فهرست مطالب

ذهن - پیاپی 51 (پاییز 1391)
  • پیاپی 51 (پاییز 1391)
  • بهای روی جلد: 60,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/08/16
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Mohammad Raka’I, Sha’Ban Nosrati, Mohammad Ranjbar Hosseini Page 5
    The present writing develops the foundations of knowledge from three categories (knowledge (mental form), knower, and the known (object of knowledge)) to four and introduces educator (as the fourth one). By “educator”, the external agent is meant which plays the main role in communicating knowledge. This writing proceeds in four lines: educator, one who is being educated, objects of education, and methods of education. And it employs the semantic methodology in the connotative fields; and, finally, comes to the conclusion that from among educators, the Holy Qur’an puts emphasis on “God”; and, from those who are being educated, it emphasizes “man”; and, though it mentions some other instances for both of them, the overview presented by the Holy Qur’an is based on God’s being an educator and man’s being one who is being educated.
    Keywords: semantics of connotative fields, semantics of education, semantics of knowledge, educator, objects of education, methodologies of education
  • Behrouz Mohammadi Monfared Page 31
    Apart from controversies between internalism and reliabilism in the general epistemology and if reliabilism is taken for granted- at least at the level of daily and conventional justification-, the present article assumes moral intuitions as reliable processes producing true beliefs more than false ones. Thus, in the beginning, the article discusses the nature of moral intuition and reliabilism; then, it claims that, as a reliable process, the assumption of moral intuition may play a justifying role at the daily and conventional level (and not at a philosophical level). In what follows, the article mentions problems in reliability of moral intuition and provides solutions for them. The present writing discusses the above problem on the basis of Goldman’s reformed reading of reliabilism.
    Keywords: externalism, reliabilism, internalism, moral intuition, rational presentation
  • Mahdi Abbaszadeh Page 55
    The present writing tries to provide a systemic picture of Suhrawardi’s epistemology. As for other Muslim philosophers, epistemology has not been the Suhrawardi’s main concern; it seems, however, that if we look for in his books and works, we may manage to infer an epistemological system. Thus, Suhrawardi’s epistemology, which has been founded with the help of “illumination”, is, by definition, a systemic one or, at least, a systemic explanation of it may be provided. In other words, his epistemic discussions consist of a demonstrative and defendable system having consistent foundations and parts which, in turn, fulfill his objectives and perform functions he has specified. When faced by host of intellectual problems, it may classify them and provide solutions for them. In this epistemology, foundations of knowledge (knower, knowledge, and the known object) have been exactly specified and similarity between them has been explained. Also, Suhrawardi has paid due attention to the main problems of epistemology such as quiddity of knowledge, possibility of knowledge, solving the problems of skepticism and relativism, criterion for knowledge, sources and tools of knowledge, kinds and levels of knowledge, the relation between subject and object, solving the problem of mental existence, limits of knowledge, possibility of evidence and its criterion, certainty and its ultimate limit, the impact of non-epistemic factors on knowledge, the process in which knowledge comes into existence. Also, in Suhrawardi’s epistemology, one may see that due attention has been paid to some minor or new matters or matters probably relevant to epistemology. As for such matters, we may mention truth and justification, definition and its conditions, possibility of man’s knowledge of other minds, possibility of man’s knowledge of God, implication. In various respects such as being methodological, having an end, inclusion, coherence, applicability and the like, Suhrawardi’s epistemological system is considered as a desired one, though it is open to critiques.
    Keywords: systemic, knowledge, epistemology, knowledge by presence, Illumination, Light, intuition, intellect, imagination, Idea, sense
  • Mahdi Ghiasvand Page 91
    In the present article, at least, two correlative objectives are searched for. At first, the author will try to present a contemporary reading, as a model, of the main approach adopted by the Peripatetic philosophical tradition concerning the relation between the soul and body; in other words, a reading which is more abstract than Sinean, Thomist, and Aristotelian ones. This model will be discussed under “Principiality of Perfection- Based Union”. The second objective searched for here is a comparison between capacities of this model on the one hand and those of union based on ontological reduction. In this article, the author has tried to show that both reductionist and perfection-based approaches may be classified under the idea of “principiality of union”; concerning questions of the existence of soul, however, reduction and elimination are two sides of the same coin. It seems, however, that the main and common problem with all versions of ontological reductionism- apart from those mentioned in this article under “comparative study”- is that the idea of reduction has been overshadowed by the idea of elimination and, consequently, the union resulted from reduction will be followed by denial of a part of what that intuitionally seems to be real which is a high cost.
    Keywords: soul, body, principiality of perfection, based union, ontological reductionism, physicalism
  • Abdollah Mohammadi, Yar Ali Kord Firouzjani Page 117
    One of the most fundamental issues concerning epistemology of the transmitted evidence is that whether or not the transmitted evidence depends upon other sources [of knowledge]. Those who advocate dependence of the transmitted evidence who are called reductionists are of the opinion that the validity of transmitted evidence depends upon the proving argument. On the contrary, those who advocate independence who are called non- reductionists are of the opinion that justification for the transmitted evidence is an independent one. In the present article, while studying the most important arguments provided by each of the above two groups, the author will discuss the relations between these arguments and ideas presented by the scholars of the Principle of Jurisprudence. The methodology employed by the author in this article is an analytic-documentary one.
    Keywords: reductionism, non, reductionism, transmitted evidence, epistemology, justification
  • Ebrahim Dadjou Page 147
    Though, as we know, Aquinas is influenced by Ibn Sina, he has been mostly introduced as an opponent of Ibn Rushd (Averrose). In the present article, the author has shown that in many cases Aquinas is influenced by Ibn Rushd and in most cases in which he is in conflict with Ibn Sina, he relies upon Ibn Rushd’s views. Aquinas rejects Ibn Sina’s the rule of al- Wahid, doctrine of emanation, active intellect, and theory of knowledge; he has gone to reject these ideas, however, in the light of Ibn Rushd’s; and his oppositions to Ibn Sina is to some extent similar to Ibn Rushd’s opposition to Ibn Sina. It seems that Aquinas has adopted Ibn Rushd’s main views knowingly; he has introduced Ibn Rushd, however, in a way that it is as if Ibn Rushd opposes his own main views.
    Keywords: the rule of al Wahid, doctrine of emanation, material intellect, active intellect, knowledge
  • Sayyed Ali Hashemi, Morteza Sedaghat Page 165
    In this paper, we are going to compare the thesis of holism embedded in Kuhn’s philosophy of science and Quine’s epistemology. Both of these philosophers have emphasized philosophers after them a great deal. One of most crucial concepts in Kuhn’s philosophy is incommensurability which is widespread nowadays in philosophy of science. He defines it in three levels including observational, methodological and semantic. To do such a thing, Kuhn appeals to a kind of partial holism, i.e. at the level of paradigm. On the other hand, Quine holds a kind of epistemic and semantic holism which seems to have much affinity with Kuhn’s partial epistemic and semantic holism used in his incommensurability thesis. This paper aims, while introducing Quine’s holism in his “Two Dogmas of Empricism” and Kuhn’s incommensurability in his “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”, to express such affinities.
    Keywords: semantic holism, epistemic holism, incommensurability, paradigm, Kuhn, Quine