فهرست مطالب

Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine - Volume:4 Issue:3, 2014
  • Volume:4 Issue:3, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/02/25
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Valiollah Hajhashemi, Gholamreza Dashti, Salabali Saberi, Parvin Malekjamshidi Pages 144-150
    Objective
    This study was designed to investigate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract and essential oil of Heracleum persicum (Apiaceae) on lipid profile of male hyperlipidemic rabbits.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty rabbits were randomly divided into six groups of five each. One group received normal diet and the other groups fed with a high cholesterol (2% W/W) diet for 7 weeks. Vehicle, hydroalcoholic extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200 ml/kg), and lovastatin (5 mg/kg) were administered orally to animals and their effects on lipid profile were evaluated.
    Results
    Essential oil of H. perscum significantly (p<0.05) lowered serum triglyceride level and increased HDL-cholesterol concentration. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg/kg), essential oil (200 ml/kg), and lovastatin significantly (p<0.01) reduced serum concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol.
    Conclusion
    These findings suggest that essential oil of the plant fruits may have some benefits in reducing cardiovascular risk factors.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Heracleum persicum, Hyperlipidemia
  • Apexa Bhanuprasad Shukla, Divyesh Rasikbhai Mandavia, Manish Jasmatbhai Barvaliya, Seema Natvarlal Baxi, Chandrabhanu Rajkishore Tripathi Pages 151-155
    Objective
    To investigate the anti-urolithiatic effect of aqueous extract of leaves of Bryophyllum pinnatum (B. pinnatum) on ethylene glycol-induced renal calculi.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty-six Wistar male rats were randomly divided into six equal groups. group A animals received distilled water for 28 days. Group B to group F animals received 1% v/v ethylene glycol in distilled water for 28 days and group B served as ethylene glycol control. Groups C and D (preventive groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively for 28 days. Groups E and F (treatment groups) received aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum 50 and 100 mg/kg intraperitoneally, respectively from 15th to 28th day. On days 0 and 28, 24 hrs urine samples were collected for urinary volume and urinary oxalate measurement. On day 28, blood was collected for serum creatinine and blood urea level monitoring. All animals were sacrificed and kidneys were removed, weighed, and histopathologically evaluated for calcium oxalate crystals deposition.
    Results
    Administration of aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum reduced urine oxalate level significantly, as compared with Group B (p<0.001). Serum creatinine and blood urea level were improved significantly in all aqueous extract of leaves of B. pinnatum-treated groups. Relative kidney weight and calcium oxalate depositions were found significantly reduced in animals received ABP as compared with Group B (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    B. pinnatum is effective in prevention and treatment of ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis.
    Keywords: Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.), Calcium oxalate, Ethylene glycol, Renal calculi
  • TamÈgnon Victorien Dougnon, HonorÉ Sourou BankolÉ, Jean Robert KlotoÉ, Maximin SÈnou, Lauris Fah, Hornel Koudokpon, Casimir Akpovi, Tossou Jacques Dougnon, Phyllis Addo, FrÉdÉric Loko, Michel Boko Pages 160-169
    Objective
    Hypercholesterolemia is the greatest risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The present study is conducted to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of leaves and fruits of Solanum macrocarpon, a vegetable, on Wistar rats experimentally rendered hypercholesterolemic by Triton X-100.
    Materials And Methods
    The leaves and fruits were administered (p.o.) for 7 days to rats at doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg of body weight. Atorvastatin was used as reference treatment drug. The data were analyzed by the Brown-Forsythe ANOVA, Dunnett’s T3 multiple comparison test, and Dunnett’s t test. All tests were done at the 5% significance level.
    Results
    Administration of S. macrocarpon (fruits as well as leaves) resulted in a statistically significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, VLDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides in the treated groups compared with the untreated hypercholesterolemic group, regardless of the administrated doses. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol was observed in the treated groups. Hepatic disorders due to the Triton have been corrected by S. macrocarpon.
    Conclusions
    This vegetable effectively suppresses experimental hypercholesterolemia in Wistar rats, suggesting a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. Its use by individuals at risk should be promoted.
    Keywords: Cholesterolemia, Feeding, Regulation, Solanum macrocarpon, Wistar rats
  • Hassan Malekinejad, Sanaz Sheikhzadeh, Rahim Hobbenaghi Pages 170-181
    Objective
    The protective effect of silymarin (SMN) on mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)–induced duodenal disorders was investigated.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty-two Wistar rats were assigned to seven groups including control and test groups. The control animals received saline and the test animals were treated with MMF (30 mg/kg, orally) and saline, MMF and SMN (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, orally), MMF and Celecoxib (CLX, 50 mg/kg, orally), and MMF and SMN plus CLX for 14 consecutive days. The antioxidant status and myeloperoxidase activity were determined and the histopathological examinations on duodenal section also were performed.
    Results
    Biochemical analyses revealed that SMN and CLX individually and in combination therapy could reduce the MMF-increased nitric oxide (NO) content, myeloperoxidase (MPA) activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, while the MMF-reduced level of total thiol molecules (TTM) was increased significantly (p<0.05) by given compounds. Concurrent administration of SMN and CLX resulted in a synergistic effect on the reduction of MDA level and MPO activity. SMN and CLX were able to improve the MMF-induced histopathological damages including the villus atrophy and inflammatory cells infiltration.
    Conclusion
    Our data suggest that the MMF-induced duodenal disorders may attribute to the elevated NO and MDA levels and myeloperoxidase activity that resulted in pathological injuries. Moreover, the biochemical alterations and histopathological injuries due to MMF administration were reduced by SMN alone or in combination with CLX indicating its protective effect.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Combination drug therapy, Gastrointestinal, Protective effects, Silymarin
  • Mohammad Nikbin, Nasrin Kazemipour, Malek Taher Maghsoodlou, Jafar Valizadeh, Masood Sepehrimanesh, Amene Davarimanesh Pages 182-190
    Objective
    Scutellaria luteo-caerulea Bornm. & Snit. is one of the species of genus Scutellaria, within the family of the Lamiaceae, that is used for immune system stimulation and antibacterial effects in traditional medicine in Iran. The aims of this study were to analyze essential oils and mineral element contents of leaves of S. luteo-caerulea in flowering stage of development.
    Materials And Methods
    The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the leaves of S. luteo-caerulea and were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Moreover, microwave digestion with atomic absorption spectrophotometry were used for the mineral elements assay.
    Results
    Ninety-seven constituents were detected. Between them, the major components were trans-caryophyllene (25.4%), D-germacrene (7.9%), and linalool (7.4%). Determination of mineral elements showed that the highest minerals were Ca2+ (65.14±1.95 µg/ml) and K+ (64.67±3.10 µg/ml).
    Conclusion
    Presence of different essential oils and rich sources of Ca2+ and K+ candidate this plant as an auxiliary medication in different diseases, but more complementary researches are needed about its potency and side effects.
    Keywords: Atomic absorption, Essential oils, Gas chromatography mass Mineral elements, Spectrometry, Spectrophotometry
  • Forough Naemi, Gholamreza Asghari, Hossein Yousofi, Hossein Ali Yousefi Pages 191-199
    Objectives
    Trichomoniasis is one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases in humans and is caused by the protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis. Nowadays, increasing resistance to drugs such as metronidazole resulted in many problem, so new effective remedies are needed. In this study, we evaluate constituents of essential oil and anti-trichomonas activity of Rheum ribes.
    Materials And Methods
    The essential oil from Rheum ribes L.flower growing wild in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. The parasites were treated with different extract and fractions of the flower, stem, and leave of the plant. Anti-trichomonas activity was evaluated using an in vitro assay.
    Results
    In all, 19 compounds were identified; palmitic acid [27.08%], n-eicosane [9.9%], n-tetracosane [7.34%], linoleic acid [6.56%], and ethyl linoleate [4.76%] were the main components of the oil. Rheum ribes extracts and fractions concentration dependently inhibited the ability of parasites to growth. This was associated with polarity of solvent used for fractionation and plant parts used for extraction.
    Conclusion
    Findings demonstrate the potential of Rheum ribes extracts as an anti-trichomonas agent for human use. Further studies are required to evaluate its toxicity and safety.
    Keywords: Essential oil, Rheum ribes, Trichomonas vaginalis
  • Mini Priya Rajendran, Blessed Beautlin Pallaiyan, Nija Selvaraj Pages 200-214
    Objective
    This study is designed to extract and examine chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the hydro-distillated essential oil of Murraya koenigii leaves from the south region of Tamilnadu, India. Matherials and
    Methods
    Gas Chromatography (GC) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the essential oil result was indicates the 33 different compounds representing 97.56 % of the total oil.
    Results
    Major compounds detected in the oil were Linalool (32.83%), Elemol (7.44%), Geranyl acetate (6.18%), Myrcene (6.12%), Allo-Ocimene (5.02), α-Terpinene (4.9%), and (E)-β-Ocimene (3.68%) and Neryl acetate (3.45%). From the identified compounds, they were classified into four groups that are oxygenated monoterpenes (72.15%), monoterpene hydrocarbons (11.81%), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (10.48%) and sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (03.12%). The antibacterial activity of essential oil has pronounced by Disc Diffusion Method against various pathogenic microbes.
    Conclusion
    The oil has a maximum zone of inhibition ability against Corynebacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Enterobacter aerogenes. The antioxidant profile of the sample was determined by different test systems. In all the systems, essential oil showed a strongest activity profile within the concentration range.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Chemical composition, Essential oil, Murraya koenigii (L) leaves
  • Hajera Khatun, Rajib Majumder, Efte Kharul Alam Al Mamun, Safkath Ibne Jami, Badrul Alam Pages 215-224
    Objective
    Premna integrifolia Linn (Family: Verbenaceae) synonym of Premna serratifolia has tremendous medicinal value. Preliminary pharmacological studies were performed on the methanolic extract of Premna integrifolia (MEPI) bark to investigate neuropharmacological, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities.
    Materials And Methods
    Neuropharmacology study was done by open field and hole cross test whereas acetic acid writhing test and formalin induced pain was done for analgesic activity of MEPI. Carrageenan induced inflammatory model was considered for anti-inflammatory activity evaluation.
    Results
    A statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in locomotor activity was observed at all doses in the open-field and hole-cross tests. The extract significantly (p<0.05) and dose dependently reduced the writhing reflex in the acetic acid-induced writhing test as well as licking response in the formalin induced inflammatory pain. At 200 mg/kg body weight dose, MEPI showed 71.16% inhibition in carrageenan induced anti-inflammatory activity.
    Conclusion
    The finding of this study suggests that MEPI will provide scientific support for the use of this species in traditional medicine.
    Keywords: Analgesic, Antibacterial, CNS depressant, Inflammation, Premna integrifolia