فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 2, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/04/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Fatemeh Sheikhmoonesi *, Mehran Zarghami Pages 1-3
    Suicide rate in physicians has been reported to be higher than general population or other academics. Previous studies found that 85-90% of people who commit suicide had been suffering from some type of psychiatric disorder. Suicide prevention is the key element in lowering the numbers of physicians who destroy themselves and end their lives each year. It is needed to provide some educational programs to increase physicians’ awareness of warning signs of suicidal ideation such as observable signs of serious depression. According to previous studies, some specialties such as psychiatry, anesthesiology, and dentistry are at higher risk for physicians’ suicide. Hence, it is important to select candidates in these fields carefully as a primary prevention program.
  • Mohammad Reza Fayyazi Bordbar *, Ramezan Hassanzadeh, Bahram Mirzaian, Vahid Farahmand, Jaleh Feizi Pages 4-10
    Objective
    The present research aims to analyze the efficacy of group metacognitive therapy (MCT) on selfesteem and mental Health of those who suffer from major depressive disorder.
    Methods
    The research was a randomized clinical controlled trial, using pretest and posttest with 2 months of follow-up. Twenty-two patients with major depressive disorder based on DSM-IV-TR criteria were selected through available sampling from patients of two psychiatric hospitals of Mashhad, Iran, in 2011. They were allocated randomly into two groups of trial (n = 11) and control (n = 11). Citalopram and sertraline were prescribed as antidepressant to both groups. The experimental group also attended nine 90-minute sessions of MCT (a 5-week program). Eysenck self-esteem scale (ESES) and Mental Health Checklist (MHC) were used in pretest, posttest, and follow-up as the study instrument. The data were analyzed by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) using SPSS.
    Results
    ANCOVA revealed that the patients receiving group MCT had significantly increased (p < 0.001) self-esteem in posttest, which remained significant in the follow up (p < 0.001). Moreover, mental health scores had increased in the MCT group (posttest, p < 0.001; follow up, p < 0.001).
    Conclusion
    Group MCT has beneficial therapeutic roles in improving the self-steam and recuperation of mental health in MDD patients.
    Keywords: Major Depressive Disorder, Mental Health, Metacognitive Therapy, Self, esteem
  • Fatemeh Abdollahi, Samad Rohani, Ghazali Shariff Sazlina, Mmed Fammed, Mehran Zarghami Zain Azhar, Munn Sann Lye *, Farideh Rezaiee Abhari, Zohreh Majidi, Soghra Mozafari Pages 11-21
    Objective
    There are various attempts to confirm variables that could predict postpartum depression in advance. This study determined antenatal risk factors for postpartum depression in women at risk of developing this disorder.
    Methods
    A prospective cohort study was conducted with 2279 eligible women who attended at Mazandaran province’ primary health centers from 32-42 weeks of pregnancy to eighth postpartum weeks. The women were screened for symptoms of depression using the Iranian version of Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. An Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score of > 12 indicated possible postpartum depression. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used for data analysis.
    Results
    A total of 2083women during 32-42 weeks of gestation participated in this study and were followed up to 8-week postpartum. Four hundred and three (19.4%) mothers yielded scores above the threshold of 12. Depression and general health state in pregnancy based on Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (OR = 1.35, CI = 1.3-1.4) and General Health Questionnaire-28 (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.01-1.04), respectively were significant independent antenatal risk factors of depression symptoms at 8-week postpartum. Mothers who lived in nuclear families (OR = 1.38, CI = 1.04-1.84), whose husbands had lower educational status (OR = 0.95, CI = 0.91-0.99), and with delayed prenatal care (OR = 1.01, CI = 1.001-1.03) were more susceptible to postpartum depression.
    Conclusion
    A comprehensive antenatal assessment focused on psychiatric problems, environmental and obstetric factors would benefit pregnant women in the prevention of postpartum depression.
    Keywords: Cohort Study, Prediction, Postpartum Depression, Risk Factors
  • Preeti Tabitha Louis Mphil *, Isaac Arnold Emerson Pages 22-37
    Objective
    The present study seeks to outline a holistic assessment method that was used in understanding problems experienced by an adolescent boy and in designing and implementing an individualized educational program.
    Methods
    An adolescent child referred for concerns in learning was screened for learning disability using standardized inventories and test batteries. The Connors Parent and Teacher Rating Scales (short forms), Wechsler''s Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS), and the Kinetic Family Drawing (KFD) test were used to assess the behavior, cognition, and social profile of the child. An individualized educational program was designed and this intervention was provided for 6 months by using parents as co-therapists. Participant and parent interview schedules were used in identifying underlying issues of concern. The child was reassessed 6 months after the intervention was provided.
    Results
    Findings on the Connors Parent Rating Scale revealed scores that were greater than the 50th percentile on the domains of inattention and cognitive problems. On the Connors Teacher Rating Scale, we observed scores greater than the 50th percentile on the hyperactivity, cognitive problems, and the inattention domains. The WISC revealed that the child had a «Dull Normal» Intellectual functioning and there was also a deficit of 2 years on the social skills as tested by the Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS). The Kinetic Family Drawing Test revealed negative emotions within the child. Post intervention, we noticed a remarkable improvement in the scores across all domains of behavior, social, and cognitive functioning.
    Conclusion
    Designing an individualized education program that is tailored to the specific needs of the child and using parents as co-therapists proved to be an effective intervention.
    Keywords: Adolescence, Co, therapists, Disability, Individualized Educational Program
  • Mehran Zarghami, Samaneh Farnia *, Ali, Reza Khalilian, Tahereh Amirian Pages 38-43
    Objective
    Consultation-liaison (CL) psychiatry interfaces between psychiatry and other medical disciplines to promote integrated care of patients. The purpose of this study is evaluation of attitudes and practice of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences physicians of teaching hospitals regarding CL psychiatry.
    Methods
    In this descriptive study, all of the general practitioners, specialist and subspecialist physicians and assistants working in teaching hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences were requested to fill in a questionnaire which was designed based on previous studies and observations to assess their attitudes and practice. Data were analysed by SPSS-16 software, using chi square.
    Results
    One hundred and forty nine (62.6%) physicians had very positive attitudes and 89 cases (37.4%) had positive attitudes; 234 physicians (98.3%) had acceptable practice, and 4 cases (1.7%) had unacceptable practice. There were no significant differences between physicians with positive and very positive attitudes and between physicians with acceptable and unacceptable practice regarding gender, age, education, specialty and place of work (hospital). The most common reasons of physicians for not requesting psychiatric consultation were lack of time, forgetfulness, lack of access to psychiatrist, and lack of belief in the need for psychiatric consultation respectively.
    Conclusion
    The findings of this study indicate the successful psychiatric educations and psychiatrists practice in formation of positive attitudes and acceptable practice regarding CL Psychiatry in these university hospitals. No significant differences between different specialties and work place hospitals indicate that they are similarly affected.
    Keywords: Attitude, Consultation, Liaison Psychiatry, Practice
  • Tayebe Ziaee, Yadollah Jannati, Elham Mobasheri, Taraneh Taghavi, Habib Abdollahi, Mahnaz Modanloo *, Naser Behnampour Pages 44-51
    Objective
    There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women.
    Methods
    This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05.
    Results
    The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education.
    Conclusion
    The findings have implications for improving of couples'' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in addressing couples'' unique transitional needs in marital life.
    Keywords: Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire, Married Women, Marital Satisfaction, Sexual Satisfaction
  • Maria E. Aguilar-Vafaie *, Mehrnoosh Roshani, Hamidreza Hassanabadi Pages 52-62
    Objective
    Based on Problem Based Theory, this study investigated a broad array of putative protective factors associated with psychopathological symptoms and prosodical behaviour.
    Methods
    Participants were 140 orphan adolescent girls and boys living in foster care homes in Tehran, chosen with convenience sampling procedures. Using a cross-sectional design this study examined the individual and interactive properties of protective factors in this high-risk population.
    Results
    Findings with theoretically derived multi-item subscales indicated a high degree of association specificity based on type of psychopathology and depending on gender. Results with the whole sample indicated that theoretically derived individual protective factor scales associations were obtained mainly for conduct problems and emotional symptoms, and with girls only.
    Conclusion
    The present study provides introductory information on the identification of protective factors that can be utilized in educational, interventional and preventive public health programs for this high-risk population. One innovative contribution of the present research is to provide an introductory validation of a theory-based model of adolescent protection and resilience, for which there is ample empirical support, in a high-risk population of Iranian adolescents living in foster homes centers in a metropolitan urban setting.
    Keywords: Orphan, Prosocial Behavior, Protective Factors, Residential Foster Care, Resilience
  • Rezvan Sadr, Mohammadi *, Mehrdad Kalantari, Hossein Molavi Pages 63-67
    Objective
    The aim was to investigate the efficacy of life skills training on subjective well-being (SWB) among high school females.
    Methods
    The population study comprised all female high school of Rafsanjan, Iran, in 2008-2009. Thirty students with the lowest scores according to the Molavi’s SWB questionnaire were considered eligible. At the next stage, the required sample of 30 students were selected randomly and divided into two groups of experimental (15 subjects) and control (15 subjects). Then, life skills training sessions were started for the experimental group (eight sessions in a 4-week period). Control group did not receive any intervention. The method of data processing at a descriptive level was through using central tendency indicators, dispersion, frequency, and percentage. Student’s t-test was used for analysis of independent variables.
    Results
    The greatest R2 (0.48) was observed for SWB. The R2 coefficients for neurosis, stress-depression, vitality, and life determination were 0.27, 0.15, 0.20, and 0.09, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Life skills training showed the greatest effect regarding SWB of the students.
    Keywords: Female, Life Skills Training, Students, Subjective Well, Being
  • Leila Akrami *, Maryam Davudi Pages 68-74
    Objective
    To compare sexual and behavioral puberty problems between intellectually disabled (ID) and normal boys in Yazd, Iran.
    Methods
    In the present study, 65 intellectually disabled and 65 normal boys were included. The Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) was used to investigate behavioral problems. In order to study sexual problems, a questionnaire that was designed by the researchers was applie.
    Results
    Anxiety, depression, social problems, attention problems, aggressiveness, and sexual problems were more frequent in intellectually disabled boys than in normal boys. On the other hand, regarding somatic complaints, withdrawal, thought problems, internalizing, delinquent behavior, and externalizing there was no difference between the two groups.
    Conclusion
    Behavioral and sexual problems are more common in adolescent boys with intellectual disability (ID) than in normal boys during the puberty period. Therefore, puberty is an important period for intellectually disabled boys and their families; this should be taken into consideration by psychologists and clinicians.
    Keywords: Adolescence, Behavioral, Sexual Problems, Intellectual Disability, Puberty
  • Jamshid Ahmadi *, Amin Amiri, Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Mitra Khademalhosseini, Zeinab Khademalhosseini, Zeinab Gholami, Maryam Sharifian Pages 75-80
    Objective
    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of addiction to the Internet, computer games, DVD, and video and its relationship to anxiety and depression in a sample of Iranian high school students.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study 1020 high school students (males and females) were selected randomly from different areas of Shiraz city in southern Iran. They were interviewed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed (DSM-IV) criteria.
    Results
    About 50% of the students were females, 277 students (27.2%) were studying in the first year of high school, 242 (23.7%) were in the second year, and others in the third year. The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in females than in males (p < 0.05). The prevalence of anxiety was lower among students of the third year (p < 0.05). The prevalence of depression was significantly higher in students with lower economic status defined as family monthly income. Internet dependence was seen only in 5 students. The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in the students who used internet for chatting, amusement, and reading news (p < 0.05). The prevalence of anxiety was significantly higher in students who were DVD or video CD dependents (p < 0.05). The students who used especial drugs or had especial diseases had higher rates of depression and anxiety (p < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    Internet addiction may cause depression and anxiety in high school students. It seems necessary to develop an Internet addiction prevention program for adolescents taking into account the psychological factors such as depression and Internet use habits.
    Keywords: Addiction, Anxiety, Computer Games, Depression, High School, Internet, Student
  • Omid Rezahosseini, Ali Roohbakhsh *, Vahid Tavakolian, Sepideh Assar Pages 81-85
    Objective
    The present study aimed to determine the frequency of drug abused in a sample of university students in Rafsanjan, Iran.
    Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, 1,260 students volunteered (311 males and 949 females) with mean age of 21.35 years. Data were collected by a self-administrated questionnaire regarding drugs abuse and demographic information.
    Results
    Benzodiazepines were the most common abused drugs which were reported in 94 students (7.4%). Other agents studied were cigarette and tobacco (159, cases 12.6%), alcoholic drinks (60 cases, 4.7%), and opiates (42 cases, 3.3%). Forty-three students (3.4%) had used methylphenidate in the last 6 months. Of this, 39 (90.6%) experienced insomnia. All students who abused methylphenidate indicated that the reason for this behavior was to raise alertness and conscious levels.
    Conclusion
    The pattern of drug abuse among the students here seems similar to other reports from Iranian universities.
    Keywords: Cigarette, Drug Abuse, Methylphenidate, Student, Tobacco
  • Ahmad Reza Ahmad Khaniha, Mitra Hakim Shooshtari *, Mehrdad Mohammadian, Reza Bidaki, Ahmad Pourrashidi Boshrabadi Pages 86-89
    Objective
    The phenomenon of street children is one of the most important concerns facing global community. Identifying risk factors in such children could lead to crucial investigations to find their essential needs by intervention programs. The present study examined the family profile of street children in Tehran, Iran.
    Methods
    The sample consisted of 576 street children who were evaluated by 15 examiners. Using multistage sampling, twenty-seven different areas of Tehran were divided into 5 clusters and the children were selected randomly from each cluster. The two questionnaires applied included a demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire about high-risk behaviors such as substance use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, etc.
    Results
    There was a statistical significant association between the length of work time and two variables: sex and economic status of family (p < 0.05). Incarceration history of street children who had lost both their parents and their parents had been divorced was significantly higher than others (p < 0.05).
    Conclusion
    The street children''s lifestyle is a risk factor for affecting them to variety types of socio-mental problems. Statistical significant association between parental divorces or the loss of both parents with a history of conviction mentions the important role of parents in transmitting moral and social values to children.
    Keywords: Familial Characteristics, Iran, Street Children, Tehran
  • Mehdi Fathi, Seyed Mostafa Alavi *, Marjan Joudi, Mitra Joudi, Helia Mahdikhani, Rasool Ferasatkish, Houman Bakhshandeh, Mehdi Jabbari Nooghabi Pages 90-96
    Objective
    The goal of this study was to evaluate preoperative anxiety and its predisposing factors in a group of adult patients who were candidate for any kind of heart surgery.
    Methods
    We evaluated preoperative anxiety in 300 patients undergoing heart surgery whose ages ranged between 18-65 years. Relationship of probable demographic factors like gender, educational level, marital status, number of children, family support, opium addiction, occupational status, and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with anxiety level of the patients were evaluated. To determine anxiety, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was completed by the subjects.
    Results
    Descriptive anxiety levels showed that mean of state and trait anxiety of our studied patients were in moderate scaling. Correlation between state and trait anxiety was more prominent in females (r = 0.80) than in males (r = 0.70) (p < 0.001). Distribution of males and females was significantly different (p = 0.048). All the patients had significantly different underlying diseases (p = 0.018), opioid addiction (yes/no) was significantly different in all of the patients (p < 0.001), while family support (yes/no) was not significantly different in all of the patients (p = 0.453). There were significant differences between mean of preoperative anxiety at different LVEF values of any EF level (p < 0.001, F = 6.47); those who had LVEF of more than 50% had significantly lower mean anxiety scores.
    Conclusion
    Preoperative psychiatric consultation should be focused more on women and patients with higher EF. Moreover, physical activity strength may be effective on reducing preoperative anxiety.
    Keywords: Anxiety, Heart Surgery, State, Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
  • Ahmad Ali Eslami *, Maryam Amidi Mazaheri, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Mohammad Hadi Abbasi, Ensieh Noroozi Pages 97-104
    Objective
    Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students.
    Methods
    A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRSSS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years.
    Results
    Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. Results showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score.
    Conclusion
    Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed.
    Keywords: Iranian Adolescent, Reliability, Social Skills Rating System, Secondary Students Form, Validity