فهرست مطالب

  • پیاپی 19 (زمستان 1392)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/10/01
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • احمد پوراحمد، حسین حاتمی نژاد، ایرج قاسمی صفحات 1-18
    هدف اصلی این مقاله شناسایی نابرابری های ناشی از مدرنیزاسیون و پهنه بندی شهر تهران از نظر شاخص های اجتماعی و جمعیتی است تا میزان دستیابی به اهداف و اصول مدرنیته در مناطق شهر مشخص شده و مناطق سنتی از مناطق مدرن تفکیک گردند. مطالعه از نظر هدف کاربردی و به لحاظ روش توصیفی – تحلیلی است. برای این منظور با استفاده از داده های ثانویه، نتایج سرشماری عمومی نفوس و مسکن و طرح های توسعه و عمران شهری، شاخص های اجتماعی قابل دستیابی از این داده ها استخراج و با تکنیک تاپسیس پردازش گردیده؛ سپس در محیط نرم افزار سیستم اطلاعات جغرافیایی به صورت فضایی نمایش داده شد. یافته های تحقیق نشان می دهد که سه پهنه مدرن، در حال گذار و سنتی در تهران قابل تعریف و شناسایی است. پهنه مدرن در شمال و غرب تهران و پهنه در حال گذار در مرکز و شرق و پهنه سنتی تر در جنوب تهران قرار گرفته است. پهنه بندی انجام شده گویای تفاوت در انطباق پذیری مناطق با اصول مدرنیته است. بدین معنی که مدرنیزاسیون اجتماعی در برخورد با سنت های فعال و پویای مناطق مختلف شهر، با سرعت و شتاب متفاوتی پیشرفت کرده است. مدرنیزاسیون اجتماعی در تعامل و تقابل با سنت در جنوب دچار چالش بیشتری شده است. اما این چالش به معنی توقف فرایند مدرنیزاسیون نبوده است. جامعه سنتی در پی درونی کردن شاخص های مدرنیته بوده و در این فرایند راه و روش خاصی را برای مدرن شدن تعریف کرده است. در مناطق میانی چانه زنی سنت و مدرنیته شکل گرفته و دگردیسی سنت به مدرنیته را تجربه می کنند. در این روش مدرنیزاسیون، هیچ یک از مناطق شهر تهران نمی توان سنت یا مدرنیته خالص مشاهد کرد.
    کلیدواژگان: مدرنیزاسیون، پهنه بندی، تهران، شاخص های اجتماعی مدرنیته، مدرنیزاسیون اجتماعی
  • خلیل حاجی پور، سینا عطایی صفحات 19-42
    در سال های اخیر طرح مسکن مهر با هدف تامین مسکن برای خانوارهای کم درآمد، در غالب شهرهای کشور اعم از کلانشهرها، شهرهای بزرگ و کوچک به اجرا در آمده است. اجرای این سیاست در شهرهای کوچک با جمعیت زیر 25000 نفر که ساختار روستا- شهری دارند، از جنبه های قابل توجه است به طوریکه می توان آن را در انطباق با ویژگی های این گونه شهرها مورد بررسی و مطالعه قرار داد. با توجه به اجرای این طرح در چنین شهرهایی، مطالعه حاضر طرح پیشنهادی در پنج شهر کوچک از استان خراسان شمالی را براساس معیارهای برنامه ریزی و طراحی توسعه های جدید مسکونی برای اقشار کم درآمد که در ادبیات جهانی و مبانی نظری به آنها اشاره شده است مورد ارزیابی قرار داده است. از این رو پس از تعیین و سنجش معیارها به طور مجزا، با استفاده از روش TOPSIS شهرهای مورد مطالعه براساس مجموع شاخص های برنامه ریزی و طراحی، نسبت به هم رتبه بندی شده اند. نتایج حاصل از مطالعات نشان می دهد که در هیچ یک از سایت های پیشنهادی معیارهای کیفیت فضایی مانند فضای باز فراغتی، گوناگونی تیپ تفکیکی، اختلاط مناسب کاربری و طراحی متناسب با ویژگی های محلی رعایت نشده است درحالیکه در تمامی آنها نزدیک به 60 درصد کل زمین پیشنهادی به کاربری مسکونی اختصاص یافته است. اما براساس ارزیابی سایت ها نسبت به هم با استفاده از روش TOPSIS، در شاخص های مطرح شده، شهر درق الویت اول و شهر پیش قلعه آخرین اولویت را به خود اختصاص داده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مسکن مقرون به صرفه، مسکن مهر، معیار برنامه ریزی سایت مسکونی، معیار طراحی، TOPSIS
  • محمود قدیری، زهرا کمالی فرد صفحات 43-64
    امروزه تحلیل مکانی- فضایی پارکهای شهری با استفاده از روش ها و شاخصهای مناسب از ضروریت های مهم توسعه پایدار است. چراکه به علت گسترش بی رویه شهرها و معضلاتی همچون عدم استقرار و مکان یابی صحیح در سطح شهر، عدم رعایت همجواری ها، عدم توجه به سرانه ها، استانداردها و.. .، توسعه و مکان یابی کاربری فضای سبز با مشکلات اساسی روبه رو گردیده است. در این زمینه سوالهای محوری نیازمند بررسی عبارتند از: 1) آیا پارک های موجود برای تامین دسترسی مطلوب همه شهروندان از تعداد و توزیع فضایی مناسبی برخوردارند؟ 2) آیا پارکهای موجود از تناسب مکانی- فضایی مطلوبی برخوردارند و در پهنه های مناسبی قرار گرفته اند؟ بر این اساس، جهت پاسخ به سوالهای مذکور بر اساس شاخصها و روش مناسب، شهر نورآباد ممسنی انتخاب گردید. سپس با تدوین چارچوب نظری و نیز مطابق ویژگی های محدوده، دو فرضیه متناسب با سوالهای مذکور ارائه شد. جهت آزمون فرضیه ها، شاخصهای مناسب بر اساس مبانی نظری و پیشینه تحقیق تعیین شد. داده های مورد نیاز نیز در چارچوب روش تحقیق توصیفی-تحلیلی از روش کتابخانه ای جمع آوری شد. جهت آزمون فرضیه اول از روش تحلیل کیفی و مقایسه با استانداردهای سطح و سرانه، و توابع تحلیل پوسش فضایی و جمعیتی در GIS استفاده شد. ارزیابی فرضیه دوم بر اساس تلفیق روش های ارزیابی چندشاخصه (AHP گروهی) و GIS انجام شد. نتایج تحلیل استاندارد پوشش جمعیتی پارکها نشان داد کمبودی برابر با 7 پارک محله ای وجود دارد. تحلیل توزیع فضایی سطح و سرانه پارکها نیز بیانگر وضعیت نامطلوب حدود 70 درصد محلات می باشد. مطابق نتایج تحلیل تیسن در GIS نیز وضعیت همه پارکها از نظر پوشش فضایی و شعاع دسترسی نامطلوب می باشد. نتایج مدل تلفیقی مبتنی بر GIS نیز نشان داد حدود نیمی از پارکها در پهنه های نامناسب تا نسبتانامناسب قرار دارند. نتیجه اینکه جهت توزیع مکانی- فضایی مناسب پارکها، در نظر گرفتن شاخصها و رهنمودهای ارائه شده و نیز استفاده از روش های تلفیقی ضروری است.
    کلیدواژگان: شهر نورآباد ممسنی، پارکهای شهری، تحلیل فضایی، GIS و تصمیم گیری چند معیاری
  • رضا مختاری، رباب حسین زاده، اسماعیل صفر علی زاده صفحات 65-82
    رشد پراکنده شهری، گسترش فیزیکی سریع و بی برنامه شهرها و در پی آن استفاده بی رویه از وسایل نقلیه موتوری، این مکان ها را با چالش های زیست محیطی فراوانی مواجه کرده است که حاصل آن افزایش آلودگی های محیطی و از بین رفتن زمینهای کشاورزی و افزایش هزینه زیرساخت های شهری بوده است. بنابراین جهت سامان دهی به چنین رشدی، از الگوهای نوین برنامه ریزی همچون رشد هوشمند استفاده می شود که این الگو بر افزایش تراکم شهری، اختلاط کاربری ها و کاهش استفاده از اتومبیل تاکید دارد و هدف اصلی آن تامین سلامتی و رفاه شهروندان است، لذا با دستیابی به رشد هوشمند می توان زمینه تحقق توسعه پایدار شهری را فراهم نمود. پژوهش حاضر با روش توصیفی-تحلیلی و بهره گیری از 45 شاخص از جنبه های مختلف اقتصادی-اجتماعی، کالبدی، زیست محیطی و دسترسی، به تحلیل الگوهای رشد مناطق شهری اصفهان پرداخته است که در این راستا از مدل های تاپسیس و امتیاز استاندارد جهت رتبه بندی و تحلیل های تطبیقی استفاده گردید. نتایج حاصله بیانگر این است که؛ بر اساس مدل تاپسیس، مناطق 5 و4 کاملا برخوردار، مناطق 13و2 و6 برخوردار، مناطق 8 و12 نیمه برخوردار و سایر مناطق محروم می باشند و بر اساس مدل امتیاز استاندارد مناطق 13 و5 و4 کاملا برخوردار، مناطق 2 و 6 برخوردار، مناطق14و12 نیمه برخوردار و سایر مناطق محروم می باشند و نتایج کاربرد هر دو مدل تقریبا یکسان بوده است به طوری که در هر دو مدل، مناطق 5 و 4 برخوردار ترین منطقه و مناطق 9،10،11،7، 3، 1 جزء مناطق محروم بوده اند. با مد نظر قرار دادن نتایج حاصله، توجه به رشد هوشمند شهری در 14 گانه اصفهان امری اجتناب ناپذیر است.
    کلیدواژگان: رشد هوشمند، توسعه پایدار، اختلاط کاربری ها، مدل امتیاز استاندارد، مدل تاپسیس
  • جعفر میرکتولی، شهرام مهدوی، مجید احمدی صفحات 83-106
    توسعه پایدار نواحی شهری به عنوان یکی از اهداف اساسی در جغرافیا، در جستجوی تقویت ابعاد اقتصادی، اجتماعی، فرهنگی، زیست محیطی و کالبدی شهرهاست. هدف پژوهش حاضر شناسایی سطح پایداری و ناپایداری نواحی شهری کاشان است که جهت نیل به این هدف از روش های تصمیم گیری چند معیاره (MADM) استفاده شده است. روش مورد استفاده در این پژوهش ترکیبی از ضریب وزن-دهی آنتروپی و روش رتبه بندی تجمعی ساده (SAR) می باشد که به منظور قضاوتی صحیح از 13 مولفه در 3 گروه از شاخص های اجتماعی – فرهنگی، رفاهی – اقتصادی و کالبدی – زیست محیطی استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از یافته های تحقیق نشان دهنده بیشترین سطح پایداری با ضریب 2.80 برای ناحیه 10 و کم ترین سطح پایداری با ضریب 5.61 برای ناحیه 8 می باشد. در واقع ناحیه 10 شهر کاشان به علت دسترسی به حمل و نقل عمومی، مراکز آموزشی و بهداشتی و قدمت و اصالت بیشتر به علت قرار گرفتن در محدوده تقریبی بازار کاشان از سطح پایداری بیشتری نسبت به سایر نواحی شهری برخوردار است و بالعکس ناحیه 8 این شهر به علت دور بودن از مرکز شهر، عدم انطباق رشد فزاینده جمعیت با نیازهای خدماتی، کمبود فضاهای تفریحی و پایین بودن سطح درآمد از سطح پایداری پایین تری برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه پایدار، نواحی شهری، تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره، شهر کاشان
  • سعید امانپور، مرتضی نعمتی، هادی علیزاده صفحات 107-124
    امروزه حمل و نقل شهری یکی از ارکان اصلی مبحث پایداری در روند توسعه به دلیل شرایط خاص موجود و چالش های ایجاد شده در ابعاد محیطی، اقتصادی و اجتماعی مربوط بدان تلقی می گردد. شناسایی و آگاهی از مولفه ها ومشخصه های پایداری در بخش حمل و نقل شهری و تجزیه و تحلیل اهمیت هرکدام از آنها با توجه به شرایط موجود یکی از ضروریات اساسی در سوق دادن این رکن اساسی توسعه به سمت پایداری آن و جلوگیری از تبعات زیان بار اقتصادی، اجتماعی و زیست محیطی آن است که در کشور ما با توجه بهمسائل و مشکلات و شرایط موجود آن امری گریز ناپذیر می باشد. در نوشتارحاضر که با رویکرد «توصیفی- تحلیلی» به انجام رسیده است، هدفپژوهش،تعیین میزان اهمیت شاخص های پایداری حمل و نقل شهری در کشور با عنایت به مسائل و مشکلات موجود با استفاده از شاخص های منتخبدر بحث پایداری حمل و نقل شهری از دیدگاه کارشناسان می باشد.در این راستا با توجه به جامعیت و شمول در تعاریف ومیزان دربرگیری شاخص هایفرعی، سه شاخص اصلی پایداری اقتصادی، اجتماعی و محیطی در قالب30 متغیر انتخاب و جهت تعیین میزان اهمیت این شاخص ها و متغیرها از نظرات 20 نفر از کارشناسان امر بهره برده شده است. برای تحلیل داده های بدست آمده جهت آگاهی از میزان اهمیت شاخص هااز روش تحلیل سلسله مراتبی دلفی فازیFDAHPاستفاده شده است. نتایج بدست آمده حاکی از آن است که از نظر کارشناسان پژوهش ابعاد اقتصادیشاخص های پایداری حمل و نقل شهری درکشوربا کسب بیشترین وزن ها هم در بخش شاخص های اصلی و هم شاخص های فرعی دارای بیشترین اهمیت برای پرداخت بدان در بین شاخص های پایداری حمل و نقل شهری می باشد.
    کلیدواژگان: پایداری، حمل و نقل شهری، پایداری حمل و نقل، شهر اهواز، تحلیل سلسله مراتبی دلفی فازی
  • هوشمند علیزاده، محمدحامد عبدی صفحات 125-148
    در دهه های اخیر توسعه ی حمل و نقل محور به عنوان یکی از الگوهای جدید توسعه شهری، در راستای توسعه پایدار جوامع مطرح شده است. این توسعه براساس اقدام هماهنگ بین برنامه ریزی کاربری زمین و برنامه ریزی حمل و نقل استوار است که سعی در ایجاد جوامعی پاکیزه، انسان دوستانه، با نشاط و با جایگاهی افزون در اقتصاد محلی دارد. از سوی دیگر مراکز کهن شهری امروزه با چالش های عظیمی در زمینه کارکرد و کالبد آنها مواجه شده که یکی از عوامل موثر، تراکم ترافیک ناشی از جابه جایی وسایل نقلیه موتوری است. این پژوهش سعی دارد تا با رویکردی توصیفی- تحلیلی پس از شناسایی اصول مرتبط با توسعه ی حمل و نقل محور، با استفاده از ابزار سنجش وضعیت SWOT، مهمترین عوامل موثر بر شیوه سفر ساکنان را در هسته مرکزی شهری سنندج را براساس شاخص های کاربری لیتمن(موثر در رفتارهای حمل و نقلی) ارزیابی نماید. به این منظور از فرایند تحلیل سلسله مراتبی برای تشخیص اولویت عوامل و طرح رهیافت های پیشنهادی استفاده شده است. سپس باتوجه به فرصت ها و پتانسیل های هسته مرکزی شهر سنندج از رهیافت های محتوایی کاربری زمین در قالب اصول عملیاتی TOD جهت کاهش چالش های موجود استفاده شده است. نتایج حاصل از انجام روند پژوهش بیانگر آن است که عواملی همچون دسترسی به حمل و نقل همگانی(266/0)، مدیریت تقاضای حمل و نقل(195/0) و وضعیت دوچرخه و پیاده(123/0) بیشترین اهمیت را در تعیین نحوه جابه جایی ساکنان مرکز شهر سنندج دارند. همچنین به کارگیری تمهیداتی همچون تقویت ابعاد اجتماعی محله و هویت محله ای، باززنده سازی پهنه ها و بناهای با ارزش تاریخی، بهسازی شبکه معابر با تاکید بر حرکات انسانی، توسعه ی سیستم حمل و نقل پایدار و یکپارچه و تغییر در تراکم و گسترش کاربری های سازگار و پشتیبان حمل و نقل همگانی به منظور احیا یک مرکز شهری پایدار در سنندج از اهمیت بسزایی برخوردار است.
    کلیدواژگان: توسعه ی حمل و نقل محور، کاربری زمین، حمل و نقل همگانی، تحلیل SWOT، پایانه ی اتوبوس سنندج
  • کرامت الله زیاری، نعیمه ترکمن نیا صفحات 149-168
    حمل و نقل درون شهری یکی از عناصر اصلی سیستم شهری است که دسترسی شهروندان را به کاربری ها و موقعیتهای مختلف شهر مهیا می سازد و با توجه به اینکه زنان نیمی از شهروندان شهرهای ما را تشکیل می دهند، بنا به اصول حقوق شهروندی در شهرها بایستی نیازهای این گروه بزرگ و فعال جمعیتی نیز برآورده گردد. در این پژوهش سعی شده، میزان استفاده زنان از حمل و نقل درون شهری در هر روز (در منطقه 6 تهران) تخمین زده شود و وسیله نقلیه ای که بیشتر از همه مورد استفاده قرار می گیرد مشخص شود و همچنین مشکلات زنان شناخته شود. این تحقیق از نوع کاربردی به روش توصیفی – تحلیلی است و روش جمع آوری اطلاعات به دو روش اسنادی (کتابخانه ای) و میدانی از طریق پرسشنامه، مصاحبه و نظرسنجی جمع آوری گردیده است. نتایج تحقیق نشان می دهد که 59 درصد زنان در هر روز یک سفر درون شهری دارند که 59 درصد نیز، همه سفرهای درون شهری شان را با حمل و نقل عمومی انجام می دهند. 60 درصد زنان از میان وسایل حمل و نقل درون شهری اتوبوس و 24 درصد تاکسی را ترجیح داده اند. همچنین 96 درصد زنان ساعات قبل از تاریکی را برای سفرهای خود انتخاب کرده اند که اوج ساعات سفرهای روزانه آنها در روز زمان ظهر می باشد و دلیل استفاده کم از حمل و نقل عمومی در ساعات پایانی روز را مشکل عدم امنیت بیان کرده اند. بنابراین با توجه به مشکلات موجود، در انتهای تحقیق راهکارهایی در جهت بهینه سازی فضا و اصلاح سیستم حمل و نقل در جهت گسترش امنیت برای زنان ارائه گردیده است.
    کلیدواژگان: زنان، سیستم حمل و نقل شهری، امنیت، تقاضای سفر
  • محمدرحیم رهنما، اکرم مهرورز، غلامرضا عباس زاده صفحات 169-188
    مدیریت مشارکتی شهری رویکرد نوینی است که در پاسخ به ضعف روش های مدیریت شهری سنتی پدیدار گردیده است اما وابستگی زیادی به عوامل زمینه ساز از جمله فرهنگ جامعه و ایجاد نهادها و تشکل های مردمی و قانونی و تهیه ساختار و چارچوب لازم در مدیریت شهری دارد که تاکنون کمتر مورد توجه قرار گرفته است. بنابراین در این مقاله سعی شد تا عوامل زمینه ساز مدیریت مشارکتی کلانشهر مشهد در سه عامل فرهنگ مردم، میزان رضایت مردم از عملکرد فعلی سازمان شهرداری و میزان فراهم بودن مقتضیات مدیریت مشارکتی مورد بررسی قرار گیرد. روش تحقیق، تبیینی و بر اساس مطالعات میدانی و ابزار پرسشنامه و نمونه گیری خوشه ایدر سه منطقه مشهد (شامل مناطق1،6 و8) و با تکمیل 386 پرسشنامه از شهروندان و 31 پرسشنامه از مدیران شهرداری انجام گرفت و به منظور تحلیل نیز از نرم افزار Spss و آزمون t و توکی (Tokey) بهره گیری گردید. نتایج بیانگر آن است که میزان مشارکت، فرهنگ مشارکت و میزان رضایت از عملکرد شهرداری در وضعیت فعلی، در سطح پایینی قرار دارد. در زمینه رضایت از عملکرد شهرداری، میانگین منطقه 6 پایین تر از سایر مناطق بوده و با توجه به همبستگی بین این عامل و میزان مشارکت، سطح مشارکت در آن در سطح پایین تری قرار دارد. همچنین میزان فراهم بودن مقتضیات مدیریت مشارکتی اندکی بالاتر از متوسط برابر با 3.0124 قرار گرفته و اثبات شده است که مقتضیات مدیریت مشارکتی از سوی مدیران شهرداری، فراهم گردیده است اما نیاز به اقدامات بیشتر دارد. لذا مدیریت شهری باید درراستای پیشبرد مشارکت مردم و مدیریت مشارکتی، ابتدا در جهت فرهنگ سازی، بهبود عملکرد خود و جلب رضایت شهروندان، اقداماتی را به عمل آورد و پس از فراهم نمودن پیش زمینه های مشارکت، می توان انتظار داشت که نتایج موثری از مدیریت مشارکتی در شهر مشهد حاصل آید.
    کلیدواژگان: رضایت، فرهنگ، مدیریت، مشارکت، شهر مشهد
  • علی طالع جنکانلو، محمد طالعی، محمد کریمی صفحات 189-212
    به کارگیری سامانه اطلاعات مکانی و تلفیق آن با روش های تصمیم گیری چندمعیاره، ابزارها و قابلیت های سودمندی برای مدلسازی در شاخه های مختلف علوم مکانی فراهم می کند. در طی سال های اخیر، تلفیق GIS و MCDM به طور وسیعی در قالب مدلهای تصمیم گیری انفرادی، در مدل سازی تناسب اراضی بکار گرفته شده، اما مدلهای مبتنی بر تصمیم گیری گروهی، به دلیل وجود اختلاف در نظرات انفرادی و لزوم مدلسازی این شرایط، به ندرت مورد استفاده قرار گرفته اند. در مدلسازی تناسب اراضی، به عنوان پیش نیاز برنامه ریزی کاربری اراضی، معمولا فاکتورهای مختلف مانند اقلیم، ناهمواری، تیپ اراضی، کاربری و پوشش موجود، دسترسی به زیرساخت ها، عرض جغرافیایی، ازدحام جمعیت، پهنه بندی خطر زلزله، دسترسی به منابع آب و مناطق حفاظت شده را با استفاده از مدلهای MCDM و GIS تلفیق می نمایند. به دلیل وجود ذینفع های مختلف در فرآیند مذکور، لازم است که اختلاف نظرات گروه های مختلف به نوعی لحاظ شود که این مهم مساله فوق را به یک تصمیم گیری گروهی تبدیل می نماید. در این مقاله از روش تصمیم گیری چند معیاره گروهی متوسط وزنی مرتب(OWA) فازی و IOWA در محیط GIS برای مدلسازی تناسب اراضی مسکونی ناحیه کرمانشاه که شامل شهرستانهای کرمانشاه، هرسین، کنگاور، صحنه و سنقر می باشد، استفاده شده و 10 فاکتورهای مذکور بر اساس نظرات 4 کارشناس و با استفاده از کمیت سنج های OWA، بر اساس استراتژی های مختلف کارشناسان، وزندهی شده اند. سپس وزن ها با استفاده از IOWA با تعیین حد آستانه 3/0، فیلتر شده و در نهایت تلفیق فاکتورها صورت گرفته و نظراتی که دارای تعارض بیشتری هستند با وزن کمتری در تلفیق نهایی، لحاظ شده اند. در منطقه مطالعه موردی 59249 هکتار از سطح ناحیه خیلی مناسب، 358502 مناسب، 439642 باتناسب متوسط، 175302 نامناسب و 124902 هکتار خیلی نامناسب، بدون احتساب مناطق حفاظت شده، بدست آمده است.
    کلیدواژگان: مدلسازی تناسب اراضی، سیستم های اطلاعات مکانی، تصمیم گیری گروهی، روش OWA و IOWA
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  • A. Poorahmad, H. Hataminezhad, I. Ghasemi Pages 1-18
    Introduction Tehran as gate way of modern culture and ground for challenges of modernity and tradition has been affected by these changes and reproduced them. It is important to mention that، the entire geographical region of Tehran did not received same amount of changes and south- north differences has created a spatial in equality in the process of physical expansion of Tehran city. By expansion of the city and emerging of dual inequality there were grate necessity for improvement of urban services، planning for improving of socio- cultural indicators and modernization of society. The main problem of the present article is to recognition and distinguishing of spatial and location difference of socio- cultural changes. With emphases to the mentioned problem، the main objective of this study is to recognition and distinguish modern zone from traditional and transactional one through study of modernity social indicators in different region of Tehran city. Thus the article attempts to provide answer to the following questions: From social modernization point of view، urban regions of Tehran are at which level? How can zoning of Tehran regions on the bases of obtaining of modernity social indicators? To answer these questions the secondary data from 22 regions of Tehran were applied، and for spatial explanation، indicators of Tehran municipality based map were employed. For data processing، TOPSIS techniques was used all calculations were carried out by Excel and SPSS software. The result of the study spatially is shown by the Arc GIS software.
  • Kh. Hajipour, S. Ataei Pages 19-42
    Over the last few decades، a variety of programs and policies has been defined and implemented for providing housing for low-income people. Among these plans، Mehr Housing Plan، which has been done in recent years by the government، can be seen widely in this field. During the last 5 years، the project in collaboration with various organizations including the Housing and Urban Development Organization، Housing Foundation، banks، etc. developed and implemented in towns and cities. Over the years، researchers have examined various aspects of the project and the presented positive and negative feedback on it. Different studies show various aspect of this policy and evaluate its strategies to provide accessible housing for low income people with low (such as state land dedication، bank loans، etc)، how to implement the policy، and many of the plan qualities and other areas of social and economic approaches have been evaluated. One of the notable aspect in this policy، implementation and construction of housing in towns with populations under 25،000 people، mostly are Rur-urban structure، and have become city lately. Cities in terms of social and cultural characteristics such as rural، tribal structure and are homogeneous، and in terms of economic they are related to productive resources such as agriculture and crafts and therefore their structure are consistent texture but undeveloped and in the best conditions they uptake city services in their infrastructure space. New residential development to provide housing for lower income people of society in such cities، it certainly requires study and evaluation of cultural and social، economic and physical issues، because if we consider the city with such features (small، underdeveloped and social context - rural economy) as system that it is as part of subsystems، and yet its development is consistent with local powers، the sudden impact of an external stimulus، induces high entropy relations in the system and the system itself will be heavily influenced، so that، if the positive and negative entropies couldn’t be detected and controlled، it will be assumed that the consequences (outcomes) of the driving force would be much higher than the resulting scores. Thus، understanding the nature and impact of the stimulus on different aspects of urban development can be one of the most important issues in the Mehr housing policy in small towns that includes a lot of economical and technical feasibility of such project for these kinds of the cities، to locating and design of the site and the architectural details. However، after five years of the project implementation in various cities، the important issue is how the planning and design of the proposed sites be implemented. Considering that these sites are designed to low-income families، so the location، type of Planning and design capabilities based on their economic and social، local norms، etc. is very important. The review and evaluation standards، including the planning and design issues are of great importance. Principles and standards for the planning and design of residential sites، considering the goal of policy makers، administrative structure، site location (in terms of Land characteristics، access، etc.) and economic power and cultural society features is different. So the government''s housing standards for marginal and peripheral areas of the city are dramatically different with private sector standards in the area، according to the following specific objectives. Hence in the construction of low-income housing by the public sector in the surrounding areas of the cities، the overall planning and design principles and criteria for the proposed residential sites cannot be used. Given that the target policies in the Mehr housing is low income people with multiple social stratification have been chosen، their economic power causes that the policy makers، design their projects، based on the help of public sector، and in the design and implementation least costs should be considered. But it should be noted that strategies to reduce design and manufacturing costs don’t cause the reduction of quality of residential site. In other words، given that the policy makers، managers، and experts think to optimize the costs of this project، not significantly reduce their costs، is of great importance. Therefore، to achieve this objective، the principles and criteria of optimal design and planning of residential sites and maintaining the standards of a residential environment on the one hand and the costs of designed to meet economic power of users، have great importance in the planning studies in the low-income housing sites. Thus، the aim of this study was to determine the appropriate planning and design criteria for low-income housing sites in towns and assessment criteria set by the Mehr housing proposals، based on the level of ownership and prioritize them relative to each other. The present study evaluates the proposed plan for five small city of North Khorasan Province''s based on criteria for a low-income residential planning and design of new development in the world of literature and theoretical foundations of them. Thus، after the determination and assessment criteria separately، using the TOPSIS Urban planning and design study based on the overall index، the ratings are compared. The results of these studies show that none of the sites offer quality criteria such as outdoor leisure space، different types، separately for proper mixing and is not designed to comply with local features، whereas in all of the nearly 60 percent of total The proposed land is devoted to residential use. But based on site evaluation of the method TOPSIS in the index، the city of Dargh has dedicated the first priority and Pishghaleh has dedicated the last priority.
    Keywords: affordable housing, Mehr housing, residential site planning criteria, design criteria, TOPSIS
  • M. Ghadiry, Z. Kamalifard Pages 43-64
    Introduction Intense growth of cities، nowadays، particularly in the Third World، exacerbate the negative outcomes such as sprawl growth، marginalization، degraded urban green areas، kinds of pollutions and. So، public land uses especially public green spaces، have got major deficiencies in terms of size and spatial distribution. So the Spatial Analysis of urban parks using appropriate methods and indicators is important. Because due to unrestricted growth of cities and many problems، such as none proper allocation and locating of activities in the city، lack of attention to per capita، standards، and etc.، the spatial distribution of the green spaces involved major problems. In this background، the major questions are as follows: 1) whether the number and spatial distribution of existing parks provide suitable access for all citizens? 2) Is existing parks located in suitable area and locations? Accordingly، this study aims to evaluate the spatial location of NOOR-ABAD city''s parks based on the favorite indicators and methods and provide appropriate response to the above questions. Moreover، identification of residential areas with limited access to parks، identification of parks those have unsuitable location، as well as spatial organizing of NOOR-ABAD city''s parks. In this regard، with preparing the theoretical framework and based on the case study characteristics، two hypotheses were presented relate to the above mentioned questions. 2 – Methodology Relate to the nature of hypotheses and its variables، for test the hypotheses، the descriptive analytical methodology was used. According to the indicators، the needed data were gathered by library method. Legal area of NOOR-ABAD city is the study area of this research. Gathered data organized in AutoCAD and GIS software and prepared for analysis. Methods of data analyzing and test hypotheses are as follows: Test of first hypothesis was done with qualitative-descriptive method and logical argumentation. So، for investigation of suitability of number and spatial distribution of parks to provision good access، status of NOOR-ABAD city''s parks analyzed by indicators such as: radius of operation، per capita and area standards of green space land use، population threshold and access status. Then، base on the difference between existing and desired condition according to each indicators، we judged about the hypothesis. For this investigation، we used the GIS functions such as: distance، Buffer، overlay and Thiessen. Test of second hypothesis، also، was done with qualitative- descriptive method and base on logical argumentation. So، when the amount of location suitability of existing parks determined by weighted overlay function of GIS، if all of the parks located on high rank area of suitability، the hypothesis is reject. But، if even one of the existing parks located on low rank area of suitability، the hypothesis is confirm. 3 – Conclusion The result shows that in NOOR-ABAD city، there is two neighborhood parks، and to covering entire area of the city with favorite radius of 550 meters، we need at least 7 new parks. Based on favorite coverage radius and Thiessen analysis، many section of the city have not covered and there is not suitable access to neighborhood parks. At two neighborhoods، also، the per capita of parks is under the standard level. Moreover، at other neighborhoods، there is no neighborhood park. So، neighborhood parks are not according to existing standard of number and spatial distributions. Thus، the first hypothesis confirmed. Relate to second hypothesis، the results showed that more than one of the existing parks located on low rank area of suitability. So، second hypothesis is confirmed، also. The results showed that the location and site of public green spaces related to different parameters. The parameters which can create quiet، safe and accessible spaces or vice versa. Thus، attention to number and spatial distribution is not sufficient، and the other parameters relate to location suitability must be regarded. In conclusion، for favorite development of parks and appropriate spatial distribution، get attention to indicators and composed method that offered in this research is necessary.
    Keywords: NOOR, ABAD City, Urban Parks, Spatial Analysis, GIS, Multi Attribute Decision making
  • R. Mokhtari, R. Hoseinzadeh, E. Safaralizadeh Pages 65-82
    Introduction Urban sprawl Growth، rapid physical development and unplanned and subsequent indiscriminate use of motor vehicles، it is facing many environmental challenges. Resulting in increased environmental pollution and loss of agricultural land and urban infrastructure costs، so as to regulate this growth use of new models such as smart growth planning، this pattern، increased urban، mixed land uses and reduce the use of cars and the main emphasis on the welfare of its citizens. Growth of Isfahan areas in last year''s resulting loss of agricultural land and increased environmental pollution and socio- economical problems. Such growth caused some areas had Low population density. The aim of the present study is: all areas of Isfahan city are experiencing urban sprawl? If not so، which Isfahan''s area from use of smart growth indicator''s is in priority? Identifying low priority areas will benefit from special attention. 2- Theoretical bases Term of smart growth first by Paris angindrhyng (mayor of Maryland) from 1990 – 2002 was costumed. Smart growth is referring to a set of land use and transportation principles that is at odds with the distribution. This movement aims to create and strengthen a sense of community، developed based on transportation، economic development، mixed – use neighborhoods، support the design of green buildings، pedestrian – oriented neighborhoods، offering a varied pattern of housing، protect open lands، farms and limit environmental fair share of the costs and benefits of development، has been formed to protect cultural resources. 3-Discussion 45 indicators in difference basis economical، social environmental and transportation with using of Antropy models had weight and from the grading Technique of topsis for grading urban area had used and results with standardized score model had compared with comparative form. According to the results fourteen Isfahan''s area in four bands possessed full prosperous، prosperous، semi – prosperous، deprived was classified based on topsis areas 5 and 4. Thoroughly full prosperous and 6، 2، 13 thoroughly prosperous and 12، 8 semi prosperous and other areas in deprived was classified. According to the results of grading standardized score model indicates areas of 13، 5، 4 in full prosperous – 6، 2 in prosperous - 12 – 14 semi prosperous and other areas in deprived. 4 – Conclusion Isfahan Metropolis has experienced high growth and day by day increased environmental pollution and loss of agricultural land are faced. according to this research resulting،9 out of 14 areas in Isfahan، have been deprived of Smart Growth indicator، just 2 areas has full prosperous. Between area''s people and smart growth is direct relation. 5 – Suggestions - Conversion of non – residential buildings، disused and abandoned to residential facility by granting priority areas - High density residential and mixed use especially with commercial and office use، with an emphasis on trails - To minimize the entry of private cars to the city center and to expand public transport - Incentive policies to increase density and refurbished old construction come to use them - Green and public spaces to strengthen the sense of place for residents and their participation in local decisions - using multiple places، such as parking use of the school in holidays - Space allocation and development of green roofs and green walls to the rooftops to reduce Environmental pollutants
    Keywords: smart growth, sustainable development, mixed use, standardized score model, topsis model
  • J. Mirkatuli, Sh. Mahdavi, M. Ahmadi Pages 83-106
    Introduction Extra development of urbanism dimensions and forming the new scales of urban growth during recent decades causes that contemporary urbanism encounters new challenges. Dimensions'' spread، changes in the nature of urban matters and their intricacy، attention to the different dimensions of the matter in order to permanent solution makes them unavoidable. In this case civic schedulers'' emphasis more than every other time is on the lower levels and touchable dimensions of urban life، in the other word certainty of desirable development is accelerated in city and suburb when the reciprocal effect of these two levels on each other is seen together and after suburb constancy، attainment to urban permanent development is also facilitated. And in fact is trying to find an answer for inconsistency in different scales. Suburbs are places where dimensions of urban matters are absolutely touchable. Constancy of residential places depends on the social، economical and subsistence constancy. Process of permanent development includes economical، social، and environmental asset quality that guides the members to produce and rebuilding the purposeful life. 2-Theoretical bases Development without any hesitation is a valuable concept that is accompanied by manner premises and expresses abstract model of society that accounts desirability، and positive according to valuation and tells the supposed society''s future in the specified time. The most important subject about development is development constancy. Some of the subjects under the study of constant development are directly related to the cities. These subjects include: constant development via planning in land exploitation، city re-revivification، constant buildings، energy and the form of the city، constant transport، contamination and the form of the city. Some of these standards are related to the region level and city parish like family structure، population increase or displacement and movement، subsistence subjects and about skeleton dimensions and life quality indicators there are services and equipments، access to the office، housing quality، changes in transport systems and its effect on the communication networks foundation، form of the passageway network، different methods of construction and exerting urbanism rules. 3-Research founds In this research by using three social- cultural components including: security، identity، and feeling of dependence and six welfare- economical components including: access to the region services، income level، education level، access to the public transportation، access to the communication network and land price in urban area and finally five skeleton- subsistence components including: greenery in area، population accumulation، buildings accumulation، size of the residential parts and custody of environment are checked and in order to attain this purpose they use a combination of Entropy weighting factor coefficient and SAR method. That is at first findings related to each of the components mentioned at the suburbs level of the Kashan city are obtained، then by using Entropy method allocated specified weight to each of thirteen components and finally by using SAR model the amount of constancy at tenfold suburbs level of Kashan city are obtained. 4-Conclusion Research findings results shows that the higher constancy level with coefficient Vat=2. 80 is for area number 10 and the lower constancy level with coefficient Vat=5. 61 is for area number 8. In fact in Kashan''s area number 10 constancy levels is higher than other areas because of access to the public transportation، instruction and hygienic centers and more antiquity and genuineness because it is placed nearby the Kashan''s bazaar and area number 8 has lower constancy level because it is far from city center، inconsistency of population extra growth and their needs، lack of entertainments and low income level. 5-Suggestions Based on the results of the research، for improving constancy level in Kashan suburbs level، and also creating liveliness and happiness in this city، these are suggested:  Increasing greenery، leisure times، and city parks and considering additional free spaces for creating public entertainment centers in suburbs.  Creating educational، cultural- entertainment possibilities and spaces in transient and half-constant areas.  Programming for increasing the economical level of people in lower areas.  Programming for decreasing rate of unemployment and supporting responsibility.  Expansion and suitable planning for roads and tight and narrow passages and destructive houses and increasing connection network level in old parts of the city.  Considering social problems and secure public places، specially parks and entertainment spaces in suburbs.
    Keywords: sustainable development, urban areas, the decision Chndmyarh, Kashan
  • S. Amanpout, M. Nemati, H. Alizadeh Pages 107-124
    Introduction Today transport in cities is associated with all aspects of life. Leisure، education، business، industry، and other aspects، all linked together and continue the cycle of life in citieshaving forced the network and transport system to be sustainable. However، it has been more than a decade that the transport is being used urban communities، today the situation is not sustainable. This instability in Overuse of energy and fuel in the first place، then reduce resourceand ultimately the increase in global air pollution even her shown. Such a negative outlook on the transportation system and its impact on the social dimensions of environmental، economic and quality of life in cities، especially in developing countriesandus more will show in the country. Due to These issues، one of the primary and originally ways understanding of sustainability inurban transport to our countryunderstanding of the scope and the level of sustainability each of priorityMigration to the terms and conditions of the sustainable problems in the field of urban transport will be. 2-Theoretical Basis As the Stockholm Conference Brantdlnd statement to define sustainable development under the three main developmentseconomic، social and human development، and health and ecological environment has been expressed، these three areas of sustainable transport will be supported and the process does not compromise stability. Indeed،Sustainable transport that is actually uplifting sense of social justice and security، safety and sustainable access، economic dynamism in the management and use of the additional costs imposed by the traditional process،And environmental health by reducing or eliminating emissions، using renewable resources and supporting green transportation will be. Urban transportation primarily toward nature and the environment and is consistent with environmental changes. This Industrial Revolution in England and especially during the mid-nineteenth century has been continuing since the creation of millions of cities and towns to grant the title industrychanges in transportation policies and more complex. After years of being a modernist approach to urban transport and urban design and discussion of human communicationat the same time took on more complicated scale. In this period، providing physical and economic aspects of transportation network planning and designwas considered،no comments from citizens regarding environmental measures taken or to be. From the 1970s onwards، with the introduction of the concept of sustainable development and sustainable in all component areasfrom which the human encroachment has evolved through the environment، One of These areas of transportation، especially in the cities. The transformational in the management of technological measures used،Environmental planning and land use، economic mobility support and traffic management، and prevention of emissions،The health of the environment and communities threatenedwas priority. 3- Discussion In the present study selected three indicators of sustainable economic، social and environmental studies reference resources related to research studiesas indicators of inclusive discussions on sustainable urban transport sub-indicators of 30،the vision was to index the context of urban transport professionals to identify. In These regard، initially in the form of a questionnaire and a paired comparison analysis in hierarchical fuzzy Delphi،Selected indicators of selected experts were asked to discuss the situation in urban transport their weight. After this stage، the effects of these parameters on the sustainable of urban transport were evaluated. These are also important to estimate the regression model to explore the relationship and impact indicators were used in the process of sustainable urban transport. 4- Results This study looks at functional of descriptive and analytical methodology for the selection of the three indicators of economic sustainability، social sustainable and environmental stabilityas effective indicators to assess the sustainable of urban transport to our country،tried to determine the priority of each of the two selected indicatorsand the impact indicators urban transport in the country''s sustainable is tested. In These regard، the expert opinions were used to collect research data،And the results of two Delphi fuzzy analytic hierarchy model for the purpose indicators setting priorities was used. The results showed that the highest priority for the payment of the indicators of economic sustainable to the topicIn the field of urban transport. 5- Suggestion According to the objectives and results، research proposals in line with the trend towards sustainable urban transport in the fieldwith proper understanding of These scope and priority indicators and components involved in making the economic indicators in These field
    Keywords: Sustainability, urban transport, sustainable transport, Ahvaz, hierarchical analysis, Fuzzy Delphi
  • Hooshmand Alizadeh, M.H. Abdi Pages 125-148
    Introduction Mass volume of traffic in city centers cause to some problems like traffic congestion and pollutions. Hence new movements such as Transit- Oriented Development (TOD) with emphasis on compact development، people-friendly and livable neighborhoods introduced as useful tool for reducing use of car. Wisely use of land around transit stations is one of best solutions to achieve objectives of this approache. According to distribution of urban uses، land use pattern has high influence on travel behavior of people. In fact the land use pattern by its different characteristics determines travel behavior of people. About this، Todd Litman introduces some factors sush as land use mixture، density and etc. as effective factors on sustainable travel behavior. In recent decades، Sanandaj''s boundary and use of cars due to daily trips of people city has been increased. City center of the Sanandaj with high value in physical، social and cultural aspects today has considerable problems like traffic congestion that are mainly due to incompatible policies according to spatial and transportation planning. Therefore، this paper tries to evaluate important factors that are effective on trips mode of residents in center city of Sanandaj and want to present strategic recommandatios based on TOD criteria for achieving sustainable city center. 2-Theoretical bases 2-1-Transit-Oriented Development TOD approach presented by Peter Calthrope based on «pedestrian pocket» concept for facilitating spatial communications and consequently achieving high social and economic correlations. This approach relates to residential and commercial centers that designed based on maximum access to public transportation and non-motorized modes. Hence public stand (rail and bus station) will locate in central position and surrounded by dense developments to 800 meter radii then will decrease. Some of specialists have been citing that TOD projects can include variety of forms and station areas but are supplements in the system functionally. Reconnecting America and CTOD introduced eight forms of TOD including regional center، urban center، Suburban center، transit town center، urban neighborhood; transit neighborhood، special use/employment district and mixed-use corridor. 2-2-Advantages and disadvantages of TOD TOD، as one of the most visible forms of smart growth، is increasingly viewed as an antidote to traffic congestion، the isolation and detachedness felt in many suburban communities، affordable housing shortages، and inner-city decline and disinvestment. Evidences show that in development with more compactness، people 30 to 40 percent lesser use vehicles that has health and economic benefits. Also in this development، investments in public transportation due to increase of riderships، have more benfits for all stakeholders and provide accessibility for all. In addition، with developing pedestrian and bicyle routes and emphasis on green transportation with low level of air and noise pollutions، TOD can create livable communities. But some of specialists believe that TOD planning، derived from beautiful urbanism that without attention to social behavior، emphasis on physical design. Deficit of advocacy legal bases، high cost of primary financing، dependency on people tendency and low investments from investors and lenders are other barriers for TODs. 2-3-Land use management and urban transportation Between Land use pattern and Travel behavior exist near relationships. As land use planning by impact on distances between origin and destination، emphasis on decreasing trips. Planners present different factors that affect on mode choise of resident. Cervero (1989) believs that level of density، land use mixture and design of site have maximum impact on transportation factors like pollution emission، vehicle mile of travel (VMT)، fuel consumption and car ownership. Todd Litman (2012) consider different factors such as Density، Mix of uses، Regional Accessibility، Centeredness، Connectivity، Roadway design and Management، Walking and Cycling conditions، Transit Accessibility، Parking supply and Management، Site design and Transportation Demand Management (TDM) as important factors. Some land use management strategies are introduced for achieving integrated planning. One of these is TOD strategy that wants to decreasing ownership and car use by locating residential and commercial building near transit stations with joint development. 3-Discussion For assessing land use factors in city center of Sanandaj، based on TOD planning principles، transit center of Naser-Khosro has selected and 600 meters radii area around the transit center has evaluated that contains 101 hectars. 3-1- Assessing land factors in study area based on the Litman pattern In this stage، the study area is identified based on above factors. Main factors include dominance of private car movement، relative mix of uses، high density of residential and commercial unit relatively، low connectivity of routes، deficit of accessibility and low quality of services of buses، large lots parking near the station and lack of roadway design. 3-2-Assessment of condotions with SWOT analysis SWOT as evaluation method has useful results in urban studies. In this stage of research، positive and negative qualities of the study area will evaluate based on four dimentions of SWOT and Litman factors. In fact، the evaluation is a basis for strategy presentation. 3-3- Determinig priority of factors For achieving best results in providing strategies، effective factors are prioritized. Priority of each factor calculated by urban planners and transportation specialists so that priority of them combined in Expert Choise software based on AHP method and final prioprity achieved as shown in the following table. Mix Density Connectivity Regional Accessibility، Centeredness Walking and Cycling conditions Public transportation Parking management Site and roadway design TDM Factor 0. 66 0. 72 0. 69 0. 36 0. 123 0. 266 0. 102 0. 071 0. 195 priority According to above table، Transit Accessibility، Walking and cycling conditions and Transportation Demand Management factors fall into the high-priority strategies that impact on resident''s behavior in city center of Sanandaj. 3-4-Strategic recommendations According to positive and negative qualities of the site and calculated prioprities for each factor، the key five strategic recommendations presented based on objectives. These are based on the aim of research that wants achieve sustainable center for Sanandaj. Strategic recommendations include change in density، management of land use، improving road networks condition، Strengthening the social dimension and identity of neighborhoods and Regeneration of old areas and Buildings with historical value. 4-Conclusion Residents in sprawled area for access to daily services must be traveled to city center by vehicles that it causes some challenges. Hence in this paper after identifying practical principles of TOD and land use impacts on travel behavior in the study area، by use of paiwaise comparison in AHP method، important factors are identified. Therefore access to public transportation (0. 266)، TDM (0. 195) and walk and bicycle conditions (0. 123) have maximum effect on traveling pattern of residents. Hence first hypothesis of research proved. Then recommended plan presented for the area in form of practical strategies. Finally for achieving research objectives، recommended strategies provided that include Strengthening the social dimension and identity of neighborhoods، Regeneration of old areas and Buildings with historical value، Improving road networks condition، Development of sustainable and integrated transportation system، Changes in density and development of user friendly and public transport supportive land use. Above strategies based on main criteria of TOD planning affect on sustainable travel behavior of residents and also will have significant role in achieving to sustainable urban centers that is proving second hypothesis of the research.
    Keywords: Transit, Oriented Development, Land use, Public transportation, SWOT analysis, Transit Center of Sanandaj
  • K. Zayyari, N. Torkamanniya Pages 149-168
    Introduction Urban transport is one of the main elements of the urban system that provides access of citizens to variety of situations and land uses and as regards women make up half of the citizens of our cities، According to the principles of civil rights in cities، also must be met the needs of this large group and active population. Attempted in this study، be estimated the using rate of transport into the city every day (in the 6th district of Tehran)، be determined a vehicle that is used most and be recognized women''s problems. 2- Theoretical Bases Theoretical views used in this article، were social justice and feminist views. About women use of urban transport system، has been done little research in Iran، but some examples of studies in other countries shows the importance of social justice criteria. 3- Discussion Methodology in this study is descriptive – analytical that the data collection is the documents (the library) and survey that were collected through questionnaires (designed by the researchers)، interviews and surveys. The study population was all the women who reside in 6th district of Tehran at the time of the study. Estimating the sample size، we used a stratified cluster sampling method and Cochran formula were applied and 206 people were from current female6th district resident of Tehran in 2011. The data were analyzed by SPSS software. Also the Wilcoxon test was used to complete the analysis The research results show that 59 percent has a trip into the city every day that 59% also do all their trips within the city with public transportation. Also، 96 percent of women have chosen to travel، the hours of before darkness that the daily peak travel hours in the day is noon and low use of public transport in late in the day Have expressed insecurity. Therefore، as regards existing problems، research is presented strategies in order to optimize space and improve transportation system toward promote safety for women. 4- Conclusion The research results show that 59 percent has a trip into the city every day that 59% also do all their trips within the city with public transportation. 60% of women are preferred between the urban transport، buses and 24 percent are preferred taxis. 96 percent of women have chosen to travel، the hours of before darkness that the daily peak travel hours in the day is noon and low use of public transport in late in the day Have expressed insecurity. Problems in the vehicle interior، was known the low space as main problem of women. About satisfaction، the fourth research hypothesis was rejected because according to the findings، 55% of women had little satisfaction from the service of public transport، 39 percent are somewhat satisfied and the remaining 5 percent، are satisfied with the service completely. According to Wilcoxon Analytical test، there is a significant correlation between employment and type of vehicle So that employees have preferred the use of taxi instead of buses or B. R. T. 5- Suggestions 5-1- Improvement in public transport networks according to the real needs of women and volume of their use and providing facilities and access in particular، the completion safety pedestrian with the proper width and pavement 5-2- Attention to the age structure of women in urban planning because older women have different needs than young women and young mothers. In addition to the need for psychological security،they need to the specific physical facilities such as proper pavement، height of the stairs، navigation guide and etc that should be considered by designers. 5-3-Organize and control taxis late at night and increase regular night services for other vehicles، especially buses. 5-4-Planning night economy that improved economy and also increases security in City.
    Keywords: Women, the urban transport system, security, travel demand
  • M. Rahnam, A. Mehrvarz, Gh. Abbaszadeh Pages 169-188
    Introduction Participatory management is new approach in urban that has emerged in response to the shortcomings of traditional methods of urban management and attempts to participate all urban effective and stakeholder elements، in decision making and its related planning. But it should be noted that participatory management has complex process that is dependent on many variables and many factors affect it. On the one hand، participatory management is an intellectual and cultural phenomenon that opposition to traditional and previous mental forms and causes sidelines persons and who are onlooker، be drawn into group work and commitment to their city and community، so it is largely dependent on culture and on the other hand، get executed requirements for participation are creation of Institutions، NGOs and legal entities and providing the necessary infrastructure at urban management. Also satisfaction of urban management performance and particularly municipalities is one of predisposing factors for Participatory management. So in this article underlying factors for Mashhad metropolitan Participatory management analyzed in 3 factors: A: participation popular culture B: peoples satisfaction of municipality performance and C: Availability of participatory management requirements. 2- Theoretical Bases There are many factors that influence participation. These factors can be divided into two categories: Internal variables that are within one and external factors that are associated with environment and social variables. In endogenous variables can be cited Weber theories that powerlessness is seen as an important factor in participation and are emphasized on beliefs، attitudes and ideas systems. From their perspective، feelings of powerlessness that there are in persons about an organization or institution is effective on acts and respond to that organization. Sense of efficacy and expectations of the success of a business or achieve desired results are within these factors. Thus، if citizens have been positive judged about participation in urban affairs، increase their participation likely. Also to be noted cost–benefit theories of participation that based on individual assessment of participation results، impacts on their performance. The second sets of variables are social or external variables that can include membership in associations، social and economic base، social trust and etc. Therefore participatory management is control of factors influencing participation and effects of participation on other factors influenced by. So participatory management have responsibility to explain factors influencing participation، influence mechanisms، necessity، results and reflect contributions of these factors، control their intensity on participation and measure other set of factors that affect participation. So، social organizations to build participation، should do actions such as citizenships education، informing citizens، motivation، material and incentive requirements، facilities، legal requirements، change of attitude، management practices and infrastructure provision. 3- Discussion People''s participation is low and there is Significant differences between the mean of region 6 (region of low-income) with regions 1 (high-income) and 8 (average income). Culture of Mashhad citizen participation is equal to 2. 45 and lowers than average and there is no significant difference in the regions of Mashhad. Average satisfaction of the City is 2. 65، less than expected average and average in region 6 is lower than 1 and 8 regions. About availability of participatory management requirements، the mean value obtained 3. 0124 that are more than testing value only 0. 012 and can say that the «availability of participatory management requirements has provided by city managers». 4- Conclusion Study of underlying factors for Participatory management in three regions of Mashhad Municipality (1: high-income، 6: low-income and 8: average income) indicate that participation of citizens in Mashhad is low and people do not have much sense of duty and responsibility about issues and urban affairs. Also their satisfaction with current performance of municipality is low and according to significant correlation between satisfaction of municipality performance and participation rate (coefficient of 0. 155)، it is necessary to improve performance and increased satisfaction to increase participation rate. Study the availability of participatory management requirements provided by city managers based average test showed that although participation mechanisms has been involved in their supply but needs more notification and informational acts. 5- Suggestions -Given that people''s participation in different areas has been low، and culture rate is lower than average، In the first step، municipality and city manager should take steps about training and necessary action for create participation culture and sensitize people to their urban affairs. -Municipality should have more care in their actions and performance; more attention should be pay to public comments and suggestions and provide background information and more awareness for peoples and citizens'' trust and satisfaction. Use of urban good governance in municipality is useful tool for build confidence of the people. -Municipality needs to focus more on low-income areas، to by satisfaction and therefore increase participation can help to development of these regions and spatial justice. -In general، given the low rate of citizens participation and inappropriate conditions underlying factors in Mashhad، To promote public participation and participatory management، urban managers should Act first for creation of participation culture، improving their performance and satisfy citizens and after providing underlying factors for participation، It can be expected that obtained effective outcomes of participatory management in Mashhad.
    Keywords: Satisfaction, Culture, Management, Participation, Mashhad
  • A. Talea Jenekanlou, M. Taleai, M. Karimi Pages 189-212
    Introduction During recent years، employing GIS and combine it with multi criteria decision making (MCDM) methods، have been extensively utilized to model land use suitability. However these models are mainly based on individual decision making approach and group based decision making methods have rarely been developed for land use suitability analysis. To model land use suitability، usually different factors such as climate، existing land cover/land use type، access to infrastructure such as road، gas and power، latitude، distance from earthquake hazard zones، access to water resources and etc should be considered. Due to the various stakeholders in this process، it is necessary to integrate the difference of opinions of different groups in the model. As a result، land use suitability analysis should be done based on group decision making approach involving various groups of experts. In this paper a group decision making model based on fuzzy-IOWA method is developed for residential land suitability analysis. This model is implemented in Kermanshah province. 2- Theoretical bases In this study، Fuzzy OWA and Induced OWA (IOWA) utilized in GIS environment to model land suitability in residential areas in Kermanshah province includes Kermanshah، Harsin، Kangavar، Sahneh and Songhor cities. Based on interview with four experts (an environmentalist، a civil engineer، an agronomist and an irrigationist) ten main criteria have been determined. Then، each expert determined the importance of each criterion individually. Next، factor maps related to each criterion were aggregated based on the preferences of each expert using of IOWA method. Some experts are optimistic and accept risk and others have opposite opinion. Fuzzy OWA method due to quantify linguistic variables allows to adopt different decision strategies of experts. As well as the IOWA make it possible to filter expert preferences that are incompatible with the opinion of the others. 3- Results and Conclusion Each criterion defines a factor map. Based on the expert’s preferences the weight of each factor map was calculated. Fig. 1 illustrates hierarchical structure of various criteria. Fig. 5 demonstrates the results of the model in the case study area. This figure presents the suitability maps related to the preferences of each expert as well as final suitability map resulted from the developed group decision making model. The figures show clearly the difference of opinions of experts. For example، Sahneh city is classified as high suitable in some individual maps but medium suitable in final group map. This city is in an earthquake zone with very high risk and has weak access to infrastructures، so considering this city as very high suitable is not reasonable. Using of the developed group based model، this city is classified as moderate as a result of assigning high weight to similar experts’opinions using of IOWA method. With review the final suitability map، can be observed that Bisetoon and Kermanshah are classified as high suitable، because of their good situation to access to roads، energy network and water resources، as well as placed far from the earthquake hazard zones. According to the results، in the case study area 59249، 358502، 439642، 175302 and 124902 hectares are defined as high suitable، suitable، moderate، pretty unsuitable and unsuitable، respectively.
    Keywords: Land use suitability modeling, GIS, Group decision making, OWA, IOWA