فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 47 (بهار و تابستان 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/04/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • مجید امانی صفحات 5-14
    این مقاله چهار نسخه مختلف و معتبر از تنظیم لوت-سوییت ب.و.ف 996 در می مینور اثر یوهان سباستین باخ (1750-1685) بر روی گیتار را بررسی می کند. ضمن معرفی اثر، از لحاظ نوع برخورد هر یک از نسخه ها، آنها را نخست مورد ارزیابی کلی قرار می دهیم و در صورت نیاز با وارد شدن به جزئیات، مقایسه ای را در زمینه های مختلف، از قبیل کوک، انگشت گذاری ها، محدوده صوتی، بهره گیری از مصالح سازی و احیانا سایر موارد انجام می گیرد. هدف، ارائه فاکتورهایی ست برای تشخیص منطقی و اصیل از قطعات موسیقی دوران گذشته که احیانا نیاز به بازنگری برای سازهای امروزی دارند، و در نتیجه رسیدن به اجرایی با همین خصایص. هر چند در این راه گاه با تناقضاتی رو به رو هستیم که اساسا اصالت کار را زیر سوال می برند. نسخه های مورد بحث به ترتیب زمان انتشار عبارتند از تنظیم های هینس تویخرت، منتشر شده به سال 1979 میلادی، جولیان بریم، منتشر شده به سال 1981، روجرو کیه زا، تاریخ انتشار 1991 و فرانک کونس که در سال 2002 منتشر شده است.
    کلیدواژگان: یوهان سباستین باخ، لوت، سوییت شماره 1، تنظیم، نسخه(ادیسیون)، گیتار
  • رامین روشندل صفحات 15-22
    هدف این مقاله، بررسی فرم و هارمونی در قطعه ی نی نوا اثر حسین علیزاده است. برای تجزیه و تحلیل فرم نی نوا، ابتدا فرم کلی هر قسمت بررسی شده است و پس از آن به طبقه بندی جمله ها یا انگاره های ریتمیک و ملودیک هر قسمت به صورت جداگانه پرداخته ایم. به علاوه، در صورت انطباق فرم قسمت های مختلف با یکی از فرم های کلاسیک، این انطباق بررسی شده است و سپس جمله ها، واریاسیون آنها و انگاره های ملودیک و ریتمیک به صورت جداگانه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته و تقسیم بندی شده اند. در ضمن، این انگاره ها در صورتی که با موتیف های موجود در ردیف تشابهی عینی یا با اندکی تغییر داشته اند، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته اند. هم چنین چگونگی استفاده آهنگساز از ترکیب های مختلف موتیف های ذکرشده در اثر، مورد مطالعه قرار گرفته است. در بررسی هارمونی، با در نظر گرفتن محدوده ملودیک هر گوشه در مد آن دستگاه و با استفاده از پلان های تنال به دست آمده از چندین قسمت از اثر، به چگونگی انتخاب هارمونی اثر و هم چنین موارد استفاده از آکوردهایی که بر اساس فواصل سوم(هارمونی تیرس) یا چهارم(کوارتال) هستند، می پردازیم. هم چنین خواهیم دید که آهنگساز در طول اثر، یک آکورد را به تناوب مورد استفاده قرار داده است و این آکورد، به نوعی نقش فرود به محدوده درآمد دستگاه نوا را ایفا می کند.
    کلیدواژگان: انگاره های ردیف، دگره های انگاره های ردیف، هارمونی کوارتال، هارمونی تیرس
  • سیده زهرا شریفی سوسری، کامبیز پورطهماسی، آیدا س گلپایگانی، ایریس برمود* صفحات 23-32
    سال هاست که چوب گردو به عنوان بهترین چوب و تنها منبع شناخته شده برای ساخت سنتور به کار می رود. با وجود اینکه سازندگان ساز بنا بر تجارب شخصی، دیدگاه های متفاوت و مشخصی در رابطه با خواص و کاربرد این چوب برای ساخت ساز دارند، تا به حال به طور علمی در این باره کاری انجام نشده است. بنابراین در این تحقیق نمونه های چوب گردوی سنتور سازی با درجه بندی های سنتی مختلف، از کارگاه دو استاد سازنده ساز جمع آوری و خواص صوتی واقعی آنها آزمون و مقایسه شد. چوب گردو خواص کلی سازهای زهی مضرابی را نشان داد: مدول ویژه بالا و ضریب میرایی نسبتا کمتر. نمونه های با درجه های بالاتر دانسیته و مدول یانگ بالاتری داشتند. در تمام نمونه ها، رابطه ی کاهشی استاندارد میان ضریب میرایی و مدول ویژه مشاهده شد. نتایج آزمون های صوتی، درجه بندی تجربی اساتید را تایید کرد: داده های درجات بالا و پایین با هم اختلاف مشخصی را داشتند اما خط مرزی درجات میانی مبهم تر بود و اهمیت برش، طرح صفحه رویی و رنگ در درجه بندی سنتی را خاطر نشان کرد. تیمار های سنتی بر بهتر شدن ویژگی های چوب نهایی اثر مثبتی داشتند: تیمار بخار دهی خصوصیات نمونه را به نمونه ی با بالاترین درجه نزدیک کرد، همچنین چوب پیر تر خواص ارتعاشی مناسب تری را نشان داد.
    کلیدواژگان: چوب گردو، سنتور، خواص صوتی، میرایی، تیمار بخار
  • فرشاد مفاخر، مصطفی مختاباد امرئی، غلامعلی افروز* صفحات 33-44
    توجه به نیازهای روحی و فکری آهسته گام ها که همان عقب ماندگان ذهنی هستند، همیشه جزء لاینفک طراحی برای آهسته گام ها بوده است. این پژوهش به تحلیل فضاهای معماری فیلم دودسکادن ساخته سال 1970 به کارگردانی کوروساوا می پردازد و بر مبنای سه نظم بنیادین ژاک لاکان: امر خیالی، نمادین و واقعی از منظر آهسته گامی به نام روکوچان به تحلیل فضاهای معماری صحنه های این فیلم می پردازد. به عنوان روشی مناسب جهت ایجاد ارتباط بین آنچه روکوچان تصور می کند و نماد هایی که در ذهن افراد جامعه اش بوجود می آید. کوروساوا بر اساس ذهن بیمار و دیوانه و عقب مانده زاغه نشینان از منظر سه نظم بنیادین لاکانی امر واقعی، خیالین و نمادین را با واقعیت هایی که در جامعه کوچک زاغه نشینی در فقر و هراس و مرگ هستند را با تقابل روکوچان و جامعه اش در سرتا سر فیلم در فضا های خاص معماری به تصویر می کشد. روش تحقیق در این پژوهش بصورت تحلیلی، توصیفی با ترکیبی از روش تحقیق کمی (از تئوری به نمونه)و روش تحقیق کیفی (از نمونه به تئوری) است.کوروساوا در ارائه فضاهای معماری بر اساس سه نظم بنیادین، امر خیالی، نمادین و واقعی عموما موفق عمل نموده بجز بخش هایی که به امر خیالی مربوط می شود، که بصورت تصنعی شکل گرفته است.
    کلیدواژگان: معماری، دودسکادن، ژاک لاکان، سه نظم بنیادین، آهسته گام
  • سیاوش آقازاده مسرور، نغمه ثمینی* صفحات 45-54
    برخلاف اوایل قرن بیستم که غالب نظریات، ریشه های نمایش را تنها در آیین های اولیه می جستند و برپایه همین استدلال سعی در تحلیل متون و اتفاقات صحنه ای داشتند، امروزه پدیده نمایش در توازی با دیگر ژانرهای اجرایی- از جمله بازی- و براساس ارتباطشان با هم مورد بازنگری قرار می گیرد و نظریات مبتنی بر خاستگاه برای آن، کمابیش اعتبار اولیه خود را از دست داده اند. آزمودن نمایش و متون نمایشی در سایه بازی، به عنوان یکی از ژانرهای موازی با نمایش، نیازمند شناخت کامل این پدیده و تسلط بر اشکال، حالات و مفاهیم و معانی مرتبط با آنها است. این شناخت نه تنها می تواند یاری رسان فهم بیشتر متون و اتفاق های صحنه ای کلاسیک باشد، بلکه از رهیافت آن می شود به فرم های جدید و پیچیده تری- مثل بازی مبهم- رسید که راهگشای شناخت، تبیین و تدوین متون و اتفاقات تئاتری نو خواهند بود. این مقاله نیز بر آن است تا با مقدمه ای درباب رابطه بازی و نمایش، وارد بحث اختصاصی بازی شده و سپس با بررسی نظریات یوهان هوی زینگا روی نمایشنامه بازرس آنتونی شفر،با تمرکز بر شکل خاص بازی مبهم، این نظریات را در هنگام اجرا شناسایی کند، ابعاد جدیدی از این نظریات کشف کرده ونیز پیشنهاداتی برای تحلیل و تدوین متون پیش رو قراردهد.
    کلیدواژگان: تئاتر و بازی، بازی و فرهنگ، ساختار بازی، بازی مبهم، حالات بازی
  • حمید صنیعی پور، جلیل خلیل آذر*، جابر دانش صفحات 55-68
    امروزه در فرآیند خلق فضای نمایش، تکنیک ها و شیوه های اجرایی و به تبع آن طراحی صحنه، تحولی شگرف ایجاد شده است. در آثار و نمایشنامه های مدرن، فضای حاکم بیش از همه جلب توجه می کند و از این رو، طراحان صحنه از تکنولوژی ها و فن آوری های نوین برای خلق فضا استفاده می کنند. در این عرصه می توان از پیشگامان برجسته ای از جمله آپیا، کریگ، میرهولد و به ویژه از جوزف اسووبودا نام برد. بهره وافر اسووبودا از پیشرفت های تکنیکی و توجه به کیفیات خاص فضای نمایش، ویژگی های متمایزی را در طراحی های صحنه وی بوجود آورده که این پژوهش، با هدف تبیین ساختار، مولفه های آفرینش فضا و شیوه های خلاقه وی، در پی پاسخ به این پرسش است که: بن اندیشه اسووبودا در خلق فضا دارای چه عناصر، الگوها و مشخصاتی است؟ روش تحقیق مبتنی بر رویکرد توصیفی- تحلیلی بوده و در گردآوری اطلاعات از روش کتابخانه ای استفاده شده است. مقاله حاضر ضمن تبیین کلیات پژوهش و مروری بر زندگی هنری و ابداعات اسووبودا، به تحلیل شالوده اندیشه خلق فضایی وی پرداخته است. آنچه از این کنکاش بر می آید، انگاره حفظ اصالت تئاتر با تاکید بر پویایی و تنوع بصری و پیوند آن با دانش معماری و نیز تداعی این اصالت در خلق فضا و تعامل آن با تماشاگر تئاتر است.
    کلیدواژگان: خلق فضا، صحنه پردازی مدرن، جوزف اسووبودا، حرکت و پویایی، تنوع بصری
  • ابراهیم محمدی، مریم افشار صفحات 69-77
    اسطوره، با آدمی زاده شده، تغییر و تحول پیدا کرده و در پیکره داستان ها و حکایات و همراه با آثار هنری و ادبی تداوم یافته است. نمی توان حضور اساطیر را در فرهنگ، ادبیات و هنر، از جمله هنرهای نمایشی –که از روزگار آیسخولوس، اوریپید و آریستوفانس تا سینمای روزگار ما با اسطوره پیوند استواری دارند- و نیز در گونه ها و مکتب های مختلف ادبی و هنری نادیده گرفت. رویکرد جدی به روایت های اسطوره ای، یکی از مولفه های اصلی ادبیات و هنر پسامدرنیستی نیز هست، اما با استفاده روایت های کلاسیک و حتی مدرنیستی متفاوت است. نگارندگان کوشیده اند در این نوشتار با تحلیل ساخت و محتوا و تبیین ویژگی های محتوایی- ساختاری فیلم مرگ یزدگرد، ساخته بهرام بیضایی، با تکیه بر مولفه های پسا مدرنیستی موجود، کاربست اسطوره را در فیلم نشان دهند و تبیین کنند که این اثر، دارای مولفه هایی از قبیل «تناقض، بی انسجامی، بینامتنیت، و نگاه پست مدرن به اسطوره» است. نگاه ویژه به اسطوره (دگرگونی اسطوره، دگردیسی اسطوره قهرمان و تقدس زدایی از اسطوره به کمک نقیضه) و بازتاب ویژه آن در مرگ یزدگرد، بیش از دیگر مولفه های روایت پسامدرنیستی به چشم می آید.
    کلیدواژگان: پسامدرنیسم، دگردیسی اسطوره قهرمان، تقدس زدایی از اسطوره، سینمای ایران، مرگ یزدگرد، بهرام بیضایی
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  • Majid Amani Pages 5-14
    Transcription of a musical piece from an instrument to the other، is an age-old work in this field. We have scores from the Renaissance period that don’t have any specific orchestration therefore could be performed with any combination of instruments. Also transcription of symphonies or operas for piano was common during the nineteenth century. We look over four editions of Bach’s first suite for lute and its transcriptions for the modern guitar، and during introducing the piece، at first we estimate them generally، then compare every aspects such as pitch، fingering، positions on the fingerboard، tone register، and etc. The target is to present some factors to differentiate a reasonable edition to catch rational performance of pieces like this. However there are some inconsistencies that challenge the originality of the work. Such activities always have many disputable cases. Constantly there are some attitudes that assume such tasks as a futile work that doesn’t have any originality. However such disputes aren’t so many about the similar instruments. Though this is the modern guitar that we have in a huge number in the world. Reaching to a source for the classic guitarists that have been tired from classical period frames، absorbed them to the sounds of Baroque music. But the main issue is how to come to grip with such great pieces، and the course of using our modern instrument’ s capabilities. We have to lay hands on prestigious status of these masterpieces، instead of letting them down. During the review of different editions available، we find out that dealing with different perspectives on performance; techniques، musical expressions، tone color، and etc. to achieve a single view، makes it extremely difficult. When speaking about different transcriptions and editions we should not expect essential changes in the presentation of these works، but there are a lot of distinguishing details which illustrate different editors’ outlook to this piece; details such as using ornamentations، different tunes، and even changing the key – although this last case can not be applied in this particular piece-. Moreover، editors from several nations observe works differently because of their ideological differences. In the part of samples، we will study some of diverse opinions or agreements among four editions and occasionally differences from the original work، and we will consider results of their works based on aesthetic and technical reasons. However the samples are more than those we refer. In the course of this process in some cases we are compelled to refer even to the works out of this matter – for example transcriptions of the other pieces by the editors – and to consider basics of the editors’ attitude and works carefully، by using them. Ultimately we try to distinguish fine or inadmissible points of the editions. The editions are: Heinz Teuchert (1979)، Julian Bream (1981)، Ruggero Chiessa (1991)، and Frank Koonce (2002).
    Keywords: J.S.Bach, Suite for Lute no.1, Transcription, Edition, Guitar
  • Ramin Roshandel Pages 15-22
    The main purpose of this paper is analyzing the form and Harmony in “Neynava”، a piece composed by “Hossein Alizadeh”. Written in 1984، the piece has been composed for solo Ney (an Iranian instrument) and string orchestra. According to Composer himself، this piece is developed according to “Dastgah of Nava” and its melodic movement and parallel combination is consisted of different modes that could be seen with similarity to modes in this Dastgah. Iranian Composers have always been interested in combination of Iranian musical materials with Western-European ones. For achieving a phenomenal piece using this combination، a Composer not only needs a perfect knowledge about the language of both classical and Iranian music but also he must be professional using these both sides. “Neynava” could be named as a successful piece in this field. Chords consisted of fourth intervals common usage started in the beginning of the 20th century in pieces like chamber symphony op. 9 composed by Arnold Schoenberg. Though this phenomenon appeared just in this single piece of him it influenced other composers afterward. This harmony could be seen in other 20th century composers’ works such as Claude Debussy، Paul Hindemith، Béla Bartók and Olivier Messiaen. But we will see that choosing the notes of chords with perfect fourth intervals in “Neynava” have been chosen regarding important parts of Dastgah of Nava. In order to analyze the form of Neynava، each movement has been studied separately; then the rhythmic and melodic motifs of each part have been reviewed and classified all together. Furthermore، any conformity of different parts of Neynava’s forms with classical music or Radif، have been generally reviewed (if any). Then، a revision of sentences، their variations، and their rhythmic or melodic motifs، have been categorized and reviewed in each respective movement، in a general context of Neynava. However، any similarities of such motifs (including motifs with slight deviations) have been studied. In form analysis we’ll show that Composer developed general form of the piece، with consideration of general forms of Radif which means we can see that horizontal movements and contrapuntal melodic lines were taking a priority over vertical relations; though we can classify two different types of harmonies for this piece. Tierce harmony could be seen and it has been used when the Composer wanted to make a modulation to a new mode or to make a new texture. In second look it can be shown that each part is written with consideration of modal characteristics using those melodic motifs that could be expanded and changed according to Composer’s preferences. This change usually could be seen as a “rhythmic change” or adding more ornaments. In harmony analysis، the way harmony has been chosen and the instances of chords based on tierce or quartal harmony، will be reviewed، taking into account melodic limits in the mode of respective Dastgah، and using tonal plans derived from different parts of Neynava. The Analysis of Harmony in Neynava will show the way Composer create a harmony for string orchestra which is about to be accompanied by Iranian music with “Ney”.
    Keywords: Radif Motifs, Variations of Radif Motifs, Tierce Harmony, Quartal Harmony
  • Seyedeh Zahra Sharifi Soosari, Kambiz Pourtahmasi, Aida Se Golpayegani, Iris BrÉmaud* Pages 23-32
    For many years، the wood of walnut tree (Juglans regia) has been used for making Santur. Even though artisans have their own divers’ ideas about this species’ features; until now there has been no scientific data to support them. In Santur’s case specially، differently cut surface plates can be formed into final instrument. Besides، some steam treatments، which supposedly improve the final sound quality، are common for preparing the raw material. Their true efficiency is also unknown. In this study، specimens from Sanoor’s surface plates with different traditional grading were collected from ateliers of two professional instrument makers and their real vibrational properties were measured and compared. Different cutting plans، visual characteristics، the types of pretreatments involved as well as the sample’s age and conditions were the basis of grading according to artisans. Samples were dried and stabilized in a climatic chamber before being tested for their vibrational qualities. The vibration test was done using a non contact free-free bar bending method. The frequency sweep was between 100 and 500 Hz and both specific elastic modulus (E/ρ) – from the first frequency resonance using Euler-Bernoulli method– and damping coefficient (tanδ) –using bandwidth at the half power– were calculated. Walnut wood had the basic characteristics of chordophones related species: high specific modulus and comparatively low damping coefficient. No statistically significant difference was observed between the four obtained mechanical factors (i. e. Density، Young modulus، specific modulus and damping) based on the wood conditions (Heartwood or sapwood). However the traditional grading was related to the measured characteristics. The best graded specimens had both higher densities and Young moduli. In all specimens the standard decreasing relation between damping coefficient and specific modulus was observed. This verified the trustworthiness of the calculated data. As a general fact، the results of acoustical tests were in harmony with the grading. This means that the better graded samples had relatively higher specific moduli and lower damping coefficients. The situation was vice versa for the lowest grades. The line separating the best and the worst graded specimens was very clear، on the other hand middle range grades borderlines were vague، meaning all the measured factors were almost in the same range. This indicated the importance of artisanal cut، wood color and design in traditional grading: one acoustically valuable specimen could be cast aside just because it is not properly cut. Steaming as a commonly done traditional pretreatment had improving effects on the wood’s final characteristics: it apparently caused the specimen properties to get closer to the best graded ones. An old wood can also be considered a treated specimen، as aging can also be done artificially (by the hands of the craftsmen through leaving the wood untouched for years before beginning the process of fabrication) or naturally (as in direct using of an old tree). Walnut aged specimen، also demonstrated nearly the best mechanical features، validating the choice of the instrument makers in preferring the aged wood over the freshly cut one. In conclusion، in the case of Santur، a significant coherence between artisanal experimental knowledge and scientific data was observed
    Keywords: Walnut Wood (Juglans Regia), Santur, Acoustical Characteristics, Damping, Steam Treatment
  • Farshad Mafakher, Mostafa Mokhtabad Amrei, Gholam Ali Afrooz* Pages 33-44
    Focusing on spiritual and mental needs of slow-pace people i. e. mentally retarded people has been always an integral part of designing spaces for them. According to Lacan’s way of thinking، Real، Imaginary and Symbolic Orders are three ways of expression through human’s reality language and it usually considers reality as a combination of symbolic and imaginary orders. This research analyzes architectural spaces of Dodes-ka-den directed by Kurosawa in 1970 and it considers Lacan’s Three Principal Orders، Real، Imaginary and Symbolic، from the viewpoint of a slow-pace person named Rokkuchan who narrates the story. As an appropriate way to create a connection between what Rokkuchan assumes and the symbols made in human minds of his society، he visualizes realities existing in poverty، fear and death in shanty-dwelling society in one point and goodness in another، with the contrast between Rokkuchan and his society، continuously throughout the film in particular architectural spaces. The research contains an analytical- descriptive method with a combination of quantitative (theory to case) and qualitative (case to theory) methods. Lacan’s way of thinking is a deep functional psychoanalytical critique which tries to reveal hidden points of human existence dimensions. Kurosawa creates the same viewpoint when making unconscious feeling of social relations’ precision. Explicating mirror stage theory، Lacan explains children psychology and social theory as an external image of the child which he himself accepts. He introduces three principal orders which are models for analyzing Dodes-ka-den. Lacan supposes imaginary order as one which humiliated human in modern era، i. e. it is evident dimension of personality. Symbolic order depends on the environment an individual grows in. Real order is the same hidden personality which is meaningless and nonsense sometimes. Kurosawa exploits this tool to organize shanty-dwelling society symbolically and from the viewpoint of a slow-pace person named “Rokkuchan”. He also reminds the contrast between Japan’s modern life، the symbol of which is car، and its traditional society with houses as a symbol، at the beginning of the film and he continues this throughout the film. Like a train and a train driver sometimes، Rokkuchan drives life in Lacan’s three principal orders. He displays shanty-dwellers’ life with its unpleasant dimensions. Rokkuchan’s life train passes through all these sorrows and the dwellers، as wagons of this train، are another life train. This research gained a result which shows that spatial sense of slow-paces can be found out through analyzing film spaces and shanty-dwelling society represents facts of slow-paces’ lives، e. g. designing spaces based on sick، crazy and retarded minds among this society in Dodes-ka-den. Regarding Lacanian psychoanalytical orders، Kurosawa was influential in designing scenes، inner architecture، landscape and sense of place. He has been successful presenting architectural spaces in this regard except for parts related to Imaginary order، since they were formed artificially. He visualizes all unpleasant issues a slow-pace may face with during life. Eventually، providing a method of viewing cinema، architecture and psychoanalytical analysis، hidden concepts of space design regarding a slow-pace teenager are presented from Kurosawa and Lacan’s viewpoint.
    Keywords: Three Principal Orders, Jacques Lacan, Dodes, ka, den, Architecture, Slow, Pace
  • Siavash Aghazadeh Masrour, Naghmeh Samini* Pages 45-54
    Unlike the early years of 20th century، in which، most theories sought the roots of theatre in rituals، and based on this notion were busy analyzing for stage texts and on stage events، contemporary theories overview this phenomenon in relation with other performance genres such as play and their interactions. According to this fact، based-on-origin theories have lost their primary reputation، and so theatre is no more considered as an evolved performing form but just as a manner of expressing، parallel with other performance genres. On the other hand، a thorough cognition of play، its structure، the way that it is performed and its moodsare functional prerequisites for examining theatre and theatrical text in relation with this phenomenon. Regarding two facts that the concept of play can be traced from pre-Socratic philosophers to contemporary postmodern thinkers and different anthropological and sociological studies have brought forward a vast range of possibilities for understanding the world of play، the onto-phenomenological approach seems to be the most appropriate one in dealing with play world. This approach strongly depends on both conceptual and structural achievements، which not only are of great help in interpretation of conventional stage texts and events، but also provide more innovative and complicated forms such as dark play، which can be beneficial in new theatrical recognition، expression and creation. Johan Huizinga’s HumoLudens- The study of play-element in culture، has been a key source in play studies during last seventy years، and therefore we base our study on his notions. But، despite his genuine idea and significant approach، Huizinga seems to fail to present a thorough comprehension of play which can fully satisfy our demands in order to examine play and performance in relation with each other. In other words، the essential playfulness of play may be considered as the main obstacle to handing in such precise understanding. However، Huizinga’s insistence on culture’s birth in play still has its own supporters، but many outstanding reviewers have pointed to some paradoxical parts of his work and therefor depicted some concealed dimensions of play، many of them depending on the way the play is performed. We also are going to، next to reviewing a locanic introduction on the relation between play and theatre، shift our way to exploration of the concepts and structures of play by which we mean examining the notions of Huizinga and its limitations. By barrowing Huizinga’s ideas and based on them، we would find appropriate materials in order to confidently develop our exploration toward the very complicated structures، concepts، manifestations and moods of play. Anthony Scheffer’s play، Sleuth، as a typical case of manipulating plays and games in order to create theatrical text، will carefully go under study and by this we carefully take a step forward to have a comprehensive construction of play during its performance. Actually، play manifestation through performance reveals sophisticated notions of play such as frame، meta-communication and the message، complicated forms like dark play and deep play and amusing moods like flow.
    Keywords: Play, Theatre, Play, Culture, Structure of Play, Dark Play, Moods of Play
  • Hamid Sanipour, Jalil Khalil Azar*, Jaber Danesh Pages 55-68
    Presently، there have been many new techniques and performance methods evolved in the process of creating stage atmosphere; and subsequently in stage deign. The dominating atmosphere and scenography receives more attention in the modern pieces and plays and for that reason، stage designers use modern and new technologies in stage creation. There are many significant pioneers in this area such as Appia، Graig، Meyerhold and in particular، Josef Svoboda. Svoboda’s extensive knowledge and abundant use of modern technology as well as attention to the special characteristic of theater stage created have special characteristics in his stage design and this research aims at analyzing and discussing the structure and the categories in his stage design/scenography creations. The main goal of this research is to determine techniques and creative methods employed by Svoboda in his stage design and creating the drama atmosphere. In order to achieve that goal، following minor goals have also been pursued: ● Determining the characteristics of stage design in Svoboda’s designs and their aesthetic principles، ● Determining the methods of affecting the audiences in Svoboda’s designs، ● Svoboda’s use of modern tools and new achievements in science in the philosophical concepts expression. Therefore، this paper seeks answers to the following questions: ● What were the specifications، patterns، models and categories in theater stage creation in Svoboda’s works?، ● What were the effect of architectural elements in creating the stage and developing stage design aesthetical perception in Svoboda’s design?، ● What were the effects and place of technology and machinery (mechanical equipment) in stage design? This fundamental and through research has used literature review to collect information on the subject، followed by selecting some of the most significant scenography performances of Svoboda and extracting information such as specifications، patterns، models، elements and categories of scenography creation and comparing the results. In this regards and by adopting a descriptive-analytical approach، the works and stage designs of Svoboda have been studied in order to while drawing and describing the atmosphere that governed his scenography notions، define the reasons and the special spatial qualities of his theatrical stages. In its path of analyzing Svoboda’s stage design ideas، and with respect to the noted goals، after reviewing fundamentals of research and history، the theoretical framework، questions، hypothesis and research methodology have been presented and analyzed under the two main topics as follows: ● Svoboda’s biography and innovations and creativities such as LaternaMagika and Polyekran.، ● Svoboda’s approaches in stage design. This search gives the implication of the image of maintaining and saving ingenuity of theater with emphasize on the visual dynamism and variation، and linking it with architecture; as well as implication of that originality in creating stage/arena and its interaction with theater audience. In another word، by creating dynamic spaces and visual variation، Svoboda tries to make the image in the stage، make it attractive، enjoyable، beautiful and suitable as well as entertaining the theater audiences and ultimately، giving meanings to the element on the stage to stimulate the theater audiences to think.
    Keywords: Stage Creation, Modern Scenography, Josef Svoboda, Movement, Dynamism, Visual Variation
  • Ebrahim Mohammadi, Maryam Afshar Pages 69-77
    Myth is as old as mankind; it has transformed and lasted in the form of stories، and anecdotes، together with literary and artistic works. One cannot ignore the presence of myths in culture، literature and art (especially cinema) every era ranging from the age of Aeschylus، Euripides and Aristophanes to the contemporary age of cinema has a firm attachment with myth- of all historical periods and in different literary genres and schools. One of the outstanding criteria of literature and post modernistic arts is their serious approach to myth and mythical narrations in spite of the fact that it is different from that in classical and even modernistic texts. The writers of present article have attempted to define postmodernist components of a Bahram Bizayi’s movie named “Marg- e-Yazdgerd” through analyzing and defining the significant features of content and structure of the movie. They، also، have tried to reveal that this outstanding movie in Iran possesses components likes: contradiction، lack of coherence، intertextuality، and a post modernistic view to myth. Special view to myth (heterogeneous myth، demythologizing، and myth deformation of hero) and its reflection in Marg- e-Yazdgerd are more outstanding than other criteria of post modernistic narration. In this article، the main issue which studied is concerned with how myth is represented in Death of Yazdgerd movie and the postmodern approach of Bahram Beyzai toward myth in the above mentioned movie is of course analyzed and explained. In order to explain this issue، the authors have tried to answer the three following questions drawing upon intertextual method of content analysis and mythological criticism in cinema: a)What is the intertextual relation or relations of Death of Yazdgerd movie which is basically historical event based with myth?، b) How and in what direction or directions the narrative structure of Death of Yazdgerd has approached the structure of mythological narrative?، c)In Death of Yazdgerd، upon which element or elements of postmodern narrative is myth and mythological narrative based? In other words in addition to the special look at myth، what other elements of postmodern narrative can be seen in this movie? The most important and prominent postmodern elements of Death of Yazdgerd can be distinguished and interpreted among the following pivots: intertextuality، contradiction، incoherence، unreliability of constraints and passage of time، time being event-based، cyclization of time، all of them being interrelated with the special look of the postmodern narrative toward myth. Beyzai escapes from bringing up reality by creating imaginary cinematic images in the narrative text coming from Death of Yazdgerd. By provoking lack of certainty، he makes the viewers to judge and also asks them to wonder what will happen in the end; does th miller kill the king? Does the king kill the miller? Or whether the king kills the king. Beyzai consciously challenges history and historical narrative and realist narrative method as well thinking that this method is completely true and acceptable; the narrator of Death of Yazdgerd artfully makes the addressee doubt the reality، especially historical reality.
    Keywords: Postmodernism, Myth Deformation of Hero, Myth Deformation, Iranian cinema, Marg e Yazdgerd, Bizayi Bahram