فهرست مطالب

  • سال هشتم شماره 4 (پیاپی 13، پاییز و زمستان 1390)
  • 170 صفحه، بهای روی جلد: 100,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1390/10/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Gh. Ahghar Page 7
    The present study was undertaken to examine the role of family factors in students’ emotional, social, and educational adjustment. The statistical population of the study comprised all high school students enrolled throughout the country. The sample, which consisted of 7528 individuals, was selected through random multi-stage cluster sampling method. The instrumentation included Sinha-Singh’s Adjustment Inventory (in three dimensions of emotional, social, and educational adjustment) and family structure questionnaire. For the purpose of data analysis, ANOVA, Scheffe’s test, and t-test for independent groups were used. Results of the study indicated that the magnitude of emotional, social, and educational adjustment was average or above average for 63 percent of high school students. However, the level of emotional adjustment was lower than average for 39.5 percent of students. In addition, the level of social adjustment was lower than average for 40.4 percent of students and the same holds true for 28.8 percent of students considering educational adjustment. In other words, a considerable percent of students encounter difficulty in terms of emotional, social, and educational adjustment. In addition, the level of emotional, social, and educational adjustment for high school students with a healthy family structure was significantly higher than those who came from broken families. The findings also showed that the magnitude of emotional, social, and educational adjustment for high school students coming from high-income families (a monthly income of 301,000 Tomans and above) was significantly higher than those who lived in financially distressed families (a monthly income of less than 300,000 Tomans). Furthermore, the results revealed that the level of emotional, social, and educational adjustment for high school students whose parents were clerks, teachers, businessmen, and specialists was significantly higher than those whose parents were workers or unemployed.
    Keywords: emotional adjustment, social adjustment, educational adjustment, family structure, adjustment
  • A. Amanian, S. Vesali, A. Darabi, P. Asadi Page 31
    The present study was carried out to investigate the impact of family functioning on aggressive behavior among Kermanshahi high school students. In this research, various psychological and sociological perspectives, such as Bandura, Goode, and Hurlock theories were reviewed for the purpose of explaining aggression. In addition, McMaster Model (Family Assessment Device) was used as the theoretical framework. This research is a correlational survey. The statistical population of the study comprised all male and female ninth, tenth, and eleventh graders in Kermanshah. For the purpose of sampling, Cochran’s formula was used and 357 individuals were selected through multi-stage cluster sampling. The instrumentation consisted of McMaster standard questionnaire and Buss-Perry aggression questionnaire which were utilized for assessing family functioning and aggressive behavior, respectively. Results of the study revealed that family functioning and its three dimensions, i.e., fulfilling family roles, problem solving, and affective responsiveness, were negatively correlated with aggressive behavior. Among family functioning dimensions, problem solving had the highest negative correlation with aggression. Furthermore, results of multiple regression analysis showed that problem solving in students’ families (β = -0.737), affective responsiveness in the family (β = -0.692), and fulfilling family roles (β = 0.069) had the greatest effect on the dependent variable of aggressive behavior.
    Keywords: family functioning, aggression, family roles, affective responsiveness, problem solving
  • A. Madandar Arani, H. Hassanvand Page 49
    Adjustment is a relatively conscious process based on which human beings adapt themselves to their natural, social, and cultural environments and establish healthy and successful relationships with others. In addition, the impact of family on individuals’ behavior cannot be underestimated due to the fact that parents’ attitude towards adolescents and the youth can result in their higher adjustment to the environment. The present study was conducted in order to investigate the relationship between family functioning and the emotional, social, and educational aspects of adjustment among Tehrani high school students. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was utilized for the purpose of sampling and as a result two districts (a total number of 5 high schools and 10 classes) and 300 students (121 girls and 179 boys) were selected. In this correlational research, the instrumentation comprised Bloom’s Family Function Questionnaire and Sinha-Singh’s Adjustment Inventory. The data were analyzed through SPSS and correlation coefficients for independent groups were computed. Results of the study revealed that the correlation between family functioning and social and educational aspects of adjustment was higher among girls than boys, whereas the correlation between family functioning and emotional adjustment was higher among boys than girls, despite the fact that in general no significant difference was observed between the two genders. It can be concluded that apparently gender cannot contribute to differences in adjustment behavior of students.
    Keywords: family functioning, adjustment behavior, gender, Tehran
  • T. Azad Armaki, S. Darabi, A. Mafakheri Page 67
    According to theories of ideology, there is a unified and comprehensive ideology which determines all aspects of superstructure. On the contrary, theories of discourse hold the view that there are numerous discourses in the society none of which reject each other completely. One of the most important aspects of theories of ideology is that they assume middle institutions of the society satisfy the demands of the dominant group. Dynamics of relationships in middle levels is hidden in these theories. As proof of this statement, schools are the point of convergence for several contradictory discourses. In other words, the school and family discourses are considered to be conflicting. Hence, in this study special attention is paid to dynamics of the relationship between family and school as well as the tensions which might arise. This qualitative research was carried out among girl students of public high schools in Ilam and the data were collected through semi-structured interview and observation. Reviewing the related documents shows that family and school can be considered as discourses. In this survey, a general objective is pursued through analyzing the content of interviews, i.e., examining the relationship between these two discourses in establishing meaning in students’ social life. Results of the study indicated that the tension between the two discourses can be examined in three general categories, namely, religion/custom/politics, ethnic group/tribe/nation and membership/individualism. In addition, discursive struggle exists and it prevents absolute dominance of a single discourse. The degree of the independence of discourse from government discourse plays a prominent role. More specifically, school discourse is more dependent on government discourse, whereas family discourse is more independent.
    Keywords: Discourse, discursive struggle, hegemony, family, school, tribes, nomadic people
  • A. Khatibi Page 97
    The present survey was conducted in order to examine the extent of kinship and modern trust among high school teachers in Hamedan. Giddens’ Modernity Consequences theory was utilized as the research model and theoretical framework. The aims of the study were: 1) assessing the magnitude of kinship trust, 2) assessing the degree of modern trust, and 3) explaining the relationship between some social factors and trust. The sample which comprised 182 individuals was selected through random multi-stage sampling method. The instrumentation consisted of a questionnaire which enjoyed acceptable face validity. In the pilot study, the reliability of the questionnaire was computed to be 89.31%. The data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS. Results of the study showed that 54.11% and 63.6 percent of teachers had kinship and modern trust, respectively. In general, 57.43 percent of teachers had both types of trust. There was a significant relationship between teachers’ trust, gender (Phi = 0.679), and teachers’ field of study (Cv = 0.650) (with a 99% confidence interval). However, no significant relationship was observed between trust, income rate, and age. It can be concluded that the extent of teachers’ modern trust was higher than their kinship trust and the society is undergoing a transitional phase in terms of trust.
    Keywords: kinship trust, modern trust, age, field of study, gender, income rate
  • H. Khademian, A. Kimiaee Abdkhodaee Page 121
    The aim of the present study was to examine the interrelationship of different dimensions of psychological functioning of the family, the quality of life, and self-efficacy of male adolescents. The sample, which was selected through multi-stage cluster sampling method, comprised 203 high school male students who had enrolled in 2009-2010 academic year in Shahrood. For the purpose of data collection, Family Psychological Functioning Scale (FPFS), General Self-Efficacy Scale of Sherer (GSES), and World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Scale (WHOQOL) were used. Results of the study revealed that psychological functioning of the family had a significant, positive relationship with the quality of life and self-efficacy of male adolescents. The findings showed that there was a significant relationship between “physical health” and psychological functioning of the family in relationship, emotional literacy, spirituality and religion, leisure time, sense of security, conflict resolution and control dimensions. In addition, “mental health” was significantly associated with relationship, achievement, emotional literacy, spirituality and religion, leisure time, structure and organization, sense of security, conflict resolution, socializing, independence, and control dimensions. Moreover, there was a significant relationship between “social relations” and relationship, achievement, leisure time, structure and organization, socializing, independence, and control dimensions and finally “environmental relations” was significantly correlated with relationship, achievement, emotional literacy, sense of security, socializing, independence, and control dimensions. A positive correlation was observed between self-efficacy and psychological functioning of the family in relationship, achievement, emotional literacy, structure and organization, conflict resolution, and independence domains, whereas there was a negative correlation between self-efficacy and control domain. Results of regression analysis showed that 41 percent of self-efficacy variance and 43 percent of quality of life variance was related to psychological functioning of the family.
    Keywords: psychological functioning of the family, quality of life, self, efficacy, male adolescents
  • A. M. Nazari, J. Khodadadi Sangdeh, A. R. Talkhabi, S. Albookordi Page 141
    This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of life skills training programs in reducing parent-child conflicts. The statistical population of the study comprised all high school male students in Malard from whom 40 individuals were chosen through purposive sampling method. The subjects were randomly assigned to experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. For the purpose of data collection, Conflict Tactics Scale was used and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the total scale was 0.75. The experimental group participated in 12 training sessions, whereas the control group received no intervention. The training sessions included four components of life skills, namely self-awareness, effective communication, anger management, and problem solving. Results of Analysis of Covariance showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding parent-child conflict and its components, i.e., reasoning, verbal aggression, and physical aggression. According to the obtained results, it can be concluded that life skills training programs can promote adolescents’ reasoning ability and reduce parent-child conflicts, verbal aggression, and physical aggression.
    Keywords: life skills, parent, child conflict, students, adolescents