فهرست مطالب

Crop Protection - Volume:3 Issue:3, 2014
  • Volume:3 Issue:3, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/03/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
|
|
  • Saeedeh Hakimian, Ali Asghar Talebi, Babak Gharali, Mohammad Khayrandish Pages 265-272
    The genus Exoprosopa Macqurt, 1840 (Diptera: Bombyliidae: Anthracinae) was studied in the north central Iran. Four species of the genus Exoprosopa were identified of which E. minos (Meigen,1804) and E. grandis (Pallas, 1818) were previously recorded from northern Iran and two species namely E. efflatounbeyi Paramonov, 1928and E. altaica Paramonov, 1925 are newly recorded from Iran. A key to the species in north central Iran is provided. Morphological diagnostic characters and geographical distribution of the collected species are briefly discussed.
    Keywords: Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopa, New records, Iran
  • Jebraeil Bahmani, Shapour Barooti, Reza Ghaderi Pages 273-281
    During a survey on the identification of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with walnut in Sanandej region (Kurdistan province, western Iran), a population of Paratylenchus labiosus was collected and identified morphologically. Description, illustrations and morphometrics of the species are given and comparisons are made between it and some related species. P. labiosus comes more close to three species namely P. similis, P. tateae and P. italiensis in having certain diagnostic characters such as short stylet less than 18 µm long, concave-conoid head with prominent submedian lobes and tail ending to an acute to finely rounded terminus. However, P. labiosus differs from them in having a spermatheca full of sperm cells and presence of males. Different modes of reproduction (parthenogenesis or amphimixis) may be observed in different populations of some species in this genus, but somewhat unique reproduction behavior of P. labiosus could be considered as a diagnostic character for separation of it from the three closely related species.
    Keywords: Description, plant, parasitic nematodes, reproduction, Sanandej, walnut
  • Reza Jalalipour, Ahad Sahragard, Azadeh Karimi, Malati Pages 283-293
    Searching efficiency and handling time are two major components of functional response and are usually used to evaluate effectiveness of natural enemies. The effect of different foraging periods on the functional response of larval Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Rondani) (Dip.: Cecidomyiidae) feeding on third instar nymphs of Aphis craccivora was studied. The experiment was conducted in terms of time-specific (1, 2, 4, 6,12, 24 h.) functional response to varying densities (5, 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80) of third instar nymphs of A.craccivora at 23 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% of R.H., and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L: D). Parameter estimates for logistic regressions showed a type II functional response for 4 day-old larvae of the predator at different foraging periods to varying densities of A. craccivora. The estimated searching efficiency (a'') and handling times (Th), varied with foraging periods. The searching efficiency showed a decreasing trend as the foraging periods increased. The estimated maximum rates of predation (T/Th) for the 4-day old larvae were directly related to the foraging periods increase but handling times (Th), showed a decelerating trend. In conclusion it was found that searching efficiency was a variable parameter in different foraging periods of A. aphidimyza and was lowest at the foraging periods of 24 h. It was also suggested that A. aphidimyza with type II functional response in all foraging periods, could be considered as a highly effective biological agent in suppressing A. craccivora population.
    Keywords: Aphidoletes aphidimyza, Aphis craccivora, foraging periods, functional response
  • Bahram Naseri, Roya Nasirian, Jabraeil Razmjou Pages 295-304
    The eggs and larvae of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), are widely used in mass rearing of parasitoids and predators. Feeding indices and some biological parameters of P. interpunctella were studied on bran of different wheat cultivars (''Back-cross Roshan'', ''Khooshe Pishgam'', ''Khoshki line 9'', ''Arg'', ''Alvand'', ''Pishtaz'', ''WS-89-2'', ''Sepahan'' and ''Bam'') when incorporated into artificial diets under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1 ºC, 65 ± 5% R.H., and a 16:8 h light-dark photoperiod). The efficiency of conversion of ingested food was highest on ''Back-cross Roshan'' (98.79 ± 8.48%) and lowest on ''Pishtaz'' (64.56 ± 9.66%). The highest and lowest percentage of mortality of P. interpunctella larvae were on ''Pishtaz'' (56%) and ''Back cross Roshan'' (12%). Our results showed that larval growth index was highest on ''Khoshki line 9'' (5.81) and lowest on ''Pishtaz'' (3.33). Moreover, the highest daily and total fecundity were detected on ''Back-cross Roshan'' (37.6 ± 0.93 and 177.3 ± 1.61 eggs, respectively). The results demonstrated that, among different wheat cultivars tested, ''Back-cross Roshan'' was the most suitable cultivar for P. interpunctella rearing, as an alternative host, in order to optimize the mass production of natural enemies.
    Keywords: Indian meal moth, feeding performance, biological parameters, bran of wheat
  • Victor Kagot, Sheila Okoth, Fred Kanampiu, Peter Okoth, Edna Mageto Pages 305-313
    Striga hermonthica is a parasitic weed which largely constraints maize and sorghum production in Western Kenya. The weed mostly invades small scale farms and depending on severity, it may cause damage ranging from 10% to complete crop failure thereby aggravating the food insecurity in that region. This study aimed at evaluating fungal isolates as possible biocontrol agents against the weed. Fungi were isolated from diseased Striga hermonthica and their virulence efficacy against the weed tested in a greenhouse. All the fungal isolates tested caused infection and consequently death of the weed. Fusarium incarnatum had the highest infection rate of 92% followed by Gibberella intricans and F. chlamydosporum at 90% each. Fusarium oxysporium caused the highest mortality of 60% with Gibberella intricans, causing the least mortality of 36%. F. oxysporium was the most aggressive and potent fungal isolate against the weed hence a suitable candidate for exploitation as a mycoherbicide against the weed.
    Keywords: Striga hermonthica, Fusarium, Biocontrol, Mycoherbicide
  • Mohammad Reza Kavianpour, Alireza Nemati Pages 315-325
    Edaphic mites of the order Mesostigmata have important effects in soil ecosystems and food chains.In order to study the fauna of Laelapidae (Mesostigmata), soil samples were collected from different parts of Shahreza vicinity in Esfahan province, Iran, during 2010-2012. Among collected species a new species of Gaeolaelaps has been collected from soil and litter and described from adult female specimens. Some morphological characters of G. jondishapouri Nemati & Kavianpour were discussed in this paper. A key to Gaeolaelaps species of Iran is provided.
    Keywords: Mesostigmata, Laelapidae, Gaeolaelaps, Iran
  • Fatma Demnati, Farid Allache Pages 327-334
    No doubt, damage and losses inflicted by Callosobruchus maculatus to stored products in general and chickpea in particular can be significant., The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the Verbascum sinuatum powder on C. maculatus oviposition behavior in chickpea under laboratory conditions (30°C, 60% relative humidity). Powder of Mullein plant (V. sinuatum) caused reduction in fecundity, fertility, adult emergence from seeds and chickpea weight loss depending on treatment concentration (0.1, 0.05 and 0.025 g/ ml). It reduced the number of eggs laid by the weevil at first concentration to 136 eggs, the egg hatching rate at 52.22% and adult emergence to 34.03%. The percentage of grain weight loss was reduced at all studied concentrations but not significantly different at second and third concentrations compared to control. The lowest weight loss of grains was registered at first concentration (4.7%). V. sinuatum, according to this study, showed a significant potential to reduce the egg deposit and weight loss due to the chickpea beetle.
    Keywords: Verbascum sinuatum, fecundity, fertility, adult emergence, seed weight loss
  • Najmeh Alimohammadi, Mohamad Samih, Hamzeh Izadi, Shahnaz Shahidi Noghabi Pages 335-344
    The ladybird beetle, Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is one of the most important natural enemies of the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The effects of hexaflumuron and spirodiclofen were investigated on development and carbohydrates and total lipid contents of 4th instar larvae of H. variegata. The insecticides had significant effects on the mortality of eggs, but no significant effects on mortality of larvae or pupae. Hexaflumuron significantly increased the length of development of eggs (2.89 days) and first instar larvae (3.28 days), but had no significant effects on other instars or pupae. Spirodiclofen had no significant effects on developmental stages of H. variegata. Glycogen content was significantly reduced by spirodiclofen (17.42 mg/g fresh body weight) and hexaflumuron (16.07 mg/g fresh body weight). Trehalose content in hexaflumuron (1.89 mg/g fresh body weight) and spirodiclofen-treated larvae (2.02 mg/g fresh body weight) was significantly lower than control (8.01 mg/g fresh body weight). Glucose content in spirodiclofen-treated larvae (0.96 mg/g fresh body weight) was significantly higher than in hexaflumuron-treated larvae (0.24 mg/g fresh body weight) and control (0.15 mg/g fresh body weight). Significant reduction in the amount of lipid was observed in spirodiclofen-treated larvae (5.29 mg/g fresh body weight), but not in hexaflumuron-treated larvae (7.11 mg/g fresh body weight). These results suggest that substantial physiological events in the life of larvae are affected in response to the action of the tested insecticides.
    Keywords: Carbohydrates, Spirodiclofen, Hexaflumuron, Hippodamia variegata
  • Faegheh Sherafati, Pejman Khodaygan, Mahdi Azadvar, Ebrahim Sedaghati, Roholah Saberi, Riseh, Sareh Baghaee, Ravari Pages 345-355
    Samples of leaf, twig and fruit from ‘Mexican’ lime (Citrus aurantifolia) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) with symptoms of bacterial canker were collected from different provinces throughout Iran during spring and summers of 2010 and 2011. Yellow, gram-negative colonies were isolated from infected tissue samples. Results of pathogenicity assays indicated that some isolates incited tissue hyperplasia, hypertrophy and raised callus-like lesions typical of canker in hosts while other isolates stimulated flat necrotic and water-soaked lesions on leaves. Candidate samples of each group were identified according to morphological and physiological characteristics. Detections were also made using specific primers and partial sequencing of 16SrDNA for Pantoea group and gyrB for Xanthomonas group. Results showed that one group was characterized as the typical Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri strain while the other group containing most of the isolates was identified as Pantoea agglomerans. Samplings done frequently in different seasons revealed the presence of high populations of P. agglomerans with bacterial canker, especially in warmer and drier regions. These bacteria were able to incite canker-like symptoms on grapefruit seedlings and could be reisolated after two months.
    Keywords: Pantoea agglomerans, Citrus canker, like disease, pathogenicity, Iran
  • Parisa Abdoli, Alireza Monfared Pages 357-367
    The males of the three species of bumblebees, Bombus (Thoracobombus) ruderarius (Müller), B. (T.) persicus Radoszkowskiand B. (T.) mesomelas Gerstaecker collected from Vikan village, Qazvin province and their male labial gland secretions were analyzed by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and components of their extracts were identified. The major compounds were a complex mixture of alkenols, alkenals, fatty acids, hydrocarbons, wax type esters and steroids. The main component of male labial gland secretions of B. ruderarius, B. persicus and B. mesomelas were determined to be 9-hexadecenol (42.1%), Z-13-octadecen-1-yl acetate (81.8%) andZ-12- pentacosene (34.4%), respectively. Results shown that if detection of species in male bumblebees be difficult by using morphologic characters, then identification can be confirmed by detecting main component of male labial gland of these bees.
    Keywords: Labial glands, bumblebees, chemotaxonomy, Bombus, Thoracobombus, Iran
  • Mostafa Ghafouri, Moghaddam, Hossein Lotfalizadeh, Ehsan Rakhshani Pages 369-376
    A survey was carried out on the hyperparasitoids of the poplar spiral gall aphid, Pemphigus spyrothecae Passerini, 1860 in Ardabil province from 2012 to 2013. Two pteromalid species, including Pachyneuron solitarium (Hartig, 1838) and Asaphes suspensus (Nees, 1834) were reared from the mummified aphids. Both species are hyperparasitoid of P. spyrothecae via Monoctonia vesicarii Tremblay, 1991 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae). Pachyneuron solitarium is newly recorded from Iran.
    Keywords: Pemphigus, Monoctonia, Pachyneuron, Asaphes, new record
  • Elham Salehi, Mohammad Salehi, Seyed Mohsen Taghavi, Keramatollah Izadpanh Jahromi Pages 377-388
    In 2010- 2012 surveys, witches''- boom disease of tomato was observed in Borazjan area (Bushehr province, Iran). Agent of the disease was transmitted from tomato to tomato and eggplant by grafting and to Madagascar periwinkle via dodder inoculation, inducing phytoplasma-type symptoms in inoculated plants. Presence of phytoplasma in naturally affected tomatoes and all symptomatic graft and dodder inoculated plants was confirmed by direct and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primer pairs P1/P7 and R16F2n/R16R2. BLAST search and phylogenetic analysis of 16SrDNA showed that detected phytoplasma belonged to peanut witches''- broom (16SrII) group. Phylogenetic analysis, percent homology and virtual RFLP indicated that, as a member of 16SrII group, Borazjan tomato witches’- broom (BTWB) phytoplasma together with Bushehr eggplant and alfalfa witches’- broom (BEWB and BAWB, respectively) phytoplasmas were classified with Candidatus Phytoplasma australasia, a phytoplasma related to 16SrII-D subgroup. Based on the same analysis, BTWB, BEWB and BAWB phytoplasmas were differentiable from three other Iranian 16SrII related phytoplasmas associated with alfalfa witches''- broom diseases in Yazd and Fars provinces and lime witches''- broom disease in southern Iran.This is the first report of tomato witches''- broom disease and characterization of its associated phytoplasma in Iran.
    Keywords: tomato diseases, phytoplasmas, witches', broom, graft, dodder transmission, 16SrII, D subgroup
  • Samad Khaghaninia, Yaser Gharajedaghi Pages 389-396
    Based on specimens collected from East Azerbaijan province during 2009-2012, five genera and nine species of the family Scathophagidae are recognized. Eight species including: Cordilura rufipes (Meigen, 1826), Gimnomera montana Ozerov et Krivosheina, 2013, Norellisoma spinimana (Fallén, 1819), Parallelomma albipes (Fallén, 1819), Scathophaga kaszabi (Šifner, 1975), Scathophaga lutaria (Fabricius, 1794), Scathophaga stercoraria (Linnaeus, 1758), Scathophaga taeniopa (Rondani, 1867) and four genera (Cordilura Fallén, 1810, Gimnomera Rondani, 1866, Norellisoma Wahlgren, 1917, Parallelomma Becker, 1894)) are recorded from Iran for the first time. Photos and key to species of the family Scathophagidae occurring in this region are provided.
    Keywords: Dung flies, Scathophagidae, New records, East Azerbaijan province, Iran
  • Hadi Ghorbanzad, Ramin Heydari, Ebrahim Pourjam Pages 397-411
    In order to identification of plant parasitic nematodes associated with plants in fruit orchards of West Azerbaijan province, Iran, a survey was conducted during 2011 and 2012. Nematodes were extracted from soil and root samples by using centrifugal-flotation and Whitehead''s tray, transferred to glycerin and mounted in permanent slides. Morphological and morphometrical characters of the specimens were analyzed and measurated. As a result, 26 species belonging to 21 different genera of tylenchids (Tylenchomorpha, Nematoda) were identified that are presented. Mesocriconema surinamense and Pratylenchoides crenicauda are reported for the first time from Iran. Iranian population of Psilenchus aestuarius is also illustrated here. M. surinamense ischaracterized by having a disk like head originated fromlarge submedian lobes of lip region and morphometic characters. P. crenicauda is the type species of the genus Pratylenchoides and distinguished by areolated lateral lines on the tail, short pharyngeal overlap and position of pharyngeal glands. P. aestuarius is characterized by rounded and smooth head, presence of post anal intestinal sac in both sexes and several morphometric characters.
    Keywords: First report, Mesocriconema surinamense, Pratylenchoides crenicauda, Psilenchus aestuarius
  • Nahid Khajeh, Zahra Yari, Ehsan Rakhshani, Francisco Javier Peris, Felipo Pages 413-423
    The present paper provides the updated checklist of the genera and species in the subfamily Alysiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Iran. A total of 55 species belonging to 13 genera have been listed, that had been recorded from 15 provinces. The recorded species were belong to the genera Alloea Haliday, 1833 (one species), Aphaereta Foerster, 1862 (two species), Aspilota Foerster, 1862 (two species), Dinotrema Foerster, 1862 (four species), Idiasta Foerster, 1862 (one species), Orthostigma Ratzeburg, 1844 (three species), Phaenocarpa Foerster, 1861 (one species), Pseudopezomachus Montero, 1905 (one species) and Synaldis Foerster, 1862 (four species) from the tribe Alysiini, and Chorebus Haliday, 1833 (28 species), Coelinidea Viereck 1913 (one species), Dacnusa Haliday, 1833 (five species) and Protodacnusa Griffiths, 1964 (two species) from the tribe Dacnusini.
    Keywords: Alysiini, Dacnusini, Fauna, biological control, parasitoids