فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:16 Issue: 5, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/02/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 20
|
  • Farid Najafi, Mehdi Nalini, Mohammad Reza Nikbakht Page 4899
    Background
    Despite the positive outcomes reported with cardiac rehabilitation (CR)، its impacts have been reported to be different from a region or country to another، which may be due to the different contents of rehabilitation programs.
    Objectives
    To investigate the effect of CR on cardiovascular risk factors.. Patients and
    Methods
    This is a retrospective cohort study on the data from Imam Ali Cardiac Rehabilitation Center in Kermanshah province، Iran from 2001 to 2008. We used paired t-test to evaluate the effect of CR on cardiovascular risk factors. Logistic regression or t-test (unequal variance) were used to assess the factors influencing re-admission (due to cardiac problems). The relationship between different variables and death was studied using univariate cox proportional hazard. P values < 0. 05 were considered significant for all analyses.
    Results
    Out of 504 patients who completed rehabilitation، a total of 499 were analyzed. These 499 patients consisted of 383 men and 116 women. All anthropometric measurements، blood lipids (except HDL cholesterol)، systolic and diastolic blood pressure، depression، anxiety and exercise capacity improved after rehabilitation (P < 0. 05 for all cases). The improvement was observed in both sexes. A total of 39 patients were re-admitted to hospital after rehabilitation. Being female (OR = 2. 40; 95%CI: 1. 22-4. 68) and history of diabetes (OR = 2. 04; 95%CI: 1. 04-4. 02) increased the risk of re-admission significantly. Patients who were readmitted had higher anthropometric measurements at the beginning and the end of the program. Moreover، the initial exercise capacity of readmitted patients was lower than those who were not readmitted. After a maximal follow-up period of 6. 3 years (median = 2. 99 years)، only eight patients expired (survival rate: 97. 5%; 95%CI: 94. 7-98. 8). None of the variables in our study was significantly related to the survival rate.
    Conclusions
    The comprehensive CR program in Imam Ali Center efficiently reduces cardiovascular risk factors and improves exercise capacity.
    Keywords: Rehabilitation, Exercise Tolerance, Patient Readmission, Risk Factors
  • Reza Boostani, Ali Mellat, Reza Afshari, Siavash Derakhshan, Morteza Saeedi, Ehsan Rafeemanesh, Maryam Mellat Page 5072
    Background
    The use of organophosphates (OPs) in developing countries is rising in large quantities and non-secure methods. This problem not only causes acute poisoning but also may lead to chronic diseases such as polyneuropathy. In Iran, 60% of pesticides are organophosphate compounds that may lead to delayed polyneuropathy.
    Objectives
    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate delayed polyneuropathy in farm sprayers due to chronic low dose pesticide exposure.Patients and
    Methods
    In our cross-sectional study, non-randomized sampling method was performed and 100 farm sprayers (cases) and 100 hospital personnel (controls) after precise systemic and neurological examination were recruited to this study from June 2011 to august 2011. The nerve conduction studies were performed and these indices were recorded: Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP), amplitude and Distal Latency (DL) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) of common peroneal nerve, Peak Latency (PL) and amplitude of Sensory Nerve Action Potential (SNAP) and Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV) of sural and radial sensory nerves.
    Results
    Among 100 cases, 55 farm sprayers complained of non-neurological problems including: ophthalmologic, dermatologic and pulmonary complications. The ophthalmologic complaints (44%) were the most. The mean peroneal CMAP amplitude and NCV, sural PL, radial SNAP amplitude, PL and NCV in the case group were significantly different compared to control group. Mean exposure time to OPs in farm sprayers without neurological problem (40%) was 11.81 ± 5.84 years but in farm sprayers with neurological problems (60%) was 15.70 ± 9.08 years, which represents the effect of OPs exposure duration on neurologic problems.
    Conclusions
    Chronic low dose pesticide exposure could lead to delayed peripheral neuropathy as well as systemic (skin, eyes and lungs) complications. In farm sprayers electrodiagnostic indices were significantly abnormal as compared to control group. The normal indices did not rule out neurologic involvement and it seems that measurement of these indices at the beginning of the farm sprayers employment and intermittently during their work is helpful for detecting delayed polyneuropathy.
    Keywords: Pesticides, Neurotoxicity Syndromes, Polyneuropathies, Electrodiagnosis, Organophosphates
  • Parisa Khoshnevisasl, Mansour Sadeghzadeh, Saeidah Mazloomzadeh, Reza Hashemi Feshareki, Akefeh Ahmadiafshar Page 5186
    Background
    Problem-based learning (PBL) is one of the most commonly used educational methods in medical schools of different countries. By working through this method, students think critically, generate ideas, and acquire the knowledge and skills required to become a doctor.
    Objectives
    This study aimed to compare problem-based learning with lecture-based learning in the education of medical students.
    Materials And Methods
    This crossover interventional study was conducted on 40 medical students in pediatric ward of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. All of the students were enrolled in the study and divided into two groups by simple randomization. Then two topics in pediatric courses were chosen. One of the topics was presented as LBL for the first group and as PBL for the second group. The other topic was presented as PBL for the first group and as LBL for the second group.
    Results
    The median score of the exam was higher in the intervention group compare to the control group for both topics. However, the difference was not statistically significant. Students preferred problem-based learning over lecture-based learning because of motivation boost, a higher quality of education, knowledge retention, class attractiveness, and practical use.
    Conclusions
    Students’ knowledge was similar in both methods.
    Keywords: Education, Lecture, Student, Medical, Problem, based Learning
  • Mohammad Tarazjamshidi, Farshid Bagheri, Masud Mirkazemi, Sara Amelfarzad, Hami Ashraf, Mehran Azami, Mohammad Taghi Peivandi Page 6897
    Introduction
    In the absence of microvascular replantation or in crash injury cases in which obtaining an acceptable function is not possible, amputation of the injured finger seems to be the best treatment modality. Some studies recommended leech therapy for this kind of injury after vascular repair to decrease venous congestion.
    Case Presentation
    In this case report, the authors presented a case of leech therapy after near total amputation of the fingers. A 25-year-old patient was admitted following a sawing injury with crashed bundles of the third, fourth and fifth fingers. Microvascular surgery was not performed because of crush injury.
    Discussion
    After a simple repair and pin fixation, the patient was treated using leech therapy. The result was satisfactory. The third and fourth fingers were salvaged. It seems that in cases where a small part of the skin is still attached to the amputated part, even with complete crash of both bundles, leech therapy can help salvage the amputated fingers.
    Keywords: Leeches, Amputation, Vascular System Injuries, Hyperemia
  • Mohammad Javad Fatemi, Abol Hasan Emami, Sina Ghiasi, Seyed Morteza Seyed Jafari, Ali Akbar Mohammadi Page 8867
    Background
    Autologous skin graft is frequently used in the field of plastic, and reconstructive surgery. The engraftment is dependent upon revascularization and angiogenesis, which can be regulated by different factors. In addition to its hematopoietic effects, erythropoietin is shown to positively affect the wound healing process.
    Objectives
    We studied effects of human erythropoietin on revascularization of full thickness skin grafts in rat.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty adult Albino male rats were selected for this study. Full thickness skin graft was performed for them, and the effects of systemic, and localized administration of erythropoietin on vascularization of the graft area were evaluated in four groups as following: inverse group underwent full thickness skin graft; in normal saline group normal saline was injected under the fascia of grafted area for seven days; systemic EPO group received systemic erythropoietin for seven days after the surgery; and in graft EPO group, erythropoietin was injected under the fascia of grafted area after full thickness skin grafting for seven days.
    Results
    Forty adult Albino male rats (n = 40), with weights ranging from 356 to 469 g (mean 391.5 ± 29.6 g) were included. The vascular densities of central margins were significantly different between inverse group and graft EPO groups (P value = 0.01), and vascular density of central margins of normal saline group and graft EPO groups were significantly different too (P value = 0.04).
    Conclusions
    EPO can stimulate angiogenesis which has an important role in wound healing. So, local administration of EPO seems to be beneficial in engraftment.
    Keywords: Erythropoietin, Neovascularization, Physiologic, Skin Transplantation
  • Mashaallah Aghilinejad, Zargham Sadeghi, Amer Abdullah, Shima Sarebanha, Amir Bahrami-Ahmadi Page 9066
    Background
    Occupation is one of the major parts of our daily lives that might cause a great amount of stress. Stress and job burnout are linked together. The association between musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) and burnout syndrome as a psychosocial factor was investigated previously.
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to identify the role of occupational stress and burnout in musculoskeletal complaint among diplomatic employees of different embassies in Iran.
    Materials And Methods
    In a cross-sectional study, we assessed 200 employees of the foreign countries embassies in Iran. The participants were selected randomly from all the embassy personnel. Study questionnaires were delivered to the participants and finally 161 questionnaires were returned to the researchers (response rate: 80.5%). An assessment of burnout and MSD were made using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Nordic questionnaires. The work place stress was measured by the work place stress questionnaire.
    Results
    Mean occupational stress was significantly higher among embassy personnel with MSD than among the personnel without this syndrome during the preceding week (17.18 ± 3.42 and 16.06 ± 2.19, respectively; P = 0.02) and the preceding year (17.17 ± 3.11 and 16.74 ± 3.03, respectively; P < 0.01) to the study. Only smoking and occupational stress were identified as independent predictors of MSD among embassy personnel.
    Conclusions
    It seems that association between musculoskeletal complaints and burnout syndrome was more complex than being attributed to only occupation stress. Further studies are recommended to determine other related factors to this association.
    Keywords: Burnout, Professional, Musculoskeletal Diseases, Occupational Stress, Embassy Personnel
  • Abbas Khosravi, Mansour Masjedi, Golnar Sabetian, Mohammad Reza Rahmanian Page 9661
    Introduction
    Myelograghy is a process of instilling contrast medium to the subarachnoid space for evaluating the spinal column by radiography. There are various contrast solutions for different radiographic studies but not all of them are suitable for spinal column evaluation.
    Case Presentation
    Our patient was a 60-year-old man who developed severe pain, tonic clonic convulsions and cardiopulmonary arrest after intrathecal injection of 14 mL of meglumine diatrizoate during an elective myelography procedure. Many of these cases would die or suffer from permanent sequelae if appropriate treatment is not received.
    Conclusions
    Our subject recovered completely without any sequelae after receiving appropriate treatment in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.
    Keywords: Contrast Media, Edema, Brain, Intracranial Pressure
  • Ceren Sen Tanrikulu, Yusuf Tanrikulu, Mehmet Zafer Sabuncuoglu, Mehmet Akif Karamercan, Nezih Akkapulu, Figen Coskun Page 10211
    Background
    Acute appendicitis (AA) is one of the most common causes of emergent surgeries. Many methods are used for its diagnosis.
    Objectives
    This study was conducted to investigate the diagnostic value of MPV and RDW in acute appendicitis.Patients and
    Methods
    This study was a retrospective multi-center cross sectional planned study. The study included 260 patients operated for AA and 158 patients as the control group. Groups were compared in terms of MPV, RDW, white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil predominance (NP) and platelet count (PC).
    Results
    MPV was significantly lower in AA group, compared to the control group (P < 0.001). The best cut-off level for MVP in AA was ≤ 7.3 fL and the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and overall accuracy ratio were 45%, 89.2%, 87.3%, 49.6% and 61.7%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of RDW and platelet values.
    Conclusions
    MPV is a routinely measured parameter in complete blood count (CBC) and requires no additional cost. It significantly decreased in AA, having a greater sensitivity and NPV when combined with WBC and NP.
    Keywords: Appendicitis, Erythrocyte Indices, Blood Platelets
  • Behnaz Rastegar Far, Mohammad Javad Moradian, Ali Ardalan, Javad Babaie Page 10349
  • Aziz Japoni, Mojtaba Anvarinejad, Shohreh Farshad, Giovanni M. Giammanco, Noroddin Rafaatpour, Ebrahim Alipour Page 10916
    Background
    Failure in the treatment of burn patients infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa could happen as a result of the acquisition of antibiotic resistance, including carbapenems.
    Objectives
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, isolated from burn patients.Patients and
    Methods
    During a 12 month period, in this cross-sectional study, two hundred seventy strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the burn patients in Ghotbeddin Burn Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. Screening for the carbapenem resistance in the isolates was carried out by the E test method. Sensitivity patterns of metallo-β-lactamase (MβLs) producing strains of pseudomonas to eleven antibiotics were determined by the mentioned method. The epidemiological associations of these strains were determined by Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
    Results
    Of the 270 strains, 60 (22.2%) were resistant to imipenem and meropenem, classified as MβLs producing. MβLs producing strains of pseudomonas were completely resistant to five tested antibiotics while their sensitivities to the three most effective antibiotics including ceftazidime, amikacin and ciprofloxacin were 23.4%, 6.7 % and 1.7%, respectively. In PFGE, 37 patterns from the genome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were observed. Majority of the strains (43; 71.6%) exhibited more than 80% similarity, based on the drawn dendrogram.
    Conclusions
    According to the results, none of the tested antibiotics is safe to prescribe. As PFGE revealed, a limited number of Pseudomonas aeruginosa types are predominant in the hospitals which infect the burn patients.
    Keywords: Beta, Lactamases, Imipenem, Meropenem, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis
  • Hormoz Ayromlou, Hassan Soleimanpour, Mehdi Farhoudi, Aliakbar Taheraghdam, Elyar Sadeghi Hokmabadi, Rouzbeh Rajaei Ghafouri, Mehdi Najafi Nashali, Ehsan Sharifipour, Somayeh Mostafaei, Davar Altafi Page 11284
    Background
    Intravenous thrombolysis is an approved treatment method for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and is recommended by multiple guidelines. However, it seems that it is less frequently used in the developing countries compared to the developed countries.
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to estimate the percentage of patients with AIS, eligible for intravenous thrombolytic therapy, at the main referral center in Northwest Iran and to determine the main barriers for implementation of this method.Patients and
    Methods
    Over one year, 647 patients who were admitted to the emergency department and met the Cincinnati Stroke Scale were enrolled into the study. The center to which patients were admitted, is a tertiary university hospital that has the required infrastructure for thrombolytic therapy in AIS. Factors recorded were neurological examinations and time between onset of symptoms and hospital arrival, hospital arrival and performance of brain computed tomography (CT) scanning, and hospital arrival to complete the investigations. Patients eligible for intravenous thrombolytic therapy were identified according to the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines.
    Results
    Mean time interval between hospital arrival and completion of brain CT scanning was 91 minutes (range: 20–378 minutes) and mean time from hospital arrival to completion of investigations was 150 minutes (range: 30–540 minutes). A total of 159 (31.3%) patients arrived at hospital within 3 hours of the onset of symptoms (early enough for intravenous thrombolytic therapy). However, 81.7% (130/159) of these patients missed thrombolytic therapy due to delayed performance of brain CT scanning and laboratory tests and 38.3% (61/159) had contraindications. The remaining 16 patients (10% of those who arrived within 3 hours and 3.1% of all cases) were eligible for thrombolytic therapy.
    Conclusions
    The major barriers for thrombolytic therapy for patients with AIS in this setting were delays in the provision of in-hospital services, like initial patient assessment, CT scans or laboratory studies. These results were in contrast with previous reports.
    Keywords: Stroke, Thrombolytic Therapy, Developing Country, Eligibility Determination
  • Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Hamid Nasri Page 11324
  • Erhan Arslan, Kayhan Kuzeyli, Elif Acar Arslan Page 11423
    Introduction
    The aim of this study was to report surgical strategies and clinical outcomes for thoraco-lumbar intradural lipomas. Intraspinal lipomas are rare congenital histologically benign neoplasms, which account for less than 1% of all spinal cord tumors. These tumors are most frequently found in the lumbosacral area as components of a dysraphic state, however, intramedullary lipomas are not associated with spina bifida or cutaneous malformations and have only been described as isolated cases among spinal lipomas, where the thoracolumbar region is rarely affected.
    Case Presentation
    Three patients with thoracolumbar intradural lipomas were admitted to our clinic at different points of time. Partial resections and debulking of the tumors were achieved with the guidance of an operating microscope. We performed laminectomies or laminoplasties, for tumor resections.
    Discussion
    Postoperatively, the patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements. In this manuscript we presented our surgical experiences for intraspinal lipomas.
    Keywords: Lipoma, Spinal Cord, Spinal Dysraphism, Diagnostic Techniques, Surgical
  • Leila Sabzmakan, Eesa Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali Morowatisharifabad, Ahmad Afaghi, Mohammad Hassan Naseri, Masoud Mirzaei Page 11573
    Background
    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the number one cause of death in the world. In most analyses of health problems, environment plays a significant and modifiable role in causing the problem either directly or indirectly through behavior.
    Objectives
    This study aims to understand the patients and healthcare providers’ experiences about the environmental determinants of CVD risk factors based on the Precede Model.Patients and
    Methods
    This qualitative study conducted over six months in 2012 at Diabetes Units of Health Centers associated with Alborz University of Medical Sciences and Health Services which is located in Karaj, Iran. The data were collected based on individual semi-structured interviews with 50 patients and 12 healthcare providers. Data analysis was performed simultaneous with data collection using the content analysis directed method.
    Results
    Lack of behaviors like stress control, healthy eating and physical activity were the roots of the risk factors for CVD. The environmental factor is one of the barriers for conducting these behaviors. The environmental barriers included of structural environment including “availability and accessibility of health resources”, “new skills”, and “law and policies” which are located in enabling category and social environment including “social support”, “motivation to comply” and “consequences of behavior” which are located in reinforcing category. The most barriers to performing health behaviors were often structural.
    Conclusions
    The environmental factors were barriers for doing healthy behaviors. These factors need to be considered to design health promotion interventions. Policymakers should not only focus on patients’ education but also should provide specific facilities to enhance economic, social and cultural status.
    Keywords: Environment, Risk Factors, Cardiovascular, Qualitative Research, Precede Model
  • Noor Mohammad Noori, Maziar Mahjoubifard, Mehdi Mohammadi, Alireza Jahangiri Fard, Abdolhossein Abassi, Behrooz Farzanegan Page 11698
    Background
    In electrocardiography (ECG), QT is the interval between the onset of Q wave to the end of the T wave. This interval may be a sign of changes in the ventricular structure in hematologic disorders such as thalassemia major.
    Objectives
    The main goal of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of corrected QT dispersion (QTcd) and QT dispersion (QTd) with left ventricular mass (LVM) and left ventricular mass index (LVMI) as well as to determine their sensitivity and specificity in early detection of the cardiac involvement in patients with β-thalassemia major.Patients and
    Methods
    In a case-control study, 60 patients older than ten years of age with thalassemia major who received regular blood transfusion and iron chelators were selected as the case group and were compared with 60 healthy age- and sex-matched subjects. All patients had myocardial performance index (MPI) of more than 0.5 and MPI for controls was less than 0.5. Echocardiography and ECG were performed for both groups and data were analyzed using appropriate statistical tests.
    Results
    The mean age of cases and controls were 16 ± 2.8 and 16.08 ± 3.01 years, respectively. Male to female ratio was 33:27 in case group and 31:29 in the control group. LVMI in the case group was greater than control group. QTd and QTcd were larger in case group than in control group. The sensitivity and specificity of LVM, LVMI, QTd, and QTcd were as follows: 88.3%, 77.1%; 86.7%, 80%; 93.8%, 80%; and 91.7%, 86.7%, respectively.
    Conclusions
    This study showed acceptable sensitivity and specificity of QTcd and QTd in comparison to LVMI; it seems that standard ECG can be used for early diagnosis of cardiac involvement in asymptomatic patients with thalassemia major.
    Keywords: Beta, Thalassemia, Cardiac involvement, Electrocardiography, Echocardiography
  • Sevil Hakimi, Masoumeh Simbar, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani Page 11771
    Background
    Menopause is a complex biological phenomenon which is affected by socio-cultural and physiological factors. These factors may cause different experiences and concerns for menopausal women from different countries and even among women of diverse ethnic groups living in the same country. The signs and symptoms of menopause are exacerbated by the negative attitude of menopausal women and their deep concerns.
    Objectives
    We aimed to explore self-experienced concerns of Iranian menopausal women residing in Tabriz.
    Materials And Methods
    Phenomenological approach was used for analyzing the participants’ experiences and perceptions about menopause. Data were collected through 18 semi-structured in-depth interviews; carried out from February to July 2012. Participants were menopausal women aged between 46-57 years who experienced menopause no more than 4 years before the interview. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Constant comparative analysis of the data was conducted using MAXQDA 10.
    Results
    Participants’ concerns were classified into 4 main themes, including: inability, aging, isolation, and healthiness.
    Conclusions
    Understanding these concerns might contribute to the enrichment of the existing literature by providing evidences from a different culture, assisting to design effective supportive strategies, planning training programs and appropriate infrastructures for women to improve their quality of life during the menopausal period.
    Keywords: Menopause, Particulate Matter, Iran
  • Kolsoum Rezaie Kahkhaie, Fateme Keikha, Khadije Rezaie Keikhaie, Abdolghani Abdollahimohammad, Shahrbanoo Salehin Page 11772
    Background
    Oligohydramnious is threatening condition to fetal health for which some treatment are available and some are under evaluation. Oligohydramnious, is associated with increased pregnancy complication, congenital anomalies and perinatal mortality. There is an inverse relationship between the amniotic fluid index (AFI) and the adverse perinatal outcome. Oligo hydramnlious is clinical condition characteries by amniotic fluid index (AFI) of 5cm or less. Its incidence is 3-5 % of all the pregnancies an accurate and reproducible method of determining abnormality in amniotic fluid volume (AFI) is sonographic asessment of amniotic fluid index (AFI). It often increase the risk of small for gestational age (SGA) and also the incidence of cesarean section, meconium stained, low apgar score and Neonatal intensive care (NICU) admission.
    Objectives
    The aim of study was to analyze the fetal out come in low risk pregnant women with oligohydramnious at term. This is a prospective, descriptive study.
    Materials And Methods
    The study was conducted at Amiralmomenin hospital in Zabol for a period of 8 months from 2012/Mar/27 to 2012/Nov/5.It included 100 pregnant women diagnosed with the AFI of or less than 5cm at term. Control group included 300 pregnant women with AFI more than 8cm. Comparison was done between the study group and the control group. Regarding the fetal and pregnancy outcome using chi square and p value, detail were recorded in terms of fetal weight, apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes.
    Results
    Mode of delivery, NICU admission neonatal death and induction of labour. Oligohydramnious is associated with a high rate of pregnancy complication and increased preinatal morbidity and mortality. Women with oligohydramnious usually have low birth babies.
    Conclusions
    However, it can expect a safe and good outcome for which proper fetal surveillance and regular antenatal care visits are required.
    Keywords: Amniotic Fluid, Apgar Score, Birth Weight
  • Mahmood Moosazadeh, Mahshid Nasehi, Abbas Bahrampour, Narges Khanjani, Saeed Sharafi, Shanaz Ahmadi Page 11779
    Background
    Predicting the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) plays an important role in planning health control strategies for the future, developing intervention programs and allocating resources.
    Objectives
    The present longitudinal study estimated the incidence of tuberculosis in 2014 using Box-Jenkins methods.
    Materials And Methods
    Monthly data of tuberculosis cases recorded in the surveillance system of Iran tuberculosis control program from 2005 till 2011 was used. Data was reviewed regarding normality, variance equality and stationary conditions. The parameters p, d and q and P, D and Q were determined, and different models were examined. Based on the lowest levels of AIC and BIC, the most suitable model was selected among the models whose overall adequacy was confirmed.
    Results
    During 84 months, 63568 TB patients were recorded. The average was 756.8 (SD = 11.9) TB cases a month. SARIMA (0,1,1)(0,1,1)12 with the lowest level of AIC (12.78) was selected as the most adequate model for prediction. It was predicted that the total nationwide TB cases for 2014 will be about 16.75 per 100,000 people.
    Conclusions
    Regarding the cyclic pattern of TB recorded cases, Box-Jenkins and SARIMA models are suitable for predicting its prevalence in future. Moreover, prediction results show an increasing trend of TB cases in Iran.
    Keywords: Tuberculosis, Forecasting, Iran, Hb Jenkins
  • Sanaz Zargar Balaye Jame, Reza Majdzadeh, Ali Akbari Sari, Arash Rashidian, Mohammad Arab, Hojjat Rahmani Page 13067
    Background
    Computed Tomography (CT) is a useful diagnostic technology, particularly in accident and emergency departments.
    Objectives
    To identify a comprehensive list of indications for application of CT in patients with minor head trauma (MHT) and to determine appropriateness of its use on the basis of this list.
    Materials And Methods
    A cross-sectional study was conducted in three Imaging centers in Tehran. A panel of experts developed a list of CT indications for MHT by reviewing documents. A pre-structured checklist was designed and incorporated into a structured form. Four hundred consecutive patients referring to three imaging centers for performing CT due to MHT completed the questionnaire.
    Results
    Of 400 patients who underwent CT after MHT, 187 (46.8%) patients had Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score of 13 or 14 at two hours post-trauma and 37 (19.8%) of these patients did not have any indication of imaging. In addition, 213 (53.2%) patients had GCS score of 15 out of which 110 (51.6%) patients did not have any indication of imaging. Patients with a GCS score of 15 had a noticeably lower proportion of abnormal CT results in comparison to patients with a GCS score of 13 or 14, (odds ratio, 19.07; 95% confidence interval, 6.74-54.00; and P < 0.001). There was a statistically significant association between abnormal CT results and the presence of indications including vomiting, dangerous mechanism of injury, visible signs of trauma above the clavicles, signs of skull base fracture, and suspected skull fracture (P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    On average, about 37% of the patients with MHT referring to the emergency departments had no indication of CT and approximately 86.5% of CT results were normal. Improving this situation can result in a significant saving in health care costs.
    Keywords: Tomography, X-ray Computed, Craniocerebral Trauma, Indication, Abnormal
  • Mansoureh Yazdkhasti, Maryam Keshavarz, Zohreh Mahmoodi, Agha Fatemeh Hosseini Page 13259
    Background
    One of the main criteria to verify the effectiveness of a health training program is to measure quality of life in menopausal women.
    Objectives
    Hence the aim of this review was to evaluate the effects of self-directed learning (SDL) on MENQOl.Patients and
    Methods
    The present single blind field study was conducted in Saadatmandi Health Center of Robat Karim (Iran, Southwest of Tehran Province) from August to December 2010. One handred and ten menopausal women were selected using convenience sampling method and then divided into two experimental (Self-directed Learning) and control groups of 55 each. Four manuals were developed to guide the women in the experimental group containing practical ways to treat menopausal symptoms. They were distributed among the participants for four weeks on a specific day. Menopausal Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) was used to determine and compare quality of life scores of these women (before and three months after intervention sessions). The control group did not receive any intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS/16 software using Kolmogorov-Sminov, ANOVA, independent paired t test and Chi-square test.
    Results
    There were significant statistical differences between two groups regarding the age of subjects; age of menopause; economic, educational and employment status; number of dead and living children; BMI and vasomotor, physical, sexual and psycho-social postmenopausal symptoms. The implementation of Self-directed Learning (SDL) model leads to a significant statistical difference in scores of vasomotor symptoms (16.32 ± 5.92 to 13.26 ± 5.31), psychosocial symptoms (34.8 ± 11 to 27.18 ± 10.83), physical symptoms (75.02 ± 18.07 to 61.42 ± 15.49), sexual symptoms (15.36 ± 6.10 to 12.00 ± 4.97) and the overall score for quality of life (141.5 ± 41.09 to 113.86 ± 36.6) (P < 0.001). No significant changes were found in the QOL scores of the control group.
    Conclusions
    Implementation of self-directed learning provides a useful strategy that should be included in health intervention and national surveillance programs in order to improve health and therapeutic compliance in postmenopausal women.
    Keywords: Self, Medication, Quality of Life, Menopausal