فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:7, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/04/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 19
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  • Mahin Ghafari, Khadijah Shamsuddin, Masoud Amiri Pages 805-806
  • Shrivastava Saurabh R., Shrivastava Prateek S., Ramasamy Jegadeesh Pages 807-812
    Background
    Hypertension is a significant public health concern of world‑wide distribution and is also the most common cardiovascular disease risk factor. Adequate control of blood pressure is a critical element in the prevention of hypertension induced‑organ damage and life‑threatening complications. Prevention of hypertension is possible and early detection and effective treatment can significantly reduce the incidence of adverse clinical outcomes.
    Methods
    An extensive search of all materials related to the topic was carried out in PubMed, Medline, World Health Organization website and Google Scholar search engines. Keywords used in the search included hypertension, cardiovascular disease, public health, life‑style modifications and awareness. Overall 51 articles were selected and analyzed.
    Results
    Multiple socio‑demographic and potential risk factors have been recognized in the causation and determining the long‑term outcomes of the disease world‑wide. As the natural history of hypertension is complex and etiology is multi‑factorial the strategy to combat also should be multi‑pronged based on the trends and magnitude of the disease in variable settings.
    Conclusions
    To conclude, although progress has been observed in the area of awareness, treatment and control, the need continues to be high for sustainable and cost‑effective interventions that will ultimately halt and reverse the rising tide of hypertension prevalence. Population‑based health education, dietary and life‑style modification and pharmacological therapy are all effective measures to reduce the prevalence and increase the control rate of hypertension.
    Keywords: Cardiovascular disease, hypertension, public health
  • Shirin Nosratnejad, Eshagh Barfara, Hamed Hosseinib, Esmat Barootid, Arash Rashidiana Pages 813-819
    Background
    Anemia is the most common blood disorder observed in vulnerable groups and affects their efficiency in their everyday activities. Possible complications of the disease may be reduced or prevented by screening of patients. Screening programs impose certain costs upon the health system, which may offset their positive effects. Whether the positive impacts of screening outweigh its costs is a subject of debate among policy‑makers. In this research, we have conducted a systematic review of the cost‑effectiveness of anemia screening.
    Methods
    The Pubmed, Science Direct, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and CINAHL databases were searched for relevant results dating between 1962‑2010 using key words. The references of the related articles were gone over manually. In the end, Persian databases were also examined for results.
    Results
    Using data from the four mentioned databases, a total of 722 articles were elected, which, after evaluation, were narrowed down to 4. Of these, 3 focused on newborns and infants. Disparity existed among obtained results, such that no two articles were similar, and this made making comparisons between them cumbersome and sometimes even impossible. Only one study evaluated cost‑effectiveness of anemia screening in vulnerable target groups.
    Conclusions
    Research findings show that there is not enough evidence of cost‑effectiveness of screening for decision‑making. Bearing in mind the importance of the matter to health policy‑makers, due to high prevalence of iron‑deficiency anemia in low‑ and middle‑income countries, conduction of research in this field seems necessary.
    Keywords: Anemia, cost‑effectiveness, screening, systematic review
  • Seyyed, Naserredin Mostafavi, Elham Barzegar, Nayereh Siyah Manssori, Roya Kelishadi Pages 820-824
    Background
    Concerns have been raised about the possibility of a predisposition of Kawasaki disease (KD) to abnormal lipid profile after an acute phase of disease, which can predispose them to premature atherosclerosis later in life. We determined the lipid profile of children late after KD, and compared it with controls.
    Methods
    This historical cohort was conducted on 32 subjects: 16 children with history of uncomplicated KD (age 11.8 ± 3.3 years, interval from the initial episode 7.1 years), and 16 healthy age‑matched of their sibling or cousins. Fasting serum total cholesterol (TC), high‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low‑density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL‑C), and triglycerides (TG) levels were compared between groups. In addition, blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) were measured and compared.
    Results
    Six out of 16 KD patients and 7 out of 16 controls had abnormal lipid values. No significant difference was found in mean values of systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, BMI, TG, TC, HDL‑C, and LDL‑C between cases and controls.
    Conclusions
    We conclude that although Iranian KD children probably had no different lipid profile compared with controls, but due to finding dyslipidemia in more than one‑third of KD subjects, we suggest that periodic control of lipid values in these patients is of crucial importance.
    Keywords: Atherosclerosis, children, Iran, Kawasaki disease, lipid profile
  • Ali Valiani, Batool Hashemibeni, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Malek Masoud Ansar, Majid Kazemi, Nafiseh Esmaeili Pages 825-834
    Background
    Osteoarthritis is one of the most common diseases in middle‑aged populations in the World and could become the fourth principal cause of disability by the year 2020. One of the critical properties for cartilage tissue engineering (TE) is the ability of scaffolds to closely mimic the extracellular matrix and bond to the host tissue. Therefore, TE has been presented as a technique to introduce the best combination of cells and biomaterial scaffold and to stimulate growth factors to produce a cartilage tissue resembling natural articular cartilage. The aim of study is to improve differentiation of adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) into chondrocytes in order to provide a safe and modern treatment for patients suffering from cartilage damages.
    Methods
    After functionalization, dispersions and sterilizing carbon nano‑tubes (CNTs), a new type of nanocomposite gel was prepared from water‑soluble CNTs and alginate. ADSCs seeded in 1.5% alginate scaffold and cultured in chondrogenic media with and without transforming growth factor‑β1 (TGF‑β1) for 7 and 14 days. The genes expression of sex determining region Y‑box 9 (SOX9), types II and X collagens was assessed by real‑time polymerase chain reaction and the amount of aggrecan (AGC) and type I collagen was measured by ELISA.
    Results
    Our findings showed that the expression of essential cartilage markers, SOX9, type II collagen and AGC, in differentiated ADSCs at the concentration of 1 μg/ml CNTs in the presence of TGF‑β1 were significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). Meanwhile, type X collagen expression and also type I collagen production were significantly decreased (P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    The results showed that utilized three‑dimensional scaffold had a brilliant effect in promoting gene expression of chondrogenesis.
    Keywords: Adipose derived stem cell, alginate, carbon nano‑tube, chondrogenesis, transforming growth factor‑β
  • Mahsa Jalili, Seyed Rafi Aref Hosseini, Sousan Kolahi, Mehrangiz Ebrahimi Mamegani, Azita Hekmatdoost Pages 835-840
    Background
    This study aims to investigate the effect of antioxidants supplement on clinical outcomes and antioxidant parameters in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
    Methods
    The pre‑post study was conducted on 40 female patients with RA in 12 weeks that taken daily one “Selenplus” capsule contained 50 μg selenium, 8 mg zinc, 400 μg vitamin A, 125 mg vitamin C, and 40 mg vitamin E. About 5 mL venous blood sample was taken from all participants and disease activity score (DAS) was determined by DAS‑28 formula and high‑sensitive C‑reactive protein (hs‑CRP). Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured by spectrophotometric kit and catalase (CAT) was measured by Abei method. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined by spectrophotometric kit. Distribution of the variables was assessed using histogram with normal curve as well as Kolmogorov‑Smirnov test and data were analyzed with paired t‑test for differences between pre‑post data using SPSS software version 13.5.
    Results
    Out of 40 patients, 39 completed the study. DAS‑28 score and hs‑CRP have changed (P < 0.01 for both), while the number of swollen and painful joints did not reduce significantly. TAC, GPX, SOD, and CAT increased significantly (P < 0.01 for all variables).
    Conclusions
    Our findings showed that antioxidants may improve disease activity significantly, but it did not affect the number of painful and swollen joints and increased erythrocyte antioxidant levels. Antioxidants may be useful for controlling of clinical outcomes and oxidative stress in RA.
    Keywords: Antioxidants, dietary supplements, nutrition, oxidative stress, rheumatoid arthritis
  • Hassan Rajabi, Vardanjani, Ehsanollah Habibi, Siyamak Pourabdian, Habibollah Dehghan, Mohammad Reza Maracy Pages 841-848
    Background
    Along with the rapid growth of technology its related tools such as computer, monitors and video display terminals (VDTs) grow as well. Based on the studies, the most common complaint reported is of the VDT users.
    Methods
    This study attempts to design a proper tool to assess the visual fatigue of the VDT users. First draft of the questionnaire was prepared after a thorough study on the books, papers and similar questionnaires. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed using the content validity index (CVI) beside that of the Cronbach’s Coefficient Alpha. Then, a cross‑sectional study was carried out on 248 of the VDT users in different professions. A theoretical model with four categories of symptoms of visual fatigue was derived from the previous studies and questionnaires. Having used the AMOS16 software, the construct validity of the questionnaire was evaluated using the confirmatory factor analysis. The correlation co‑efficiency of the internal domains was calculated using the SPSS 11.5 software. To assess the quality check index and determining the visual fatigue levels, visual fatigue of the VDT users was measured by the questionnaire and visual fatigue meter (VFM) device. Cut‑off points were identified by receiver operating characteristic curves.
    Results
    CVI and reliability co‑efficiency were both equal to 0.75. Model fit indices including root mean of squared error approximation, goodness of fit index and adjusted goodness of fit index were obtained 0.026, 0.96 and 0.92 respectfully. The correlation between the results measured with the questionnaire and VFM‑90.1 device was −0.87. Cut‑off points of the questionnaire were 0.65, 2.36 and 3.88. The confirmed questionnaire consists of four main areas: Eye strain (4 questions), visual impairment (5 questions) and the surface impairment of the eye (3 questions) and the out of eye problems (3 questions).
    Conclusions
    The visual fatigue questionnaire contains 15 questions and has a very remarkable validity and reliability. Using this questionnaire and its findings, one will be able to identify, assess and finally prevent the effective factors of VDT users’ visual fatigue.
    Keywords: Reliability, validity, visual fatigue questionnaire, visual display terminals
  • Mehrdad Askarian, Mahbobeh Oroei, Ali Goli, Hossein Faramarzi Pages 857-864
    Background
    Gastrointestinal tract cancer (GI.C) is one of the common cancers in world‑wide. The incidence rate of it is different in various geographical regions. This study was performed to assess spatial clusters of the occurrence of GI.C in Fars Province.
    Methods
    In this cross‑sectional study, the new cases were 4569 cases from 2001 to 2009. The crude incidence rates were standardized based on world population for both sexes. The spatial analysis was conducted using the geographical information systems. We used the local Indicators of spatial association measure, in order to identify local spatial clusters.
    Results
    From a total of the new cases, 62.8% cases were male. The most common GI.Cs were stomach and colorectal cancer in men and women respectively. The significant cluster patterns were discovered from 2002 to 2007. The common type of spatial clustering was a high‑high cluster, that to indicate from North‑west to South‑east of Fars Province.
    Conclusions
    Analysis of the geographical distribution of GI.C will provide opportunities for policymakers for applying preventive measures. Furthermore, it could be helpful for researchers for future epidemiological studies for investigation of etiological agents in regions with significant spatial clustering of high incidence of cancer.
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal neoplasm, Iran, spatial clustering
  • Sreenivas P. Veeranki, Shimin Zheng Pages 865-874
    Background
    Screening rates for colorectal cancer (CRC) are increasing nationwide including Tennessee (TN); however, their up‑to‑date status is unknown. The objective of this study is to determine the trends and characteristics of TN adults who are up‑to‑date status with CRC screening during 2002‑2008.
    Methods
    We examined data from the TN Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2002, 2004, 2006 and 2008 to estimate the proportion of respondents aged 50 years and above who were up‑to‑date status with CRC screening, defined as an annual home fecal occult blood test and/or sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy in the past 5 years. We identified trends in up‑to‑status in all eligible respondents. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we delineated key characteristics of respondents who were up‑to‑date status.
    Results
    During 2002‑2008, the proportion of respondents with up‑to‑date status for CRC screening increased from 49% in 2002‑ 55% in 2006 and then decreased to 46% in 2008. The screening rates were higher among adults aged 65‑74 years, those with some college education, those with annual household income ≥$35,000 and those with health‑care access. In 2008, the respondents who were not up‑to‑date status with CRC screening included those with no health‑care coverage (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.33‑0.63), those aged 50‑54 years (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46‑0.82) and those with annual household income <$25,000 (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.52‑ 0.82).
    Conclusions
    TN adults who are up‑to‑date status with CRC screening are increasing, but not across all socio‑demographic subgroups. The results identified specific subgroups to be targeted by screening programs, along with continued efforts to educate public and providers about the importance of CRC screening.
    Keywords: Behavioral risk factor surveillance system, colorectal cancer, tenncare, tennessee, up‑to‑date screening status
  • Babak Vahdatpour, Parisa Taheri, Abolghasem Zarezade, Saeed Moradian Pages 875-881
    Background
    Frozen shoulder has always been considered important because of the impact on the quality‑of‑life and long period of illness. Therefore, the use of noninvasive and safe techniques that can speed up the healing process of the disease is important.
    Methods
    This study was a randomized clinical trial study on patients suffering from frozen shoulder who were referred to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals in 2011 and 2012. A total of 36 patients were enrolled in the study. Eligible patients were allocated into two groups. Intervention group received extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT) once a week for 4 weeks. The control group received sham shockwave therapy once a week for 4 weeks. On the follow‑up period, changes in individual performance and the amount of pain and disability were assessed by the Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaire and the range of motion changes were assessed by a goniometer. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS software.
    Results
    Variance analysis revealed a difference in the mean pain and disability score of the SPADI questionnaire, flexion, extension, and abduction, external rotation of involved shoulder between two groups before and after the shockwave therapy (P < 0.05). Improvement was more satisfactory in the intervention group, but the mean internal rotation did not differ significantly in two groups (P > 0.05).
    Conclusions
    The use of ESWT seems to have positive effects on treatment, quicker return to daily activities, and quality‑of‑life improvement on frozen shoulder.
    Keywords: Adhesive capsulitis, extracorporeal shockwave therapy, frozen shoulder, Shoulder Pain, Disability Index questionnaire
  • Dhrubajyoti J. Debnath, Chandrakant V. Parulekar Pages 882-886
    Background
    Malnutrition is a major public health problem in a developing country like India. Keeping this in mind a study was carried out to find the proportion of under–five children suffering from malnutrition among the under‑five hospitalized children and to study co‑morbid illnesses and epidemiological factors associated with malnutrition.
    Methods
    This was a hospital‑based cross sectional study carried out in the pediatric ward of a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pune, India. All under–five children suffering from malnutrition were studied over a period of 1 month.
    Results
    Total number of under five children diagnosed as malnourished were 47 (39.83%). Moderate and severe/very severe malnutrition was statistically significantly higher in a girl child. The proportion of moderate and severe/very severe malnutrition was higher in low birth weight babies, children who were incompletely immunized for age. Faulty infant feeding practice was observed in 28 (59.6%) children. Some of the co‑morbid illnesses contributing to morbidity in the malnourished child were acute diarrheal diseases, acute respiratory infection, anemia, and septicemia.
    Conclusion
    A large proportion of hospitalized children were malnourished. Girl child suffered from moderate to severe forms of malnutrition as compared to male child and this was the only statistically significant association. This may be due to neglect of girl child.
    Keywords: Hospital, infant, malnutrition, morbidity, preschool
  • Rahim Aali, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Hossein Khanahmad, Akbar Hassanzadeh Pages 887-894
    Background
    Human exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is a public health concern which could occur in a number of ways. Wastewaters seem to play an important role in the dissemination of bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in our environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of three groups of ARB and their resistance genes in hospital and municipal wastewaters (MWs) as possible sources.
    Methods
    A total of 66 samples were collected from raw MWs and hospital wastewaters (HWs) and final effluents of related wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Samples were analyzed for the detection of three groups of ARB including gentamicin (GM), chloramphenicol (CHL) and ceftazidime resistant bacteria and their ARGs (aac (3)‑1, cmlA1 and ctx‑m‑32, respectively).
    Results
    The mean concentration of GM, CHL and ceftazidime resistant bacteria in raw wastewater samples was 1.24 × 107, 3.29 × 107and 5.54 × 107 colony forming unit/100 ml, respectively. There is a variation in prevalence of different groups of ARB in MWs and HWs. All WWTPs decreased the concentration of ARB. However, high concentration of ARB was found in the final effluent of WWTPs. Similar to ARB, different groups of ARGs were found frequently in both MWs and HWs. All genes also detected with a relative high frequency in effluent samples of MWs WWTPs.
    Conclusions
    Discharge of final effluent from conventional WWTPs is a potential route for dissemination of ARB and ARGs into the natural environment and poses a hazard to environmental and public health.
    Keywords: Antibiotic resistance genes, antibiotic resistant bacteria, ceftazidim, chloramphenicol, gentamicin
  • Rafael Borsoi, Viviane Vidal Sabatoski, Ana Paula Higa Ogawa, Aline Fontana, Liz Andrea Villela Baroncini, Admar Moraes De Souza, Cl, Aacute, Udio Pereira Da Cunha Pages 895-899
    Background
    Type‑D personality has been identified as a risk factor for general and cardiac mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Dobutamine‑atropine stress echocardiography (DASE) is an established method for non‑invasive evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients with CAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of type‑D personality and its association with the occurrence of myocardial ischemia as assessed by DASE.
    Methods
    This case‑control study enrolled 306 patients (61 ± 9.6 years, 57.8% female) who were referred by physicians to assessment of myocardial ischemia. Before undergoing DASE, the patients answered the type‑D scale, which identifies type‑D personality.
    Results
    Type‑D personality was identified in 106 patients (34.6%). DASE was positive for myocardial ischemia in 32.4% (99) of 306 participants there was no significant association between type‑D personality and ischemic changes on DASE (P = 0.941; odds ratio: 0.98; confidence interval 95%: 0.57‑1.69). Chest pain was the only clinical variable with statistically significant prevalence in type‑D personality patients (77.4% vs. 57.0%; P < 0.001).
    Conclusions
    Type‑D personality was not a significant risk factor for the presence of ischemic changes on DASE. Patients with type‑D personality tended to complain more frequently of chest pain than non‑type‑D patients.
    Keywords: Coronary artery disease, myocardial ischemia, psychological risk factor, stress echocardiography, type‑D personality
  • Nastaran Eizadi, Mood, Omid Aghadavoudi, Mohammad Reza Najarzadegan, Masoud Mozhdehi Fard Pages 900-906
    Background
    Postoperative cognitive dysfunction, especially delirium commonly occurs after cardiac surgery. Clinical evidences suggest an increase in delirium in opium abusers after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery. In this study, the prevalence of delirium in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients after CABG were compared.
    Methods
    In a cross‑sectional study after obtaining institutional approval and informed consent, 325 patients candidate for elective CABG were included in the study. All patients with history of opium abuse met the criteria for opioid dependence using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders‑Fourth Edition definitions. Delirium after CABG was assessed in addict (opium user) and nonaddict patients up to a maximum of 5 days after surgery with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist.
    Results
    A total of 325 patients were evaluated (208 without and 117 with a history of opium abuse). Postoperative delirium occurred within 72 h after surgery in 44.31% of all patients. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of postoperative delirium between the opium users (80.7%) and nonaddict patients (25%) in the intensive care unit (P < 0.001). Opium addiction was a risk factor for postoperative delirium after CABG Surgery.
    Conclusions
    Delirium after CABG surgery is more prevalent in opium users compared with nonaddict patients. Therefore, opium abuse is a possible risk factor for postoperative delirium in cardiac surgical patients.
    Keywords: Addiction, cardiac surgery, delirium, intensive care unit, opium
  • Feridoun Sabzi, Samsam Dabiri, Ali Reza Poormotabed, Reza Faraji Pages 907-911
    Refractory cardiogenic shock meant that traditional patch repairs requiring cardiopulmonary bypass would be poorly tolerated and external sandwich closure of post myocardial ventricular septal defect (VSD) appears to be simple and effective after initial myocardial infarction (MI). The three cases presented with a VSD after of acute MI with or without thrombolysed with streptokinase during patient admission. The general condition of the three patients was poor with pulmonary edema, low cardiac output and renal failure. The heart was approached through a median sternotomy. Off‑pump coronary artery bypass grafting of the coronary artery lesion was done first using octopus and beating heart surgery method and latero ‑ lateral septal plication was performed using sandwich technique. Low cardiac output managed with intra‑aortic balloon pump in these patients accompanied with inotropic drugs. Post‑operative transesophageal echocardiography revealed that VSD was closed completely in one patient and in two patients small residual VSD remained. More experience is required to ascertain whether this technique will become an accepted alternative to patch repairs.
    Keywords: Off‑pump repair, sandwich, ventricular septal
  • Zabihollah Shahmoradi, Bahareh Abtahi, Naeini, Mohsen Pourazizi, Mohsen Meidani Pages 912-914
    Orf, also known as contagious pustular dermatitis, is anexanthemous disease caused by a parapox virus. It is usuallya benign locally self‑limiting illness; it can have systemiccomplication or progressive infected locations can include thefinger, hand, arm, and face. Development of erythema multiformefollowing Orf infection is very rare. In Islamic populations suchas those of Iran, Orf can be observed in individuals who are notoccupationally involved, but may be in contact with sheep or goatsafter the Islamic worship as an “Eid ul‑Adha.” Here we reportan erythema multiforme associated with multiple lesion of Orfdisease following the “Eid ul‑Adha” in Iranian housewives.
    Keywords: Ecthyma contagiosum, Eid ul‑Adha, erythemamultiforme, Orf disease
  • Mohammad Akram, Shahid Ali Siddiqui, Ahmed Masroor Karimi Pages 915-919
    Background
    Delayed reporting resulting in advanced stage disease is a common problem in Indian cancer patients. This study analysed the impact of various sociodemographic and psychosocial factors on the delayed reporting to Healthcare Professional (HCP) in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients.
    Methods
    This cross sectional observational study was conducted using a structured questionnaire. Questionnaire included questions to assess socio‑demographic and psychosocial factors associated with delay. Delay was defined as time intervals of more than 3 month from first symptom recognition to first medical consultation to a HCP. Association of delay with these factors was analyzed using logistic regression analysis.
    Results
    Final analysis was done on 259 patients. Delay in reporting to HCP was present in 156 (60%) patients. Among sociodemographic factors delayed reporting was highly significant with older age group (P = 0.001), low socioeconomic status (P = 0.02), rural residence (P = 0.026) and with insufficient knowledge of Head and Neck cancer (P = 0.014). Sex and marital status were statistically insignificant factor for delay. Among psychosocial factors attribution of symptoms as minor (P = 0.011), absence of fear (P = <.001) and use of alternate therapy (P = 0.001) were significant factors responsible for delay. Disclosure to other and motivation were statistically insignificant in our study.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study provide guidance towards interventions to reduce patient delay. Interventions should target the rural, older age group and lower socioeconomic population for educating them and to change their psychosocial behavior for oral and oropharyngeal cancer.
    Keywords: Delayed reporting, Indian oral, oropharyngeal cancer patients, socio‑demographic, psychosocial factors
  • Nagesh Bhat, Rahul Patel, Jaddu Jyothirmai Reddy, Sopan Singh, Ashish Sharma, Suraj Multani Pages 920-923
    Background
    Conjunctivitis is the inflammation of the conjunctiva and has 4 main causes-viruses, bacteria, allergens, and irritants. Among these, bacterial conjunctivitis is most common and is contagious, especially when the dentist is working with the infected person, and that person spreads the same to the other patient.
    Methods
    A pretested questionnaire survey was conducted among 152 subjects (those who were present at the time of survey) aged 18 to 60 years of Udaipur city, Rajasthan in March 2012. Ethical clearance was obtained from relevant authority. Written informed consent was obtained from study participants.
    Results
    All (80 dentists and 72 dental auxiliaries) the subjects returned the questionnaire. Regarding previous experience of eye flu, 67 (44.08%) participants reported that they had been infected with eye flu previously. Majority 123 (80.92%) of participants agreed that virus or bacteria caused eye flu. Majority of 145 (95.39%) of the participants agreed that the eye turns red during eye flu. One hundred and twenty three (80.92%) subjects replied that the dental treatment for a patient infected with eye flu should be delayed till the symptoms subside.
    Conclusions
    Eye flu being an occupational hazard among dentists, personal ophthalmic prophylactic care is a must which helps in prevention of spread of infection to other patients and family members.
    Keywords: Dentists, dental auxiliaries, eye flu, infection
  • Polio Eradication in Six Years-Fact or Fiction
    Ken Russell Coelho Page 924