فهرست مطالب

امامت پژوهی - پیاپی 10 (تابستان 1392)
  • پیاپی 10 (تابستان 1392)
  • بهای روی جلد: 100,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/08/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 13
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  • مقالات
  • علی امیرخانی صفحه 9
    امامت محوری ترین جایگاه را در منظومه اعتقادی شیعه امامی دارد. نوع تعیین و نصب امام نیز در این مکتب با دیگر مکتب های اسلامی متفاوت است. امامیان از همان ابتدا به دلیل آنکه مقام امامت را امتداد مقام نبوت می دانستند، معتقد بودند امامت امیرالمومنین علی(علیه السلام)نه به دلیل فضائل بی شمار او نسبت به سایر صحابه و نه به دلیل انتخاب مسلمانان، بلکه بر اساس تعیین و معرفی رسول خدا(صلی الله علیه و آله) بوده است. این رویکرد در لسان علمی اندیشمندان امامی با تئوری (نص) تبیین شد. آنان در بحث امامت عامه (مقام ثبوت) بر آن شدند که نص، طریق انحصاری تعیین امام است؛ از این رو، در صدد ابطال راه های دیگر برآمدند، و در بحث امامت خاصه (مقام اثبات)، امامت امیرالمومنین علی (علیه السلام)را هم با نصوص جلی، هم با نصوص خفی و هم با نص فعلی (اظهار معجزه) اثبات کردند. مقاله پیش رو (تئوری نص) امامیان را با روی آورد توصیفی _ تحلیلی بررسیده است.
  • سید حسن سبزواری صفحه 35
    مساله انتخاب و گزینش و یا انتصاب امام، یکی از مهم ترین مساله ها در حوزه خلافت و امامت است. امامیه معتقد به انتصاب امام از جانب پروردگار متعال از طریق نص می باشد، و سایر فرق از قبیل معتزله و اشاعره و اهل حدیث، وجود نص را در باب خلافت انکار نموده و این فرآیند را بر عهده اهل حل و عقد و خبرگان امت گزارده اند.
    نوشتار حاضر به تشریح مسائل مربوط به اجماع اهل حل و عقد با استناد به متون معتبر اهل سنت پرداخته و از پیشینه تاریخی، تعریف، شرایط، وظایف و مبانی حجیت اهل حل و عقد سخن می گوید. در این میان برخی از آراء مورد نقد قرار گرفته و به مناسبت، دیدگاه های دانشمندان اهل سنت نیز طرح و ارزیابی شده است. در نهایت، این مقاله می کوشد تا تصویری گویا و مستند از مباحث پیرامون اجماع اهل حل و عقد ارائه دهد.
  • محمدعلی موحدی صفحه 87
    سخنان پیامبر گرامی اسلام در روز غدیرخم به گونه های مختلفی از حیث حجم ثبت و ضبط شده است. طولانی ترین متن منقول از این سخنان که به آن خطبه طولانی غدیر گفته شده است، نسبت به سایر گونه ها به ویژه نسبت به حدیث غدیر، کمتر مورد بحث و کاوش سندی و دلالی قرار گرفته است. گرچه تعداد اندکی از عالمان و پژوهشگران امامی، پیرامون متن این خطبه آثاری از خود به جای نهاده اند، اما در مورد اعتبار سندی آن، پژوهش دقیقی صورت نگرفته است. از این رو، در متن پیشارو کوشیده شده است آخرین سند موجود از خطبه طولانی غدیر، که در اثری از آثار سال های واپسین حیات سید بن طاووس به نام التحصین مضبوط گشته، مورد بررسی رجالی واقع شود. در این راه پس از بیان مقدماتی پیرامون تفاوت میان (حدیث غدیر) و (خطبه غدیر) و تقسیم بندی گونه های مختلف ضبط سخنان پیامبر و ارائه فهرستی از منابع موجود به ترتیب زمان، به پژوهشی مختصر در خصوص آثار مرتبط با این سند و مآخذ آن پرداخته شده است. در این پژوهش با بررسی ها و پژوهش های رجالی صورت گرفته، وثاقت تمامی راویان شیعه و مخالف مذکور هر طبقه، مطابق با مبانی رجالی آن مذهب، مورد بررسی قرار گرفته، و در نهایت با تکیه بر نظریه اطمینان، سند این خطبه در حکم (موثق) دانسته شده است.
  • پرونده علمی
  • صفحه 119
  • محمدمنتظری صفحه 121
    اندیشه امامت و ویژگی های امام به عنوان اصلی ترین وجه تمایز مکتب امامیه نسبت به سایر مکاتب اسلامی، از مهم ترین مسائلی است که اندیشمندان نخستین امامیه بر محور آن به بحث و گفتگو نشسته و درباره آن نظریه پردازی کرده اند. اندیشمندان و محدثان شیعه در کوفه درباره تعریف امامت، انگاره های مشترکی داشته و بر این باورند که امامت مقامی بسیار والا و حتی بسی بالاتر از مقام نبوت و رسالت است. آنان مهم ترین مولفه مقام امامت را وجوب پیروی و اطاعت مستقل از امام می دانستند که با تفویض دین، رابطه ای مستقیم دارد. از این رو لازم است که خداوند این حق اطاعت را برای امام جعل و نصب کند. البته بزرگان اصحاب امامیه در کوفه در پاره ای از خصوصیات امامت نظیر گستره منابع علم امام به ویژه علم الهامی، گستره ولایت و نوع نگاه به مساله عصمت، با یکدیگر اختلافاتی داشته اند. بیشتر این اختلافات به نگرش اندیشمندان و روش کلامی آنان بستگی داشت. در این بین جریان کلامی هشام بن حکم به دلیل مستدل کردن مسائل امامت به استدلالات عقلی در نهایت دیدگاهی خاص ارائه کرد که نسبت به باور جریان اکثریت و محدثان امامیه، در غالب موارد دیدگاهی حداقلی محسوب می شود.
  • عبدالمجید اعتصامی صفحه 155
    زید بن علی(علیه السلام)، در انعکاس منابع شیعه امامیه، امامت را مقامی الهی و تعیینی می داند نه امری مردمی و اختیاری. او به امامت بلافصل امیرالمومنین(علیه السلام) معتقد است و امامت دیگران را غاصبانه می داند و بر این باور است که مجموعه امامان، دوازده نفرند که نه تن از آنان از نسل امام حسین(علیه السلام) است؛ ولی در اقوال و آثار او نامی از امامان چهارم به بعد مشاهده نشده است. در آثار مکتوبی که به او نسبت داده شده، به تعداد امامان اشاره ای نشده است. و برای خود نیز ادعای امامت نکرده؛ مگر اینکه خود را حجت بر مردم معرفی کرده است. او اصل افتراض طاعت را برای بعضی از اهل بیت(علیهم السلام) می پذیرد؛ ولی در تعیین و تشخیص مصادیق امام مفترض الطاعه دچار تزلزل است.
  • مهدی فرمانیان، ریحانه هاشمی (شهیدی) صفحه 183
  • مصطفی سلطانی صفحه 219
  • نقد اندیشه
  • شیوه های ارتباط فرشتگان با ائمه(ع) / تاملی بر مقاله «محدث» اتان کلبرگ
    سیدعلی هاشمی صفحه 265
  • کتاب شناخت
  • حمید سلیم گندمی صفحه 289
  • صفحه 333
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  • Ali Amirkhani Page 9
    Imamate is located at the heart of the ideological system of Imami Shi’is. In this school, the way in which Imam is determined and appointed is other than other schools. Since they considered the station of Imamate as a continuation of the station of prophethood, Imamis were, since the beginning, of the opinion that the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), was Imam not because of his countless virtues or since he had been elected by Muslims, but since he had been introduced and appointed by the Holy Prophet (S). In the scientific terminology of Imami thinkers, this approach was explained on the basis of the theory of “Nass” (mention). Concerning “universal Imamate” (i.e. the station of existence), they came to the conclusion that Nass (mention) is the only way to introduce the Imam. Thus, they went to reject other ways. Concerning particular Imamate (the station of affirmation), they proved Imamate of the Commander of the Faithful, Ali (a.s.), on the basis of apparent and hidden Nass as well as actual Nass (miracles). The author of the present article has studied Imamis’ theory of Nass through a descriptive-analytic approach.
  • Seyyed Hasan Sabzavari Page 35
    In the field of Caliphate and Imamate, “electing or appointing the Imam” is one the most important issues. Imamis are of the opinion that Imam is appointed, through Nass, by the Lord- the Exalted. Others such as Mu’tazalis, Ash’aris, and people of hadith, have rejected the impact of Nass concerning Caliphate and left this process to go through by people of Hall and Aqd (those whose opinions are what count) as well as the experts from among Ummah. Relying on the authentic texts of Sunnis, the present writing describes issues concerning consensus between people of Hall and Aqd, and speaks of the history, definition, conditions, and duties of people of Hall and Aqd and the foundations for their authority. Meanwhile, some ideas have been criticized; and, opinions of Sunni scholars have been mentioned and assessed accordingly. Finally, the present article tries to provide an expressive and well-documented picture of the issues which concern consensus between the people of Hall and Aqd.
  • Mohammad Ali Movahhedi Page 87
    Sayings of the Holy Prophet (S) in the Day of al-Ghadir have been recorded in various extents. The longest available text of these sayings (which is called the long Sermon of al-Ghadir) has been discussed and studied as for chain of transmitters and references to a lesser extent than other versions and in particular the hadith of al-Ghadir. Though some Imami scholars and thinkers have created some works about this sermon, no accurate study has been made about the authenticity of its chain of transmitters. Thus, in the present writing, the author has tried to study the last available chain of transmitters of the long Sermon of al-Ghadir as recorded in a work called al-Tahsin written by Sayyid Ibn Tawus in the last years of his life. To do so, at first, the author has mentioned some preliminary points about differences between the hadith of al-Ghadir and the Sermon of al-Ghadir,classified various ways in which sayings of the Holy Prophet (S) have been recorded, and provided a chronologically ordered list of the available sources; then, he has gone to study the works concerning this chain of transmitters and its resources. In the present research, studies made about this chain of transmitters have been analyzed, and authenticity of all Shi’i transmitters as well as that of the opponents has been assessed; in conclusion, and based on the theory of reliability, the chain of transmitters of this Sermon has been considered as being “authentic”.Scientific Dialogue
  • Mohammad Montazeri Page 121
    The idea of Imamate and characteristics of the Imam are the main features distinguishing the Imami School form other Islamic schools. These are among the most important issues the earlier Imami thinkers have discussed and theorized about them. Shi’i thinkers and Muhaddithun in Kufa share in some theories to define Imamate and are of the opinion that the Imamate is a very high station which is even much higher than the station of prophethood and messengership. According to them, the most important feature of Imamate is that Imam should be obeyed and followed independently, which is in direct relation to the delegation of religion. Thus, it is necessary that God specify the right of being obeyed for the Imam. Of course there were some disputes among the great Imami figures in Kufa concerning some characteristics of Imamate such as the extent of Imam’s knowledge and in particular his inspirational knowledge, the extent of Wilayah, and the ways they looked at “Infallibility”. These disputes depend mostly on the views and theological approaches of thinkers. The Hisham theological school provided rational arguments for the issues of Imamate and presented a particular view which, as compared to the beliefs of the mainstream and Imami Muhaddithun, is considered as a minimalistic view.
  • Abdolmajid Etesami Page 155
    As reflected in the Shi’i Imami sources, according to Zayd Ibn Ali, Imamate is a Divine stations Imam is Divinely appointed; and he is not elected by people. He holds in immediate Imamate of the Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) and thinks that Imamate of others is usurpative. He is of the opinion that there are in total twelve Imams nine of them are descendants ofImam Husyan. In his works and sayings, however, there is no trace of the fourth Imam and the next Imams. In written works ascribed to him, no mention has been made to the number of Imams; nor has he t personally claimed for Imamate; rather, he has introduced himself as a proof (Hujjah) for people. He accepts that some members of the Household (a.s.) should be necessarily obeyed; in specifying the instances of the ImÁm who should be necessarily obeyed, however, he is not certain.
  • Mahdi Farmanian, Reyhaneh Hashemi (Shahidi) Page 183
    Isma’ilis theory of Imamate is based on the their theory of sacred history. According to them, based on a pre-determined plan, history is divided into seven periods each of them begins with an Arch-prophet whose successors hermeneutically interpret the inner aspects of the religion of that period. The last period- which is the same as the period of the Qa’im of the Doomsday- will come to an end with the end of history. According to Isma’ilis, there are, in each period, a saying and a silent prophet and Imamate is for them the continuation of executorship. For Isma’ilis, Imamate is important since its links the earthy Imamate with the heavenly meanings (heavenly periods and worlds of intellects). Thus, Imam should be a descendant of the Holy Prophet (S) whose necessity of Imamate has been proved in the basis of rational and transmitted arguments and he should be appointed, Infallible and enjoy knowledge and superiority. One’s worships shall be accepted if he knows the Imam and his acts will be accepted if he obeys the Imam. In the Isma’ili thought, the end of history contains spiritual resurrection when the seventh saying prophet, as the Qa’im of the Doomsday, will describe the inner truths of the world; sometimes, this saying prophet is considered as the Promised Mahdi. Since some Mahdis have appeared among Isma’ilis, new interpretations have been introduced in this regard; and the seventh saying prophet (the Qa’im of the Doomsday) has been considered as an Imam who will take human beings to the highest station of spirituality.
  • Mostafa Soltani Page 219
    Zaidis are one of the main branches of Shi’is and in the theoryof Imamate they are distinguished from Imamis. Their theory of Imamate is based on the acceptance of Nass. According to them, Imamate is the highest position in the Islamic government; they do not believe in essential glorification and holy position for the Imam. They are of the opinion that Imam has no share of characteristics such as Infallibility, divine knowledge, and the like. Thus, they believe that it is not Imam’s duty to guide people towards God; and Imam is appointed to execute religious punishments, Jihad, and the like. According to them, the only way to appoint an Imam is to refer to religion and the way in which Imam may be known is rising and invitation. This study tries to present some points concerning to the theory of Imamate according to Zaidis.
  • Mohammad Taqi Sobhani Page 247
    In the present writing, the three main and well-known theories of Imamate (Imami thory, Zaydi theory, and Isma’ili theory) have been introduced and the relations between the three have been discussed. It has been said that, putting emphasis on the Batini meaning for Imamate, Isma’ili theory brings Imamate near to extremism; and, on the other hand, weakening Infallibility and replacing special knowledge by Ijtihd, Zaidis make themselves influenced by Sunni view. Then, the historical development of Imami theory has been discussed and four theories of theologians, muhaddithun, philosophers, and mystics have been explained. It is argued that there is no theoretical explanation with Muhaddithun. The author expresses his hope that this important task may be performed in more dissertations, articles, and writings.
  • Seyyed Ali Hashemi Page 265
    Communications between prophets and even some of those like Mary (a.s.) who have been chosen by God on the one hand and angels on the other is one of the important issuesdiscussed in our Qur’anic and narrative culture. In spite of its importance, this issue has been for various reasons neglected. In the present writing, employing the analytic and descriptive methodology and studying hadiths of the Infallibles (a.s.), the author tries to provide a replies for the following questions: “does Qur’anic and narrative evidence confirm the communication between Imams (a.s.) and other people who are not prophets on the one hand and angels on the other?” and “if yes, in which ways is this communication established?” In this study, the author comes to the conclusion that there are Qur’anic and narrative arguments for this communication of Imams (a.s.) and other people who are not prophets and this communication is established in two ways: either angels are incarnated or Imams (a.s.) and other people who are not prophets communicate with angels through al-tahdith (the fact of speaking to someone). al-Tahdith is angels’ speaking withthe friend of God; in this case, the angel does not see the one with whom the angel speaks and only hears his voice. To establish such a communication, the one with whom the angel speaks needs not to be a prophet. This is other than inspiration in which some points come to one’s heart.
  • Hamid Salim Gandomi Page 289
    The present writing introduces 23 books and 9 articles and dissertations concerning Thaqalayn. The author has studied, in an analytic and descriptive way, the works of Shi’I and Sunni scholars written since 1385 AH Solar/2006 in this regard.