فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue:4, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/04/08
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Mandana Tavakkoli, Kakhki, Malihe Motavasselian, Mahmoud Mosaddegh, Mohammad Mahdi Esfahani, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Mohsen Nematy, Saeid Eslami Pages 225-230
    Objectives
    Considering the increasing prevalence of depression in modern societies and the positive effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, this study aims to investigate the omega-3 and omega-6 content of various foodstuffs, prescribed or prohibited by Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM).
    Materials And Methods
    Firstly, reliable sources of Iranian Traditional Medicine were reviewed in order to identify the prescribed and prohibited foodstuffs for depressed patients. Afterwards, according to the online database of United States Department of Agriculture (URL: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/search/list), the ratio of linoleic acid to alpha linolenic acid (as representatives of omega-6 and omega-3, respectively) was identified in each foodstuff. Finally, the ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 were compared between seven food groups of vegetables, fruits, dry goods, high protein products, dairies, breads, and spices.
    Results
    Based on the resources of Iranian Traditional Medicine, the following foods are prescribed for depressed patients: basil, coriander, spinach, lettuce, squash, peppermint, dill, chicory, celery, beet, quince, cucumber, watermelon, grape, peach, pomegranate, banana, apple, currant, pistachio, dried fig, almond, egg, chicken, lamb, trout, milk, bread without bran,saffron, oregano, and coriander seeds. On the other hand, cabbage, eggplant, onion, garlic, broad beans, lentils, beef, whole wheat bread, and mustard are prohibited. It should be noted that omega-3 content in some prescribed foods is more than that of the prohibited ones.
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that mint, basil, spinach, lettuce, squash, lamb, saffron, oregano, cucumber, pistachio, milk, and also wild trout can be considered as medicinal foods for depressed patients.
    Keywords: Depression, Fatty Acids, Functional food, Medicine, Omega, 3, Traditional
  • Fereshte Saboonchian, Rashid Jamei, Siavash Hosseini Sarghein Pages 231-238
    Objectives
    Leaves and flowers ofElaeagnus angustifolia contain phenolic and flavonoid compounds. These compounds have antioxidant properties that protect cells from oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to determine and analyze total phenolic and flavonoid content of leaves and flowers in two E. angustifolia variants using different solvents (ethanol and methanol).
    Materials And Methods
    Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant leaves and flowers were prepared. Experiments were carried out to measure their phenolic and flavonoid content using two solvents. Data were analyzed using Instat-N software.
    Results
    Results showed that the amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds in both ethanolic and methanolic extracts was higher in Fariman variant compared with Mashhad variant. Ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Fariman variant had the highest amount of phenolic compound (10.91±0.18, 10.28± 0.36 mgGAE/100gFW, respectively) and also the highest amounts of flavonoids (5.80±0.10, 3.36±0.05 mgQE/100gFW, respectively). Phenolic and flavonoids compounds were better extracted using methanol and ethanol solvent.
    Conclusion
    In both varieties and solvents, the amount of phenolic and flavonoids compounds in leaves were higher than flowers. In addition, the phenolic and flavonoids compounds were higher in Fariman compared to Mashhad variants.
    Keywords: Elaeagnus angustifolia, Flavonoid, Phenolic compounds
  • Hamayun Shaheen, Jaweria Nazir, Syeda Sadiqa Firdous, Abd, Ur, Rehman Khalid Pages 239-250
    Objective
    Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan.
    Materials And Methods
    An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews.
    Results
    A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs.
    Conclusion
    This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area.
    Keywords: Cosmetic herbs, Himalayas, Skin treatment, Tribal women
  • Mahmoud Hosseini, Fatemeh Harandizadeh, Saeed Niazmand, Mohammad Soukhtanloo, Azadeh Faizpour, Marzieh Ghasemabady Pages 251-259
    Objective
    Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role both as a consequence and as a cause of epileptic seizures.Regarding the central nervous system depressant effects of Achillea wilhelmsii (A. wilhelmsii), as well the effects of the plant on NO, this study was aimed to elucidatethe possible role for nitric oxide on the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures.
    Materials And Methods
    Fifty-six male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups (n=8 in each group) and treated with (1) normal saline, (2) normal saline before pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 90 mg/kg), (3-7) A. wilhelmsii extract (100, 200, 400, 800, and 1200 mg/kg) before PTZ. Latency to first minimal colonic seizure (MCS) and the first generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) as well as the mortality rate were recorded. The brain tissues were then removed for biochemical measurements. Fisher’s exact probability test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey’s test were used for statistical evaluation.
    Results
    Treatment with 100- 1200 mg/kg of the extract did not affect MCS latencies. 400 mg/kg of the extract prolonged GTCS latency (p<0.001), however, the lower and higher doses were not effective. Nitric oxide metabolites concentrations in the hippocampal tissues of the animals treated with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract were increased compared with saline (p)
    Conclusion
    The present study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of A. wilhelmsii affects NO metabolites in brain tissues as well the severity of seizures in PTZ-induced seizure model.
    Keywords: Achillea wilhelmsii, Hippocampus, Nitric oxide, Pentylenetetrazole, Rat, Seizures
  • Amir Hossein Esmaeili, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Mohammad Chaichi Pages 260-266
    Objectives
    Eriobotrya japonica belongs to the Rosaceae. Studies have shown that the flowers of this plant are rich in phenolic and flavonoid compounds. Accorrdingly, the evaluation of antioxidative effects of Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE) have been performed in vitro.
    Material And Methods
    In this study, to investigate the influences of components of EJFE on its antioxidative activity, extract was prepared using hydro-alcoholic (25:75 V/V) solvent and the antioxidative activity of the extract was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and H2O2) by spectrophotometric method and chelating of ferrous ions by ferrozine reagent.
    Results
    HPLC analysis of the Eriobotrya japonica Flower Extract (EJFE) revealed hesperetin and gallic acid as the major antioxidants. When the content of total flavonoid and polyphenolic compounds in the flower extract of this plant was examined, a significantly higher level of total polyphenols was found in Eriobotrya japonica flower extract.
    Conclusion
    Results demonstrate that the high ability to scavenge free radicals, reducing power, and Fe+2chelating activity exerted by the EJFE were due to the high content of hesperetin and gallic acid in the flowers.
    Keywords: Antioxidant, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl, Flavonoids, Free radicals, Phenolic compounds
  • Abbas Meamarbashi, Meysam Alipour Pages 267-275
    Objective
    Very recent studies have reported positive effects of dietary nitrate on the oxygen consumption during exercise. This research aimed to study the effect of moderate dose of high-nitrate vegetables, watercress (Nasturtium officinale) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) compared with a control group on the incremental treadmill exercise test following a standard Bruce protocol controlled by computer.
    Materials And Methods
    Group 1 consumed 100 g watercress (n=11, 109.5 mg nitrate/day), and group 2 consumed 100 g red radish (n=11, mg 173.2 mg nitrate/day) for seven days, and control group (n=14) was prohibited from high nitrate intake.
    Results
    During exercise, watercress group showed significant changes in the maximum values of Respiratory Exchange Ratio (RER) (p<0.05), End-Tidal O2 Fraction (FETO2) (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrate (p<0.01). Red radish group had a significant increase in the VCO2 (p<0.01), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), VCO2/kg (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.01). When all groups in the same workload were normalized by the subject’s body mass, watercress had a significant increase in the total expired CO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.05), FETO2 (p<0.05), and energy consumption from carbohydrates (p<0.05) compared with the control group. Similar comparison between red radish and control group revealed a significant increase during pre-test in the total CO2 production (p<0.05), VCO2 (p<0.05), RER (p<0.01), VT (p<0.05), and VCO2/kg (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Current results indicate higher carbon dioxide production in the experimental groups in the same workload. This might have a negative impact on the exercise performance. Further investigations with controlled exercise program will be necessary.
    Keywords: Exercise, Nitrate, Red radish, Watercress
  • Ameneh Poorrostami, Farah Farokhi Farokhi, Reza Heidari Pages 276-286
    Objective
    Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug, widely used in the treatment of epilepsy; long-term use of this drug can cause hepatotoxicity. Zingiber officinale Roscoe (ginger) possesses antioxidant properties. In present research, the effect ofhydroalcoholic extract of ginger (HEG) on the liver of lamotrigine-treated epileptic rats was investigated
    Material And Methods
    Forty-eight female Wistar rats were selected and allocated to 8 groups of 6 each. Group 1: Negative controls were treated with normal saline. Group 2: Positive controls were treated with lamotrigine (LTG) (10 mg/kg) daily by gavages for 4 consecutive weeks. Epilepsy was induced in treatment groups by i.p. injection of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) (40 mg/kg). Group 3: Epileptic group received normal saline (10 ml/kg). Group 4: Epileptic group was treated with LTG (10 mg/kg). Groups 5 and 6: Epileptic groups received HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg). Groups 7 and 8: Epileptic groups received LTG and HEG (50 and 100 mg/kg). At the end of 28 days, blood samples were drawn and their livers were processed for light microscopy.
    Results
    The mean values of TG, CHOL, AST, and ALT activity significantly rose (p<0.01) in groups 2, 3, and 4, while in rats treated with HEG (groups 5, 6, 7, and 8), the levels of liver enzymes significantly decreased (p<0.05) compared with epileptic group treated with lamotrigine (group 4). Histopathological changes of liver samples were comparable with respective control.
    Conclusion
    These results suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of ginger improves liver function in lamotrigine-induced hepatotoxicity.
    Keywords: Epilepsy, Lamotrigine, Liver, Zingiber officinale, Rat
  • Luthfun Nesa, Shirajum Munira, Shabnam Mollika (Md) Monirul Islam, Habibullah Choin, Aktar Uzzaman Chouduri, Nazmun Naher Pages 287-296
    Objectives
    The study was carried out to assess the analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and CNS depressant activity of the methanolic extract of the Lawsonia inermis barks(MELIB).
    Materials And Methods
    Anti-inflammatory effects of MEBLI were studied using carrageenan-induced inflammatory method at the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg b.wt., p.o. Analgesic activity was measured using acetic acid-induced writhing model and formalin-induced licking and biting in mice. The CNS depressant activity was evaluated by observing the reduction of locomotor and exploratory activities in the open field and hole cross tests at a dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg body weight.
    Results
    Statistical analysis showed that dose of 500 mg/kg exhibited higher analgesic activity against acetic acid-induced pain in mice than the standard drug diclofenac sodium. Furthermore, doses of 300 and 500 mg/kg caused higher percent of protection (91.16% and 95.03%, respectively) of licking and biting of formalin-induced mice than diclophenac sodium (70.72%). The Lawsonia inemis methanolic extract (300 and 500 mg/kg) alsoexhibited sustained inhibition (54.97% and 65.56%) of paw edema at the 4th hour compared with standard indomethacin (74.17%). Besides, the plant extract also had significant (p<0.05) dose-dependent CNS depressant activity.
    Conclusion
    this study recommends that the methanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis barks has significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and CNS depressant properties.
    Keywords: Analgesic, Anti, inflammatory, Carrageenan, CNS depressant, Formalin induced pain Methanolic, extract of Lawsonia inermis barks, Writhing