فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/12/06
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Atena Yazdanshenas, Valiollah Dabidi Roshan Page 1

    Purpose
    The American Heart Association (AHA) published a statement on the importance of air pollution in the development of cardiovascular disease. Apelin is a multifunctional neuropeptide that plays an important regulatory role in cardiac dysfunction. We have investigated the cardioprotective effects of treadmill running and/or curcumin supplementation on the cardiac apelin and oxidative stress-related biomarkers such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in male rats exposed to lead acetate.
    Material And Methods
    In this study Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (1) lead acetate; (2) curcumin; (3) treadmill running; (4) treadmill+ curcumin; and (5) sham-operate groups. The rats in groups 1 to 4 received lead acetate (20 mg/kg). Also, groups 3 and 4 underwent treadmill running, 15 to 22 m/min for 25 to 64 minutes, 5 times a week, for 8 weeks, while groups 2 and 4 received curcumin solution (30 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. Rats in group 5 only received curcumin solvent (ethyl oleat).
    Results
    Lead administration resulted in a significant decrease in apelin, heart mass, TAC levels, and significantly increased MDA. Furthermore, treadmill running and\or curcumin supplementation resulted in a significant increase in apelin, heart mass, TAC levels and a significant decrease in MDA levels. Discussion and
    Conclusion
    These results suggest a cardioprotective effect of antioxidants and regular endurance training in ameliorating lead-induced cardiotoxicity.

    Keywords: Apelin, Antioxidant, Cardiovascular Disease, Exercise training, Lead
  • Yaser Alavi, Shadmehr Mirdar, Mohamad Rostamani Page 9

    Purpose
    The aim of the current research was to assess effects of caffeine (5 and 9 mg.kg -1) ingestions concomitant to incremental running test on malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation marker and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as enzymatic antioxidants.
    Material And Methods
    Ten subjects were tested on a treadmill until exhaustion on three separate occasions between which there were intervals of 5 days. Every volunteer underwent three conditions containing placebo or caffeine doses that were consumed one hour before exercise (pre-test). Blood samples were collected pre-test, before caffeine or placebo consumption and immediately after exercise (post-test).
    Results
    Results showed that in comparison to placebo condition, caffeine doses decreased MDA levels and increased GPx activities significantly (P< 0/05). Regardless of 5 mg.kg -1 caffeine ingestion that had no significant effect on CAT and SOD activities (P< 0/05), 9 mg.kg -1 caffeine intake significantly increased and decreased CAT and SOD respectively (P< 0/05), when compared to placebo. For MDA levels, there was no significant difference between caffeine doses (P< 0/05), but these differences for CAT, SOD and GPx were significant (P< 0/05). Discussion and
    Conclusion
    In conclusion caffeine doses approximately had equal effects on lipid peroxidation decline, while these effects on enzymatic antioxidant with 9 mg.kg -1 caffeine intake were better than 5 mg.kg-1 caffeine.

    Keywords: Oxidative stress, Free radicals, Progressive exercise, Bruce protoco, Caffeine doses
  • Hosain Pirani, Mehdi Kargarfard, Ehsan Amiri, Shahram Yazdani Page 16

    Purpose
    The purpose of this study was to organize the evaluation process of the general physical training (1) course through standardization of fitness tests and the related norms at Chabahar Maritime University.
    Material And Methods
    The research was carried out using a descriptive and quasi-experimental design. The subjects of the study were randomly selected. The sample included 258 male and 139 female students. Frequent and standard physical Fitness tests for measuring muscular strength and endurance, body composition, balance, agility, aerobic and anaerobic power were done in three successive semesters. Then, based on Norms derived from these tests, scoring procedures of physical fitness course were conducted and given to instructors. Measurement tools included: tape meters, digital scales, and digital stopwatches, sit-ups, bar machines, calipers, agility test and 1600-m speed test. The obtained data were analyzed through running dependent t-test, one-way analysis of variances, (ANOVA), and correlation coefficients.
    Results
    Results indicated that progress was significant in all tests except for the bar machine (p≥/01) and that there was a correlation of about%50 between pretest and post-test scores. Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The study showed that instructors generally prefer to have norms for systematic scoring. Moreover, instructors believed that attitudinal issues such as discipline, attendance, sports coverage, perseverance and progress should be reflected in the students'' scores in general physical education (1) course. However, to achieve the optimal point, there is still a long distance.

    Keywords: Assessment, General physical training, Fitness, Norm Development, University
  • Elaheh Faraji, Fatemeh Sarvari, Ahmad Ebrahimi Atri Page 25

    Purpose
    Volleyball is an intermittent sport and as the use of the hand is essential in it, hand morphology and functional properties play an important role in its performance. Also, volleyball requires a sustained level of hand prehensile force to maximize control and performance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of anthropometric characteristics of the upper limb on hand gripe of elite female volleyball players.
    Material And Methods
    50 volleyball players (age 12-17 years) volunteered to participate in the present study. A series of anthropometric tests were carried out on each participant including forearm length, arm length, wrist Breadth and arm Breadth, forearm circumference and hand span. For grip strength measurement, digital hand dynamometer was used.
    Results
    The results of the stepwise multiple regression analysis about predictors showed that the most important basic anthropometric variable was body height (R2×100=31.2%) and BMI, age and hand span were predictors of maximal hand strength. Discussion and
    Conclusion
    In the present study, results indicated body height and BMI were the most important anthropometric variables in junior females. In the other words, taller volleyball players would have better hand grip strength.

    Keywords: Grip Strength, Anthropometric, Female Volleyball Players, Junior
  • Vahideh Ghorani, Amir Rashidlamir, Parvin Farzanegi Page 29

    Purpose
    Fenugreek, as an herbal plant, can significantly increase Apo A-I, an important factor in preventing cardio vascular diseases among diabetic patients, which is a major cause of their mortality. Considering that exercise activities have a positive effect on diabetic patients, this study aimed to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of aerobic training and fenugreek administration on Apo A-I levels of diabetic women.
    Material And Methods
    Thirty diabetic women volunteered to take part in the present study and were randomly placed into three groups: aerobic training (Group 1), aerobic training+ fenugreek administration (Group 2) and control group (Group 3). Aerobic training group exercised for 6 weeks, at 60-75 %of their maximal heart rate. Blood sampling was done before and after the trial.
    Results
    There was a significant decrease in weight, body fat percent, BMI and fasting blood sugar, and a significant increase in Apo A-I, HDL and HDL/LDL ratio (p)

    Keywords: Aerobic training, T2DM, Apo A, I
  • Reza Mahdavinejad, Vazgen Minasian, Abdolkarim Karimi, Hosseien Taheri Page 35

    Purpose
    Chronic neck pain is one of the common problems among computer users. The aim of this research was to compare and evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of a selected exercise therapy program and a self-treatment program based on a given pamphlet on neck pain, strength and range of motion of the neck in computer users.
    Material And Methods
    In this quasi-experimental study, sixty-six patients with chronic neck pain (age 39.19 ± 3.1 years, height 172.39 ± 4.6 cm and weight 71.68 ± 5.6)who at least had asix-month history of neck pain, were recruited based on a Personal Information Questionnaire distributed among computer users working in banks of Isfahan. The subjects were divided in three groups. The first group carried out therapeutic exercises with the supervision of a trainer, while the second group received a pamphlet and the third group had no intervention. Neck Pain and Disability Scale, dynamometer (power track commander II) and a goniometry device were respectively used to measure neck pain, disability, strength and range of motion in subjects after 8 weeks of intervention. One-way NOVA was applied in order to analysis of data (P)

    Keywords: Exercise therapy, Chronic neck pain, Self, treatment, ROM
  • Parvin Farzanegi, Mohammadali Azarbaijani, Kasra Manouchehri Page 43

    Purpose
    This study aimed to investigate the effects of eight weeks of regular aerobic exercise combined with milk consumption on angiotensin II, ACE and AT1 levels in obese prepubertal boys.
    Material And Methods
    28 healthy obese prepubertal boys, 9 to 11 years old, were selected and randomly divided into four groups: exercise (Exe), exercise-supplement (Exe-Sup), control (Con) and supplement (Sup). Exercise program included three sessions of aerobic exercise (60% - 75% of maximum heart rate). Milk consumer groups received 300 ml of low-fat cow milk every day. Blood samples were collected before and after the eight weeks.
    Results
    After eight weeks, a significant reduction was observed in angiotensin II, AT1, and ACE levels in the Exe (p= 0.000, p=0.000, p= 0.000 respectively), Exe-Sup (p= 0.000, p=0.000, p=0.002 respectively) and Sup group (p= 0.000, p=0.001, p=0.000 respectively). Discussion and
    Conclusion
    The results showed that regular aerobic exercise may decreased angiotensin II, AT1 and ACE indices and that, this effect was highly intensified when exercise was combined with milk consumption. However, further study is required for more accurate results

    Keywords: Angiotensin II, Angiotensin II Receptor, Angiotensin, Converting, Enzyme, Obese prepubertal boys, Aerobic exercise, Milk supplement
  • Mohammad Ebrahim Bahram, Negar Akkasheh, Mohammad Javad Pourvaghar Page 50

    Purpose
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the prevalent disorders in child psychiatry. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-weeks aerobic training on the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in male primary school students in Kashan.
    Material And Methods
    This research was a semi-experimental study. The study population consisted of 300 male students in primary schools of Kashan suffering from ADHD between years2011-12. Thus 60 students with the highest degree of ADHD were selected using Diagnostic Questionnaire Conner (CPRS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and were grouped randomly, and according to their demographical characteristics, into a control group (age 9.17 ± 1.55, weight 31.60 ± 8.11 and height 133.86 ± 8.617) and an intervention group (age 10.53 ±1.52, weight 28.06 ± 7.70 and height 132.06 ± 9.04). All psychological and sport protocols were under observation of a psychiatrist and a sport physiologist. Experimental group did aerobic exercises for 12 weeks, 3 times a week, and with 60 to 85 percent of their reserved heart rate, while the control group just followed their routine life. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the data distribution and Independent T-test was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the exercises at the significance level of p≤0.05. All the data analyses were done using SPSS software (version 16).
    Results
    There was a significant difference in ADHD (p=0.000) of the experimental group in post-test (p≤0.05). But there was no significant difference in the control group (p≥0.05). Discussion and
    Conclusion
    These findings pointed to the role and importance of sport and regular and organized exercises, as a non-invasive and non-medicinal method, in preventing and treatment of child behavior disorders and emphasized on its necessity according to the industrial circumstances ruling human society.

    Keywords: Aerobic exercises, Hyperactivity, Attention Deficit
  • Gholam Rasul Mohamad Rahimi, Ali Akbar Hashemi Javaheri, Amir Rashidlamir, Amin Ahmadi, Naser Mohamad Rahimi Page 56

    Purpose
    The purpose of this study was comparing the effects of massage and rest on fatigue and recovery of strength following exhaustive concentric contraction.
    Material And Methods
    In this research, 10 subjects (age 20.7 ± 0.94 yrs, body mass 59.5 ± 5.89 kg, height 173 ± 3.6 cm, body mass index 20.5 ± 1.37 m/cm 2) from 60 male, non-athlete students of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, participated voluntarily and based on the specific inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study. The subjects participated in two testing sessions during a week (with an interval of 48 hours between the first and second session). Subjects did warm-up at the beginning of each session. In the first session, maximum strength of quadriceps was measured by leg extension machine. In the second session (the rest session) the participants initially did exhausting concentric contractions with 50% of their maximum strength after the warm-up, then quadriceps muscle strength was measured before and after 6 minutes of rest, using evaluation instrument of isometric strength in 90 degree knee angle. In the third session the participants received classical massage techniques instead of resting for 6 minutes. The data regarding fatigue and strength recovery, between passive rest and massage sessions have been analyzed using paired sample t-test. All the data analyses were done using SPSS software. P

    Keywords: Massage, Fatigue, strength Recovery, Concentric contraction
  • Gaurav Dureja Page 61

    Purpose
    Health related physical fitness consists of those components of physical fitness that have a relationship with good health. This research aimed at comparing the health related physical fitness between government and private school girls of Chandigarh.
    Material And Methods
    To do so a descriptive survey was designed. A total of three hundred (N=300) girls, (150) from government schools and 150 from private schools of Chandigarh), aged between 16 - 18 years), were selected through purposive sampling technique. To measure maximal functional capacity and cardio-respiratory fitness, the level of obesity, the abdominal muscular strength & endurance, and the flexibility of the lower back and posterior thighs of the participants, the 9-Minute run, Skin fold Caliper, modified sit-ups and Sit and reach tests were applied, respectively. Student T-test was applied to compare the two study groups.
    Results
    Results showed that private school girls had better health related physical fitness as compared to government school girls. Discussion and
    Conclusion
    So the formers need to be provided with better physical facilities, nutritional diet and other related things which help them in improving their health relate physical fitness.

    Keywords: Cardio, respiratory function, Body composition, Flexibility, Muscular endurance, Government, private school, Chandigarh