فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue: 3, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/04/07
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Khaled Waleed Bader, Mohammad Ali Abu Saaleek Pages 113-117
    Oral glutamine supplementation is highly effective in preventing and delaying radiation-induced esophagitis, one of the most common discomforting side effects of radiation to the thoracic area among lung cancer patients. According to the literature, lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all cancers with the highest incidence worldwide. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of oral glutamine supplemen- tation in preventing radiation-induced esophagitis among lung cancer patients. Several databases have been searched and seven studies included in this review (five randomized control studies, one quasi-experimental study and one systematic review) with a total of 453 patients. The patients in these studies were diagnosed with lung cancer regardless of type or stage. The patients were either assigned to an intervention group (glutamine supplementation) or a control group. These studies were conducted in the US, Turkey, Spain, and Greece from 2003 until 2012. The results showed that 10 mg of oral glutamine three times per day on a daily basis (from one month before starting radiation until one month after completion of radiation)was effective in preventing and delaying radiation-induced esophagitis.
  • Ahmad Hosseini Tashnizi, Mojtaba Habibagahi, Jafar Majidi, Mahboobeh Razmkhah, Abdolrasoul Talei, Abbas Ghaderi, Mansooreh Jaberipour Pages 119-127
    Background
    Cytokines produced by different subsets of T cells are the key mediators to adjust the quality of immune responses. Despite evidence of induction of an immune reaction against tumors such as breast cancer, not all responses are protective. In this study we attempt to evaluate the expression profile of several cytokines from the T helper 1 and 2 subsets in blood cells from patients with breast cancer.
    Methods
    We recruited 100 recently diagnosed patients with confirmed pathological reports. Peripheral blood samples were taken and the expression of the transcripts for IL-2, IL-12A, IL-12B, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13 and IL-13Rα2 were measured by quantitative real time PCR. We correlated the results to clinical findings and compared the results to those from 64 healthy individuals.
    Results
    Among the studied cytokines, we observed a significant increase in the expression of T helper 1 pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12B, IL-2 and IFN-γ compared to healthy controls. Elevated expression of those cytokines was associated with high stage and/or high grade tumors but there was no association with other clinical determinants. Simultaneously, blood cells showed high expression of IL-10, but not the other studied T helper 2 cytokines.
    Conclusion
    The mixed and complex cytokine profile of T helper 1 and 2 immunity in blood cells may show an immunological imbalance which makes the overall system favor cancer. This may be a potential target for immunotherapy approaches, however more comprehensive results are needed.
  • Ali Delpisheh, Yousef Veisani, Kourosh Sayehmiri, Ezzatollah Rahimi Pages 129-135
    Background
    There is little information about the possible influence of lifestyle and etiologic risk factors on survival amongst patients with gastric cancer.
    Methods
    We recruited a consecutive series of 249 patients with definite diagnosis of gastric cancer who had been hospitalized in Towhid Hospital, Sanandaj, Kurdistan Province in Western Iran during a five-year period from 2006 until 2011. Survival rate was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier and log rank statistical methods. Cox hazard regression was used to investigate the effect of the variables and adjust for the effect of age.
    Results
    According to univariate analysis, related variables that included age, gender, Residence, histology grade, histology type, familial history of gastrointestinal cancer and mental illness during the disease had no significant effects on survival rate variation. Significant independent factors on survival included past medical history of gastrointestinal diseases (P-value = 0.010), tobacco smoking (P-value = 0.012), and early diagnosis (P-value = 0.008). Cox-regression analysis of demographic, lifestyle and histological factors with >45 years of age as the reference revealed that patients 46-65 years of age at diagnosis (HR=0.602; 95% CI=0.250-1.44; P=0.256) and those >66 years of age (HR=1.07, 95% CI=0.46-2.50, P≤0.001) had an increased risk for disease progression and death.
    Conclusions
    Past medical history of gastrointestinal diseases, tobacco smoking and early stage diagnosis might influence the long-term survival of patients with gastric cancer.
  • Foroogh Nejatollahi, Samira Silakhori, Bahareh Moazen Pages 137-144
    Background
    The human epidermal growth factor receptor family comprises four homologous members: EGFR (ErbB1), ErbB2 (HER2), ErbB3 (HER3) and ErbB4 (HER4).This family plays an important role in the signaling pathway and cell proliferation. The heterodimerization of HER2 with HER3 leads to tumor cell proliferation. Monoclonal antibody to the human HER3 receptor blocks HER3 het- erodimerization and inhibits the growth of breast cancer cells. Due to their human origin, small size, rapid penetration and high affinity properties, recombinant single chain antibodies (scFv) have been introduced as the most desired agents for cancer immunotherapy. In this study, we use a phage display system to select specific scFvs against HER3 for their use in cancer targeted therapy.
    Methods
    A phage antibody display library of scFv was panned against an immunodominant epitope of HER3. Phage rescue was performed on the library. The supernatant that contained the appropriate scFv (109 PFU/ml) was added to an immunotube which was coated with the peptide. Elution was done using log phase E. coli TG1. The clones were amplified by PCR and DNA fingerprinted to select the specific clones against the epitope. The specificity of the selected antibodies was tested in ELISA.
    Results
    The results represented two predominant patterns with the frequency of 25%. The other patterns showed the frequencies of 5%-10%. scFv1 and scFv2 demonstrated positive ELISA with absorbances of 0.63 and 0.46, respectively while the absorbances of wells without peptide were 0.19 and 0.11, respectively.
    Conclusion
    In this study two specific scFvs were selected against HER3 antigen in a successful panning process. Phage ELISA represented the specific binding of scFvs against HER3.The selected scFvs reacted only with the corresponding peptides. However, no reaction with the other peptides was detected. The selected anti-HER3 scFvs have suggested that these human high affinity and small antibodies that bind specifically to HER3 epitope can be considered in HER3 targeted approaches.
  • Janan Ghapanchi, Mostafa Rezaee, Fereshteh Kamali, Fatemeh Lavaee, Eissa Shakib Pages 145-149
    Background
    Hematological disorders may present with a number of non-specific orofacial manifestations that must be diagnosed and referred to specialists for treatment. Since the orofacial manifestations can be the first clinical presentation which indicates the presence of an underlying disease, it is important for dentists to be aware of these manifestations. The present study aims to evaluate the orofacial presentations of some hematological diseases in order to familiarize dentists with these manifestations.
    Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study evaluated the oral conditions of patients recently hospitalized with histories of blood dyscrasia and bone marrow transplantation in Shiraz Nemazee Hospital during 2010-2011. From 50 patients, there were 33 (66%) males and 17 (34%) females. The age of participants ranged from 12-77 years of age.
    Results
    Examined patients had the following manifestations: head and neck region lymphadenopathy (42%), hairy tongue, atrophy of the oral mucosa, ulcers, red and white lesions, Candida albicans infection and gingival lesions that included spontaneous gingival bleeding, gingival hypertrophy and ecchymosis, in addition to diffuse herpetic infections on the buccal mucosa and bony lesions. The most common blood dyscrasia in the study patients was acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (48%). Our findings determined that lymphadenopathy (42%) was the most common orofacial manifestation of hematological diseases.
    Conclusion
    On occasion, dentists maybe the first medical professional to encounter hematological diseases. Since early detection of these disorders can increase patient survival, it is necessary for dentists to become completely familiar with these oral manifestations.
  • Loulou Kobeissi, Maya Abou Saad, Myrna Doumit, Raed Mohsen, Ziad Salem, Arafat Tfayli Pages 151-165
    Background
    Breast cancer affects over one million women annually and is the most common global malignancy among women. Extensive improvements have taken place in the management of breast cancer in recent years and a higher percentage of women are cured from this disease. A proper assessment of the quality of life of women with breast cancer is an essential component in disease management. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy- Breast Symptom Index has been commonly used and well-validated among English speaking populations as well as other populations. To date, no formal translation and evaluation of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index exists in Arabic. Therefore, this study intends to translate, adapt and face-validate the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index into Arabic, specifically in the context of the Lebanese culture.
    Methods
    We conducted forward and backward translation in Arabic, combined with face validity by clinicians. This was followed by pre-testing to ensure the instrument’s adequacy and cultural sensitivity conducted by the administration of face-to-face interviews with individual breast cancer patients (n=33) and two focus groups (4 women/group) to evaluate the relevance and appropriateness of each item and words used in the questionnaire.
    Results
    Study results reinforced the value of the Arabic translated version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index in capturing the quality of life of women with breast cancer in Lebanon.
    Conclusion
    The instrument was perceived to be adequate, appropriate for use, culturally sensitive, simple as well as exhaustive. Suggestions have been made to enrich the instruments’ ability to incorporate other quality of life dimensions not captured, as well to enhance the cultural specificity of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast System Index, when administered among Lebanese women diagnosed with breast cancer who are specifically beyond therapy.
  • Muhammed Mubarak, Javed I. Kazi, Altaf Hashmi, Manzoor Hussain, Syed Anwer Naqvi, Syed Adeebul Hassan Rizvi Pages 167-173
    Background
    This study intends to determine the frequency and clinicopatholog- ical characteristics of different types of bladder tumors, particularly transitional cell carcinoma in cystoscopic bladder biopsies and resections in the local patient population and compare these findings with local and international reports.
    Methods
    The study was conducted in the Department of Histopathology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, Karachi, Pakistan from December 1996 to December 2001. All patients with bladder growth who presented to the Urology Clinic of Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation (SIUT) during the study period and in whom a cystoscopy and bladder biopsy were performed, were included in this study. The clinical and demographic data and the pathological diagnoses were retrieved from the original surgical biopsy reports.
    Results
    Out of 500 patients, there were 421 (84.2%) males and 79 (15.8%) females. The mean age was 57.5±8.6 years (range: 4 to 82 years). Among the primary bladder tumors, transitional cell carcinomas were the most common (94.3%) malignancy. A majority of these cases (62%) presented with superficial disease, whereas in 38% the disease was muscle-invasive at initial diagnosis. Grading was possible in all except two cases, which contained only necrotic tumor tissue. A vast preponderance of tumors (74.5%) were well-differentiated, while 25.5% were poorly-differentiated.
    Conclusion
    This study demonstrates that the vast preponderance of bladder tumors is of urothelial origin and malignant. Benign tumors are very rare. The clini- copathological characteristics and frequency distribution of different types of bladder tumors in the local population are, in general, comparable to those reported in the world literature.
  • Sunita Singh, Meenu Gill, Ashima Batra, Aarzoo Jahan, Shruti Semwal, Rajeev Sen Pages 175-178
    Although epitrochlear lymph nodes may be enlarged as a part of generalized lym- phadenopathy, isolated enlargement of epitrochlear lymph nodes is rarely seen. Epitrochlear lymph node involvement, as a first presentation, is rarely seen in non- Hodgkin''s lymphoma. We describe non-Hodgkin''s lymphoma in a 60-year-old male who presented with isolated epitrochlear lymphadenopathy along with other organ involvement, including the kidneys.
  • Syed Hammad Tirmazy, Rajanee Bhana Pages 179-182
    Paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is a rare, fatal neuronal syndrome associated with ovarian, breast and lung cancers. Anti-Yo antibody mediated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration is known to be associated with gynecological malignancies, especially ovarian cancer. However, there are no reports of anti-Yo antibody associated predominant peripheral mixed sensory and motor neuropathy in patients with ovarian cancer. Hereby, we present a case of a 75-year-old female who predominantly developed peripheral mixed sensory and motor neuropathy after undergoing surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy for FIGO stage 3, high grade serous ovarian carcinoma. She presented approximately 11 months after completion of her chemotherapy with a history of progressive peripheral mixed sensory and motor neuropathy that affected both upper and lower limbs. There was no evidence of recurrent ovarian cancer. Since paraneoplastic peripheral neuropathy is a rare disorder, timely diagnosis and early therapeutic intervention can achieve a better outcome, although management of paraneoplastic neurological disorders still remains a challenge for clinicians.
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