فهرست مطالب

  • سال هشتم شماره 1 (بهار 1390)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/06/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • M. Bakeshlou*, M. Kazemzadeh, N. Nozari Page 1
    Having the purpose of the direct effect on target subsidies law enforcement, this study wants to show agricultural products in cooperative section of farmers in Tehran province that includes the energy conveyors share and its indirect speech that contains the share of other production expenses to the whole expenses. The data was gathered through the questionnaire from the Tehran province farming cooperatives in 1388 and 1390. Cochran was related to sampling and took 46 samples. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to estimate the production function. To get the average share of cost and income, the SPSS program was used, and for the estimation of product distribution the EVIEWS program pack was used. According to the results, the product traction of animal food in 88 was 1.03. This coefficient shows that with an increase of 1% in the amount of animal food consumption, the amount of milk product has increased 1.03%. While after the target subsidies law enforcement, this amount has decreased to 91%. The coefficient of labor force wage has had an increase of 30 % in 90. It means with the increase of 1% in labor force wage, the amount of product has increased 30.0 % The whole traction of product in 88 is 1.004 that shows an Constanting output toward the scale. This amount has increased to 216.1 in 1390 and shows that if the expanse of activity increases, we will economize in the expenses.
    Keywords: target subsidies law, production expenses, product function, dairy farmers cooperatives
  • D. Salariye, S. Khalajzadeh*, J. Yadi Page 11
    In order to identify factors affecting days open in Holstein dairy cows were used 9534 reproductive records of a dairy herd in Alborz province from 1993 to 2009. Effects like parity, calving month, calving year, raw milk production class, age at calving, retained placenta, dystocia, abortion were considered as fixed factors in a model. A general linear model (GLM) was applied for analyzing of data. The result showed open days of dairy cows increases significantly after forth parity. For every 100 kg of 305 day standardized milk yield, open days increased by 0.7 day. Also, the lowest and the highest open days were in September and March calving month respectively. The effects of abortion and dystocia on open days were high significant. By contrast, the effect of retained placenta was not significant on open days of dairy cows. To sum up, control of open days is possible by applying some management strategies like concentrating calving month on summer and autumn, preventing abortion and decreasing dystocia by selecting suitable sperms especially for heifers.
    Keywords: open days, dairy cows, calving month, reproductive disorders, milk yield
  • A. H. Sedghi*, H. R. Mobasser, A. Kashani Page 17
    In order to investigate about the evaluation of silicon consume to nitrogen rate and spiliting on agronomic characteristics and hardenity of mechanism to lodging in rice. A filed experiment was conducted in northern Iran, Joybar. spilt spilt–plot experiment was conducted in Randomized complete block design with 3 replications. Treatments consisted two N rates 69,138 Kgr ha-1 (150,300 Kgr hac -1 Urea respectively) as main two silicon rates 0 and 250 Kgr hac -1 (0, 1250 Kgr hac -1 silicate calcium) as sub plots and four N- spiliting as sub sub-plots which were applied at four plant growth stages. Results showed that applied N until 138 Kgr hac -1 induce to decreas of significantly number of panicle per m2, percentage of filled spikelet, 1000 – grains weight and bending movement. Movement of bending has been reduced to consume of silicon that in result increased percentage of filled spikilet and grain yield, but reduced of the 1000 grains – weight. Highest number of tillers per hill, length panicle and percentage of filled spikilets have been achieved as well in spiliting treatment 25 until 33.33 in transplanting, panicle in tiation stage and full heading stage. The consumtion of nitrogen in four growth stage (after transplanting, first of tillering, panicle in tiation and full heading stage) induced the increase of 1000 grains weight and decreased bending movement or lodging. The effects of interactions of three factors are not significant on characteristics.
    Keywords: rice, silicon, nitrogen, bending movement
  • F. Fazeli*, A. Rahi, K. Shirmohammadi Page 29
    This study was carried out in 2008 in Rudehen region of Tehran province to evaluate the growth of three cultivars (a red bean, a white bean and chitti bean) in normal sowing (15 May) and delay sowing (15 June) dates using a randomized complete block design with four replications in split plot experiment. Stem length, numbers of leaves and flowers, shoot to root ratio, root and stem fresh weight, leaf fresh and dry weight, collar diameter, leaf area index (LAI) and seed yield were measured. The results showed that effect of sowing date for all the characteristics except root dry weight, collar diameter and LAI were significant. The effects of cultivar were also significant for stem length, numbers of leaf and flowers, stem fresh weight, leaf fresh and dry weight, leaf area index (LAI) and seed yield. Interaction effects between sowing date and cultivar were not significant for all of the traits. Normal sowing had the highest averages for all of the significant traits. In red bean, average of all traits expect LAI and seed yield in comparison to other cultivars were significant. Chitti bean had the highest seed yield.
    Keywords: Beans, cultivars, sowing date, seed yield, morphological traits
  • K. Karimi*, A. Pazoki Page 37
    In order to investigate the effects of green tea leaf powder (GTL) on blood parameters, egg quality, carcass characteristics and growth performance, one hundred and sixty 14d-old Japanese quails (male and female) arranged in a 2×2 factorial design (2 levels of GTL, and 3% and 2 levels of dietary cholesterol, 0 and 10g/kg)in form of a complete block design with 4 treatments and 4 replicate with 10 birds in each and then the quails were treated under the 4 dietary treatments during a 31-day experimental period. The treatments include: 1) Control, 2) Control+10g/kg Cholesterol, 3) diets include 3% GTL and 4) diets include 3% GTL+1 g/kg Cholesterol. Feed intake and weight gain were recorded during experiment. At the end of the experimental period 2 bird from each cage randomly selected for blood sampling and the blood and serum were sampled for determining of blood HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RBC, WBC, Heterophile, Lymphocyte, Monocyte, eosinophils and basophils count and serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL, HDL, VLDL. Two birds from each cage were selected and slaughtered and the relative weight of carcass, viscera’s, testes, breast muscle, thigh muscle, gizzard, heart, liver, pancreas, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and head were recorded. For evaluation of muscle and egg quality the cholesterol contents of breast and thigh muscle and yolk were assayed and for more egg quality assessment 10 eggs from each replicates were assayed and the percent of albumin, yolks, egg shell, edible components of egg, egg shape index, egg shell thickness, and egg shell surface were determined. Results indicated that GTL inclusion in the diets resulted in increase of duodenum weight(P<0.001), jejunum weight(P=0.004), serum LDL(P=0.001), L:H ratio(P=0.009), Heterophile (P<0.001), yolk cholesterol content(P<0.001), edible components of egg (P=0.035), weight gain of 21- 35d(P=0.008), weight gain of 21-50d(P=0.015), feed intake in21-35d, 35-50d and 21-5 d (P<0.001) and decrease of lymphocyte(P<0.001), breast muscle cholesterol content (P<0.003). Contrary of expectations, cholesterol addition to the diets didn’t raise the serum cholesterol but resulted in increase of jejunum weight (P=0.006), Heterophile (P 0.001), yolk cholesterol content(P=0.012),lymphocyte(P<0.001), feed intake in 35-50d and 21-50d (P<0.001) and also resulted in decrease of lymphocyte(P=0.001) and yolk cholesterol content(P=0.018). The interactions of GTL inclusion and dietary cholesterol addition were significant for Duodenum weight (P=0.001), Heterophile (P<0.001), lymphocyte(P 0.001), breast muscle cholesterol content (P<0.001) and thigh muscle cholesterol content(P 0.002), yolk cholesterol content(P<0.001), feed intake in 21-35d (P<0.001).Therefore, inclusion of GTL in Japanese quails diets cannot be a good cholesterol lowering method from serum and quail products but because of the intestinal reinforcement and therefore persuasion of the growing quails for high feed intake and higher weight gain can be recommendable.
    Keywords: Green tea, Quail, Carcass, Egg, Blood parameters, Performance, Cholesterol
  • H. Mansouri Khah, N. Karimi*, H. A. Sheybani Page 53
    For determination of maintenance energy requirements of animal, animal unit and forage quality should be considered. In this investigation, body weight and maintenance energy requirements of Zandi sheep breed were studied. Thus three flocks of zandi breed were selected in Lar region (Down Elarm) and 70 head of sheep were selected randomly from each flock (20 head were 3-yars old ewes, 20 head were 4-years old ewes, 5 head were 3-years old rams, 5 head were 4-years old rams, 10 head were 3-month old lambs and 10 head were 3-month lambs and 10 head of 6- month old lambs) and weighted at the begin and end of grazing season. Animal unit weight of this breed were determined by average weight of 3 and 4 old ewes (54.28 kg). So animal unit equivalent to rams and 3 and 6 month years old lams were 1.23, 0.68 and 0.86 respectively. Daily metaboliszable energy requirements in maintenance status (with adding 50% energy) determined for each animal unit with MAFF and NRC equation in three plot of pasture (10.83 and 11.95 respectively). Also palatable plants in germination and flowering stage were selected and amount of their CP, ADF, DMD and ME were determined.
    Keywords: energy requirement, rangeland, animal unit, Zandi breed, Down Elarm, Lar region
  • M. Mohayaei, K. Karimi*, M. Irani Page 66
    This experiment was carried out to determine the effect of different levels of guar meal (Germ fraction) and B-Mananase enzyme on growth performance of broiler chickens in a six week period using three hundred sixty one-day old broiler chicks (ROSS 308) on a randomized complete design experiment with six treatment groups consisiting of 4 replications and 15 chicks per pen in cage condition. Experimental groups included: 1-Control(without guar meal), 2-low levels(2,4,6% in Starter, Grower and Finisher diets respectly) of guar meal (GL), 3-medium levels(4,6,8 % in Starter, Grower and Finisher diets respectly) of guar meal(GM), 4-medium levels of guar meal+β-Mannanase enzyme (GMb), 5-high levels(6,9,12 % in Starter, Grower and Finisher diets respectly) of guar meal (GH), 6-high levels of guar meal + β – Mannanase enzyme (GHb). Body weight, feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured weekly. In the end of the period one case from each experimental replication was selected and killed for carcass dressing. Body weight gain, FI, FCR were affected by experimental groups (p<0/05). Experimental treatments had no significant effects on relative weight of carcass and relative weight of giblets except for abdominal fat (p>0/05). Use of high levels of guar meal in broilers diet deleteriously affected growth performance, FI, FCR. Results indicated that optimal levels of guar meal are low level without β -Mananase and medium level with β -Mananase without adverse effects on growth performance of broiler chikens.
    Keywords: Guar meal, B, Mananase, Performance, Broiler chickens
  • S. Yarahmadi*, K. Karimi, M. Khodaei Motlagh, A. Gahanbakhshi Page 77
    The project of transferring animal Husbandries in urban situation to reduce the cost of construction and appropriate management in operation to be set as Animal husbandry complexes were formed. Because of the uncontrolled spread of the complexes in the country (362 buildings and 27143 units) due to provincial authorities and national interest and travels of authorities, in the seven axes(studies, lack of interests of ranchers, banking facilities, health, social economic and technical issues) and 41 subjects in order to design and analysis, SWOT analysis, and pathology of the statistical methods used in and the stated principles and examples of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats objects, drawn and benefit from Swat matrix, Respectively in strategic planning vision, mission, objectives, strategies, programs and activities complex topics of interest were defined and strategies for (SO/ WO / ST / WT) explained. For example strategy WO: link between lack of studies and on the other hand lack of enough attention to performed studies (weakness W) the use of attentions of author ties and the and the public interest governors and representatives of the Islamic Consultative assembly (opportunities O) makes this case there pursuits, and necessary authorities to pay more attention to the study Consulting and implementation is consistent of previous studies. In fact, using this method can convert challenges into opportunities and threats and strategies to be defined. Finally, the conclusion was merely a transfer of animal husbandry complexes required to be done within the metropolitan and prevent it from being inclusive plan. Using of Consultants experienced in studies, the use of established posts of quarantine, the system of refining surplus water is recommended.
    Keywords: Livestock Complex, Matrix Swat, strengths, weaknesses