فهرست مطالب

ذهن - سال سیزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 50، تابستان 1391)
  • سال سیزدهم شماره 2 (پیاپی 50، تابستان 1391)
  • بهای روی جلد: 6,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Seyyed Mohammad Taqi Movahhed Abtahi Page 5
    As compared with some ideas posed about the problem of religious science, Ayatullah Jawadi Amuli’s view is to resolve the problem. Many of those who have spoken for or against religious science have considered science and religion as two separate categories and discussed possibility or impossibility of the impact of religion on science. Ayatullah Jawadi Amuli, however, considers authentic achievements of rational and empirical methodology as parts of the comprehensive religion. In the present article, it will be shown that:1- How does Ayatullah Jawadi Amuli depict the relationship between science and religion?2- How does he eliminate the probable conflict between science and religion?3- What does he propose to eliminate deficiencies of sciences?4- Which solutions does he present to solve moral and environmental problems?
    Keywords: religious science, logical certainty, religious authority, conflict between science, religion, deficiencies of modern sciences
  • Ali Asghar Khandan Page 27
    The present article is introduced within the following theoretical frame: according to the Islamic teachings and stipulations of thinkers like Mutahhari, religious science is, on the one hand, a science which is based on Islamic and monotheistic foundations (fundamentalism) and it is, on the other, a useful science (teleologicalism). The standard against which it is determined that whether science is useful or not is needs of individual and Islamic society. To put it more precisely, usefulness of science may be found in two respects: providing replies for (mainly) individual questions and solutions for (mainly) social problems. The present study aims to show what the meaning of teleological approach to Islamic human sciences is and which rational and transmitted arguments confirm it. The main question is: “Where is the place and which is the justification of teleologicalism in the large-scale theory of religion?
    Keywords: teleologicalism, religious science, Islamic human sciences, primary, secondary values, useful science
  • Fariborz Bagheri Page 51
    This article addresses the concept of "teleology" (goal-directedness) as a key principle that shapes attitude toward human beings and the universe, consequences of its elimination in materialistic-based psychology as well its divergence from the psychology based on Islamic perspective on human beings and the universe in three chapters. The first chapter starts by defining “teleology” and its relevant concepts. It then proceeds with a brief explanation of the course of evolution of teleologyin the history of western thought. In the second chapter the consequences of elimination of "teleology" are discussed to explain “formation and development” in all sciences that address the issue of development and to define “mental disorder” criteria. The third chapter elaborates on the place of "teleology" and its meaning in ontology and anthropology on the basis of Islamic teachings. The key role played by teleological perspective on human beings and the universe in the Islamic teachings makes fundamental changes in defining “formation and development” at the level of human activities. It also contributes to defining and developing criteria for mental disorders. The chapter goes on to criticize "adaptation" as a key factor in defining normality and disorder in materialistic-based psychology. It then suggests "orientation" as the most significant criterion for defining mental disorder due to the importance attached to teleology in the universe and Islamic anthropology. The article concludes with assessing application of this criterion in clinical and educational psychology.
    Keywords: Teleology (goal, directedness), Teleonomy, Adaptation, Orientation, Normality, Mental disorder
  • Nasrollah Aghajani Page 87
    Hasan Hanafi who is among the contemporary Egyptian intellectuals has his own intellectual and epistemological foundations borrowed from schools such as Husserl’s phenomenology, Marxism and socialism, relativism, pragmatism, empiricism, humanism and historicalcivilizational approach; and, relying these foundations, he studies the Islamic heritage. In this view, heritage is not something sacred, rather it is a historical development and a social evolution and there is no standard against which false and truth may be theoretically recognized within it. Hanafi’s historical approach has been intertwined with his Marxist approach and the result is a materialist interpretation of the fundamental principles of religion. His view to the West, human sciences and Islamic sciences is not something new and specific to him; rather, its general spirit and main features are shared by many westernized intellectuals in the Islamic world and should be seriously and fundamentally criticized. The present article is aimed to do so.
    Keywords: Hasan Hanafi, Islamic sciences, modernity, intellectualism, West, Islamic heritage
  • Hadi Beigi Malekabad Page 117
    The present article has discussed the approach adopted by Taha Abdulrahman, the contemporary Moroccan thinker, to Islamization of Human Sciences. After some primary discussions, arguments have been given for possibility of Islamization of human sciences and, then, adopting a three-step model, the author has undertaken to correspond Taha Abdulrahman’s intellectual activities to the above three steps. In the first step, critiques posed by Taha Abdulrahman against the western modernity and its intellectual foundations have been expressed. In the second step, revision, arrangement, and renovations of the foundations and then, in the third step, his ideas in the operational phase have been stated. In conclusion, his approach has been criticized and evaluated.
    Keywords: human sciences, Islamization, modernity, morality, civilization, making, western civilization
  • Hasan Naser Khaki, Najmeh Najm Page 145
    Sciences and in particular human sciences have always played an important role in the course of man’s progress and transcendence and in the Islamic world; and, because of the emphasis put by Islam on science and trying to acquire knowledge, this is of much more importance. In the later times, when Ottoman Caliphate was overthrown and the western modernity came to be faced by Muslim, the issue of “science” became a controversial issue between two Islamist and Secular discourses. Assuming that going far away from Islamic teachings and methodology has been the main factor in declination and collapse of the society and taking the revelation-believing reason as a basis and putting emphasis on [religious] texts and traditions and Islamic methodology, Islamists have been mainly seeking to Islamize all fields of life and deemed it as the only solution for problems of the world of Islam and reconstruction of the Islamic civilization. On the other hand, taking the autonomous reason as their basis and putting religious texts and traditions and Islamic teachings aside, seculars tried to secularize the world of Islam and create western modernity within it. Using the methodology of Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse, this article has studied semantic order of modernist, principalist, and civilizationalist minor discourses and discusses that whether Islamic human sciences make sense within them or its indication is expulsed. In this way, while studying the history as well as present situation of the Islamic human sciences within the Islamic world, the article recognizes the role and the sense that this indication has found within each of these Islamist discourses so that it may depict a clear picture of this issue in the realm of the Islamic world.
    Keywords: discourse, Islamic human sciences, Islamism, Islamization, Islamic tradition, Islamic civilization, Islamic modernity
  • Abbas Keshavarzi, Zahed Ghaffari Hashjin, Mahdi Jamshidi Page 185
    This article is aimed to present a structured and analytic description of “social epistemology” in the thoughts of ‘Allamah Mutahhari who is, as a matter of fact, the constructor of philosophical foundation and principles of “Islamic sociology”. To attain this goal, the author has taken as a basis and a reference, Mutahhari’s sociological explanation of the “Islamic Revolution” as a social reality. From among issues concerning social epistemology, three fundamental issues have been studied: “that the social knowledge represents the factual world”, “methodologies of social knowledge”, and “generalization of social knowledge”. In the first part which says the social knowledge represents the factual world, acquiring a social knowledge which corresponds to the factual world is, according to ‘Allamah Mutahhari, possible; since some parts of sociology contain empirical knowledge and empirical knowledge is uncertain and, at best, conjectural, findings of a social researcher are of a probable and uncertain aspect. Concerning methodologies of social knowledge and to recognize social phenomena, he rejects and falsifies “empiricism” and advocates “methodological pluralism” and makes uses of various “empirical”, “mental-rational”, and “transmittal” methodologies. In the third part which concerns the extent to which social knowledge in the sociological thought may be generalized, he holds that not all social propositions may be deemed as “universal”; rather, most of such propositions are of a middle-range.
    Keywords: social epistemology, empiricism, methodological pluralism, representialism, epistemic relativism