk city. Including the government''s policy of reward and punishment as a means of fertility control in the community can be. Methods and Materials: In this study, research method is survey method and the tool for data collection was questionnaire. The population is composed of all married women of Andimeshk City in the study time, that with confidence level of 95% and using Kerges and Morgan formula, 300 of whom were chosen, which from employed women 150 individuals and housewives the same number were selected separately. To analyze the data collected, software spss was used. In addition, for all the assumptions, significant level of α = 0.05 has been considered.
    Results
    the Pearson correlation coefficient and significance level of 0.05, between fertility of unemployed and employed women, age, education, income, awareness of the consequences of population growth, social-economic status and fertility, there is an inverse relationship.
    Conclusions
    One of the main topics of the population, which plays a major role in the transformation of both the quantity and quality of the population, is fertility. Creating suitable contexts for women''s employment in accordance with their needs, talents, natural conditions, the economy and their capabilities, because the greater the level of participation of women in activities outside the home, can be expected it to reduce the fertility.
    Keywords: fertility, Attitude of women fertility, Awareness, understanding of women, social, economic factors
  • Mitra Dogonchi, Ali Vafaeenajar, Mohammad Vahedian, Hossein Ebrahimipour, Naser Shafiei, Habibollah Esmaily Pages 273-280
    Introduction
    occupational burnout leads to a negative self-concept, and negative attitude toward the job. The role of physical activity in physical and mental health of community has been recognized as an integral component. This paper aims to determine the effect of physical activity training on occupational burnout. Methods and Materials: In this semi-experimental study carried out in the city of AghGhalain the north of Iran in 2012, 120 employees were selected using convenience sampling, two standard questionnaires (physical activity and occupational burnout) for collecting data. Data were analyzed using SPSS16. Significant level was considered 0.05 in all analyses.
    Results
    It was found that 45.7% of the employees had no physical inactivity or had low physical activity, 32.7% of them had moderate and 21% had intensive physical activity. Among the subscales of burnout, emotional exhaustion had the highest rate (25.24±9/5). There was a significant relationship between emotional exhaustion and physical activity using Chi-square (χ2) test (p=0/000).
    Conclusions
    Inactivity, common among employees, causes exhaustion. We recommend the staff be trained for physical activity and also the authorities provide sports facilities for them
    Keywords: Physical activity, burnout, training
  • Masoumeh Ahmadizadeh, Simin Amirmoezy, Tayyebeh Pol Pages 281-287
    Introduction
    Occupational exposure to Toluene is associated with development and progression of renal failure. However, the cellular mechanisms by which these agents cause renal dysfunction and injury remain elusive. The present study investigates the effect of Toluene on animal model (rat) kidney to present a broader understanding of the mechanism by which Toluene causes renal injury. Methods and Materials: Adult male rats received Toluene at doses of 300, 600 and 900 mg/kg for seven consecutive days. Control group received vehicle only, and 24 hours later, animals were euthanized with overdose of sodium pentobarbital. Blood was collected for determination of BUN and creatinine (CR). Kidney tissues were removed, fixed and processed for light microscopy and determination of glutathione (GSH). Ten animals were used for each group.
    Results
    Biochemical and histopathological observations indicated that Toluene produced injury in the kidney. Statistical analysis indicated significantly increased BUN, CR and decreased GSH levels as compared to control values. Toluene induced dose-dependent injury in kidney.
    Conclusions
    The finding that Toluene induced injury in proximal convoluted tubular cells suggests that kidney may metabolize Toluene in situ to a nephrotoxic metabolite. The observation that Toluene depleted GSH level in kidney support the view that generation of oxidative stress is responsible for its toxicity.
    Keywords: Toluene, kidney, glutathione (GSH)