فهرست مطالب

نامه فرهنگستان - سال نهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 36، دی 1386)
  • سال نهم شماره 4 (پیاپی 36، دی 1386)
  • ویژه نامه فرهنگ نویسی (1)
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1386/11/15
  • تعداد عناوین: 22
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  • The Comprehensive Persian Dictionary, Corpus in Persian Lexicography and Computerized Linguistic Corpus
    A. Khatibi Pages 4-67
    The paper initially introduces the project of The Comprehensive Persian Dictionary, supervised by Ali-Ashraf S¦adeqi, Ph. D.,- Academy member and head of Lexicography Department- undergoing in Iranian Academy of Persian Language and Literature. The Corpora of the most influential classicial Persian dictionaries are then discussed. Next the computerized corpus of the Comprehensive Persian Dictionary, its components and features are represented byexamples and extracts. The most important corpora prepared in Iran are also referred to.
  • The Role of Linguistics in Modern Lexicography
    F. Qhatreh Pages 68-94
    Editing dictionaries- one of the oldest linguistic investigations- is nowadays carried out by the use of scientific methods. The paper tries to present an effectual scientific method for editing dictionaries. After introducing the views of writers on the relationship between linguistics and lexicography, the paper deals with the role of linguistics in different steps of dictionary making projects and macro/ microstructures of the works.
  • Notes on the Pathology of some Persian Dictionaries
    A. Tabatabai Pages 95-100
    There have been significant developments in bilingual and specialized lexicography in two recent decades. Furthermore, Persian scholars have not ignored monolingual lexicography. It should be noted that lexicography in its modern sense is relatively a recent development. There are thus inefficiencies and defects mainly due to methodology as well as lack of scientific background and insufficient resources. The paper attemps to enumerate some problems of newly-published Persian Dictionaris by giving examples and extracts from them.
  • Entries in General Monolingual Dictionaries
    S. Sharifi, P. Fakhkham, Zadeh Pages 101-124
    It is in fact words that constitute dictionaries, and they, whether simple or compound, are loosely the very entries. Entries are thus the most important components of dictionaries, all types of information is provided for describing them. Furthermore, entries are what the users refer to in dictionaries. One of the first steps taken in dictionary making is how to select and present entries. An efficient dictionary can be edited bytheir proper selection and presentation of its entries. Before entry selection, the type of the dictionary, its users, directionality, purpose, size and extent must be determined. Lexicographers can then build up the corpus from written and spoken sources. They can extract lexical items according to some criteria including frequency and transparency. The article attempts to give relatively objective guidelines for entry selection in general monolingual dictionaries.
  • Word Formation Productivity and the Selection of Entries in Monolingual General Dictionaries
    A. Abbassi Pages 125-139
    One of the first steps in lexicography is the selection of entries and the most usual methods of entryselection in Persian lexicography up to now has been through the linguistic intuition of the lexicographer. But if the degree of productivity of WF processes is not taken into account, the dictionarymay be heaped with lots of transparent complexwords and probably many high frequency opaque forms would be left aside. In this paper we will see how and whyWF productivity and frequency of use should be taken into account in entry selection. There is an indirect relation between productivity (in present) and frequency of use: with regard to productive processes, we expect large numbers of low frequency words and small numbers of high frequency words and with regard to unproductive ones, we expect large numbers of high frequency words and small numbers of lowfrequencywords. On the other hand, most of the neologisms are among the hapax legomena, so as the degree of productivity rises, the number of hapax legomena not recorded in a dictionary should increase too. Besides, a high degree of productivitymakes it difficult to recognize a neologism as such and this decreases its likelihood of being represented in a dictionary. In the present paper, the entries of Sokhan Persian-Persian Dictionary (2 & 8 vols.), are compared with a database and the points are discussed.
  • Z. Jafari Pages 140-166
    The paper tries to enumerate the functions of verbal illustrations, their necessity and significance. Illustrations are instances of the use of lexical units in context, assisting definitions in their description of entry words. Since it constitutes the corpus, structure, the main body of a dictionary and the main source of extracting information, the definition of illustration is given, followed by explaining its roles and uses which necessiate its inclusion in dictionaries. A new perspective of illustrations is finally offered by investigating English, French and Persian dictionaries.
  • M. Naghzguye, Kohan Pages 167-183
    Despite the long tradition of lexicography in Iran, collecting colloqualism and elements of living speech and their inclusion in dictionaries is recent. The paper examines briefly the first attempts in considering spoken language in Islamic period and its entering in written texts. It then discusses the profile of Persian colloqual lexicography and introduces major colloqual dictionaries, evaluating them.
  • S. Layan Pages 184-210
    Many men of letters and linguists have been inattentive to colloqual elements of language, especially to spoken spelling in as much as that there is no exact definition of the latter. Spoken spelling is first defined in this paper. Persian dictionaries are then evaluated regarding to its inclusion. Since Persian dictionaries ere negligent of spoken language, the reasons underlying the fact are investigated. To shed the light on this problem in Persian lexicography, the paper tries to study spoken language as a whole. The relations between written and spoken Persian are then discussed, relating the arguement to its reflection in Pahlavi (Middle Persian) and Dari (the earliest stage of Modern Persian). It follows with examining the differences between viewpoints of European and Iranian writers on the subject. Finally linguistic and sociolinguistic arguments are given for the study and inclusion of spoken language in dictionaries.
  • O. Tabibzadeh Pages 211-235
    The paper first shows that complement clauses, such as direct and indirect objects, are the complements of some Persian verbs. The verbs that take complement clauses are then classified into two general groups of personal and impersonal, investigating their features based on the concord of the verb of complement clause with the subject of the main clause (including the possibilities of [+ concord], [-concord] and [± concord] as well as the mood of complement clause (including the possibility of [+ subjunctive], [-subjunctive] and [þ subjunctive]. The need to present these information in Persian dictionaries is discussed and guidelines for their presentation are given.
  • M. Rasekh, Mahand Pages 236-252
    The paper aims at studying structures like khu§sa§s ¦amad, lajam gereft, m¦ata§s bord that Kh¦anlary (1365) terms them as ``inchoative verbs'' and S¦adeghi (1358) as ``impersonal structures''. The structures have characteristics, lacking in other Persian sentences. The constant presence of personal ending pronouns and apparent non-agreement of the subject and object are among these features. The present writer has reached generalizations by analyzing the structure and termed the verbs used in the structures as ``enclitic compound verbs'' based on the arguments outlined in the paper. Enclitics are obligatory in the structures and function as subjects. Compound verbs are used in the structures. The semantic function of the subject is an experiencer. Enclitic compound verbs must be entered as infinitives in dictionaries, but in the section devoted to grammar in the dictionary front matter, it must be stated that these verbs belong to a special group of compound verbs, enjoying different features and structures.
  • S. Panahi Pages 253-269
    The paper is devoted to a project for editing a dictionary of antonyms in Persian. The concept of antonymy is first investigated based on the views of Iranian and European writers. New standpoints on the subject by Jackson (2000) and H. Jackson, E. Z. Amvela and Lynne Morphy (2004) are then discussed. It is followed by the Study of antonymy in lexicography. The paper terminates with the necessity for editing a modern dictionary of antonyms and the delicacies of the project.