فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:2, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/03/12
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Mahmood Alimohammadi, Maryam Mehrabbegi, Shahrokh Nazmara, Mohsen Haghighi Dashtappeh, Vahid Kazemi Moghaddam* Pages 1037-1040
    Background
    Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the hazardous materials causing disruption of endocrine pathways. Due to water contamination by this component from multiple sources and the associated health problems, BPA has been the focus of multiple studies. It has been proved that BPA may cause harm because of its impact on estrogenic receptors in human and other organisms.
    Methods
    In this study, the presence of Bisphenol A in bottled drinking water in Iran was evaluated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography (GC). Compared to other studies measuring the level of Bisphenol A in milk, surface water, and wastewater, the present study focused on the levels of Bisphenol A in bottled drinking water to determine the safety risk level of BPA as a possible public health issue.
    Results
    The results showed no evidence of BPA at levels above the standard within all analyzed samples.
    Conclusion
    It seems that BPA is a low-risk component in bottled drinking water.
    Keywords: Bisphenol A, Bottled Drinking Water, Gas Chromatography, Iran, Solid Phase Extraction
  • Mostafa Delavar, Majid Ramezani*, Mahdi Abdollahi, Atefeh Navabi, Abdolreza Baderestani, Shoukofeh Hadavand, Masoodeh Sadeghi Pages 1041-1047
    Background
    cold-induced aggregation micro extraction based (CIAME) based on ionic liquid was used as a rapid and simple method for determination trace amounts of cadmium and lead in milk powder by analysis with flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS).
    Methods
    Sample solution containing of Cd2+ and Pb2+ in dynamic range, phosphate buffer (pH = 9, 3 ml), diethyl dithiocarbamate (complexing agent), Triton X-100, NaPF6, [HMIM][PF6] (extraction solvent) were transferred into conical bottom glass tube. Sample was kept in a thermostated bath and then ice bath; a cloudy solution was formed. Two phases separated by centrifugation. After removing of aqueous phase, IL-phase was dissolved in methanol and diluted was injected to the FAAS by microsampler introduction.
    Results
    ILs, containing imidazoliumcation and hexafluoro phosphate anion, [HMIM][PF6](70mg), 200 mg NaPF6, 0.01 mol.L-1 DDTC, 0.015% of Triton X-100 obtained, pH 9 and centrifuge time; 5 min (4000 rmp) was chosen. Detection limit were obtained 0.12 µgL-1, 1.61µgL-1, RSD 0.95%, 2.2% and enrichment factor of 70, 67 for Cd and Pb, respectively.
    Conclusion
    CIAME allows determination of cadmium and lead in real samples in a simple, rapid and safe method with only a small amount of ionic liquid was used. In comparison with the organic solvent extraction, CIAME is much safer and the determination of species in high ionic strength samples is possible.
    Keywords: Cadmium, Lead, IL, CIAME
  • Saeed Ganjali*, Alierza Ildoromi, Samar Mortazavi Pages 1048-1053
    Background
    Anzali wetland has been subjected to high levels of pollution due to contamination from several industrial sites in addition to agricultural chemicals. Mussels have been widely used for monitoring pollution in aquatic ecosystems, because they, as filter feeders, bioaccumulate pollutants. Therefore we decided to evaluate Anodonta cygnea for its application as a bio-monitor for copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn).
    Methods
    A. cygnea specimens and their surface sediments were gathered from three locations in Anzali wetland. Afterwards, the collected samples (the soft tissues and shells of A. cygnea as well as surface sediments) were analyzed for Cu and Zn by a flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Model 670G).
    Results
    The Cu and Zn concentrations in the sediments obtained from Anzali wetland were in the range of 21.05 to 25.53 for copper and 37.84 to 82.26 μg g-1 dw for zinc. The Cu and Zn levels in the soft tissue were 1.09-1.5 times and 5-7.3 times, respectively, higher than those of the shells. The CV values (%) in the soft tissues and shells were 36 and 53 for Cu, and 53.5 and 150.3 for Zn respectively.
    Conclusions
    The lower Zn variability (CV) in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and significant correlation between Zn levels in the soft tissues of A. cygnea and the surface sediments indicated that the soft tissues of A. cygnea are more appropriate for bio-monitoring of Zn. Cu concentration in the sediment and Zn levels in the soft tissues were found to be comparatively higher than some of the international standards of reference.
    Keywords: Anodonta, Chemical Water Pollutants, Copper, Iran, Wetlands, Zinc
  • Hossein Hassanian, Moghadam, Mohammad, Reza Zarei, Vahid Eslami, Ali Zandieh, Gohar Fakhfouri, Marjan Rasouli*, Patricia Khashayar, Mohammad Reza Rasouli Pages 1054-1059
    Background
    There is no clear data on the adherence of emergency medical services (EMS) paramedics and hospital staff rather than those working in poisoning centers to the guidelines for managing acutely poisoned patients in developing countries.
    Methods
    During a 6-month period, all EMS-managed poisoned patients along with those initially managed in a non-poisoning center before being referred to a poisoning hospital in Tehran, Iran, were instructed. Then the indications for administrating the activated charcoal (AC) as well as performing gastric lavage (GL) and tracheal intubation were studied and compared to the recommended guidelines.
    Results
    A total of 3347 cases, including 1859 males (55.6%), were evaluated. There were significant differences between expected and performed endotracheal intubations in both EMS and other medical centers (P-value = 0.002 and 0.001, respectively) as well as the administration of GL and AC in other medical centers (P-values= 0.003 and 0.03, respectively).
    Conclusion
    More extensive educational programs should be established to improve the preliminary management of poisoned patients performed by EMS paramedics and staff of hospitals other than poisoning centers.
    Keywords: Activated Charcoal, Endotracheal Intubation, Gastric Lavage, Iran, Management, Poisoning
  • Mohammad Karami*, Mohammad Shokerzadeh, Farshad Naghshvar, Sharam Ala, Reza Fezbakhsh, Anahita Nosrati, Marjan Makhloogh Pages 1060-1067
    Background
    Corn silk (CS) is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. Feijoa sellowiana (FS), on the other hand, is a non-native plant widespread in the southern part of Iran. The aim of the present study was to examine the renal protective activity of CS and FS against dosage-induced ecstasy (MDMA) by in situ rat renal perfusion (IRRP) system.
    Methods
    Hydro-alcoholic extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40 and 100 mg/ kg) were studied for their renal protective activities by IRRP system. In this study, the kidneys were perfused with Kerbs-Henseleit buffer, containing different concentrations of hydro-alcoholic (HA) extracts of CS and FS (10, 20, 40, 50, and 100mg/kg) added to the buffer and perfused for two hours. During the perfusion, many factors, including urea, creatinine and GSH levels assessed as indicator of renal viability. Consequently, sections of renal tissue were examined for any histopathological changes.
    Results
    The results showed that histopathological changes in renal tissue related to HA extract of CS AND FS concentrations dose-dependently. Doses of 50, 100 mg/kg caused significant histopathological changes (P<0.05). Glutathione (GSH) levels of samples perfused by HA extract of CS and FS increased compared with the positive control group.
    Conclusion
    Renal protective effects of CS and FS decrease lipid peroxidation, although other mechanisms may also be involved.
    Keywords: Corn Silk, Feijoa Sellowiana, GSH, Renal Perfusion
  • Borhan Mansouri, Javad Salehi*, Mehri Rezaei Pages 1068-1072
    Background
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the concentration of metals (lead, cadmium, chromium, copper, and nickel) in the landfill leachate and heavy metals in wells downstream of municipal solid waste landfill site in the city of Mashhad.
    Methods
    In both winter and summer seasons in 2009 samples were collected from five wells that were in landfill downstream in Mashhad.
    Results
    Among heavy metals, nickel concentration in summer and lead concentration in winter had the highest levels. The results showed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the studied wells was below the national standards of drinking water of Iran, WHO, and the United States. Pearson correlation coefficients also indicated that there was a significant correlation among the studied metals in the wells.
    Conclusion
    Cd and Cu concentrations in all of the wells (except Pb in winter and Ni in summer) did not pose any significant water quality problems since these concentrations were below the standards acceptable levels of drinking water.
    Keywords: Contamination, Landfill, Leachate, Metals, Quality Water
  • Gholamreza Najafi, Vahid Nejati, Ali Shalizar Jalali*, Ensieh Zahmatkesh Pages 1073-1080
    Background
    An adverse effect of oxymetholone (OXM), an anabolic-androgenic steroid used as energetic medicine, is reproductive toxicity. Royal jelly (RJ) is an efficient antioxidant that has been used to treat reproductive problems. In this study, we investigated the effects of RJ on OXM-induced oxidative injuries in mouse testes.
    Methods
    Male mice were divided into four groups. Two groups of mice were administered OXM (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 28 days. One of these groups received RJ (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) concurrently. A vehicle-treated control group and a RJ control group were also included.
    Results
    The OXM-treated group showed a significant decrease in the serum testosterone concentration and spermatogenic activities, along with many histological alterations. OXM treatment also caused a significant decrease in catalase activity with an increase in lipid peroxidation in the mouse testes. The above-noted parameters were restored to near normal levels by RJ co-administration.
    Conclusion
    The results demonstrate that RJ protects against OXM-induced reproductive toxicities.
    Keywords: Mouse, Oxymetholone, Royal Jelly, Testis
  • Morteza Rahbar Taramsari, Alireza Badsar*, Siavash Falahatkar, Hadi Movassagh, Morteza Fallah Karkan, Sina Montazeri, Hamidreza Molazade Pages 1081-1085
    Background
    Methadone is considered a long-acting opioid agonist which is widely used in the treatment of drug addiction. It is believed that opioids can cause erectile dysfunction (ED) by inhibiting gonadotropin and testosterone release. This study is aimed at defining the possible effects of conservative treatment with methadone on erectile dysfunction in the addicts.
    Methods
    A total of 382 male addicts visiting methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) centers in Rasht, Iran, during 2010 were enrolled in this study. International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire and patient's profiles were the main means of collecting data on demographic information, methadone dose intake, and erectile function status before and after the two months of therapy with methadone. Erectile function status was defined by the total score from questions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 15 of the questionnaire. The data was analyzed by X2, McNemer’s test, and paired t-test using SPSS software 18.
    Results
    The mean age of patients was 37.6 ± 8.9 years (range: 18-72 years). Most of the patients were married (79.3%) and they were citizens of Rasht (72.3%). The most frequent substances were opium (188 patients, 49.2%) and crack (129 patients, 33.8%), respectively. Most of the patients received low dose methadone (286 patients, 74.9%). No significant relationship was indicated comparing the average scores of erectile function before and after taking methadone (18.53±6.978 vs. 19.03±5.819) (P=0.138). However, the severity of erectile dysfunction was significantly related to the methadone intake dose (P<0.001).
    Conclusion
    Although MMT increases the frequency of erectile dysfunction, appropriate doses of methadone minimize this effect.
    Keywords: Addiction, Erectile Dysfunction, Methadone Maintenance Therapy, Rasht
  • Ali Sadeghi*, Aliakbar Hedayati Pages 1086-1092
    Background
    The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus).
    Methods
    Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60%) (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm), Deltamethrin (2.5%) (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm), butachlor (60%) (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm) and pretilachlor (50%) (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm) for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval.
    Results
    The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm), deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm), butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm) and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm) indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals.
    Conclusion
    Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.
    Keywords: Butachlor, Deltamethrin, Diazinon, LC50, Pretilachlor, Zebra Cichlid
  • Gholamreza Nouri Broujerdi* Pages 1093-1097
    Background
    The term caustic generally refers to alkaline and the term corrosive generally refers to acidic agent's injury; however, in medical literature caustic is frequently a term applied to both substances.Ingested alkali typically damage the esophagus more than stomach or duodenum, whereas acids usually cause more severe gastric injury. Since esophagus has a slightly alkaline pH, its epithelium is more resistant to acids, so that only 6 to 20% of those who ingest these substances present lesions in this organ. Case: A middle-aged addicted man who drunk hydrochloric acid accidentally had extensive necrosis of the stomach with remarkable sparing of the esophagus on second look exploration. A total gastrectomy with a Roux-en-Y esophago-jejunostomy with feeding jejunostomy was performed.
    Conclusion
    In caustic GI injury, patients who are operated on and found to have no evidence of extensive esophago-gastric necrosis, a biopsy of the posterior gastric wall should be performed to exclude occult injury. If histologically there is a question of viability, a second look operation should be performed within 36 hours.
    Keywords: Acids, Caustics, Chemical Burns, Esophagus, Stomach Diseases, Chemically Induced