فهرست مطالب

Cancer Management - Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2014
  • Volume:7 Issue: 3, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/06/03
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
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  • To be or not to be; that's the question; Part 1;
    Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Page 1
    Death is something real which is fully accepted by human being, the definition of death is different among public and scientists such as philosophy experts and biologists. Here we leave the philosophy content to themselves and look at the death from the biological point of view which may be some kind of philosophy as well.In biological science the death is well defined so it is the end of life and not the ending life. There is a well known phenomenon called apoptosis which is a programmed death for some vital cells, these phenomena is an auto regulator biologic system for death and life. Apoptosis defined during the nineteenth century by pathologists as an accepted form of cell death which is not affecting the life, but it was not confirmed by others. During the last twenty years of nineteenth century and by the help of technology apoptosis defined as biological active, well regulated physiological cell death mechanism, as a concept and reality for difference of this active and programmed cell death with passive and unphysiological cell death called necrosis. Apoptosis surly is end of the life of a specific cell but it is not ending the life of related human beings, in other hand it is a necessary step to continue life as a predicting factor, it means that death is necessary for life and death can be a preface of a life. If the environment for apoptosis is appropriate it can continue as a protective approach to life and life can be continued, also if we promote the passive death by a non physiological death the life of those cells will be ended but the life instantly will continue for other cells and even the human beings.
  • Layla Shamkoeyan, Farah Lotfi, Kashani, Shahram Vaziri, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Nahid Kazemi, Zanjani Pages 115-123
    Background
    Despite the fact that being exposed to traumatic and stressful events could have severe consequences, studies have shown that even in the wake of negative events such as cancer diagnosis, we see some changes and positive impacts in scheme, philosophy of life and self-perception, a process which is called Post Traumatic Growth (PTG). The aim of the current research is to define share of self-efficacy and perceived social support in the prediction of PTG.
    Methods
    The research is a correlation type. For this aim, 95 patients with cancer came to Shohadaye Tajrish Hospital, Tehran, Vali-e-Asr Hospital, Zanjan, and Mehraneh Charity Institute, Zanjan in 2012 have been selec ted based on available sampling and evaluated regarding self-efficacy, and perceived social support and PTG.
    Results
    Data analysis using Pearson correlation and regression analysis (simple and multiple) showed that self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support in cancer patients have direct significant relation with variable of PTG and explain 13.5%, 10.6% and jointly 20.7% of PTG changes respectively.
    Conclusion
    The research findings show that the variables of self-efficacy and Perceived Social Support explain significantly the PTG and these psychological variables can be used to provide improvement plans and mental health and PTG facilities.
    Keywords: Post traumatic growth, Perceived Social Support, self, efficacy, cancer
  • Alireza Abadi, Parvin Yavari, Monireh Dehghani, Hamid Alavi Majd, Erfan Ghasemi, Farzaneh Amanpour, Chris Bajdik Pages 124-129
    Background
    The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between different treatments and survival time of breast cancer patients using either standard Cox model or stratified Cox model.
    Methods
    The study was conducted on 15830 women diagnosed with breast cancer in British Columbia, Canada. They were divided into eight groups according to patients’ ages and stage of disease Either Cox’s PH model or stratified Cox model was fitted to each group according to the PH assumption and tested using Schoenfeld residuals.
    Results
    The data show that in the group of patients under age 50 years old and over age 50 with stage I cancer, the highest hazard was related to radiotherapy (HR= 3.15, CI: 1.85-5.35) and chemotherapy (HR= 3, CI: 2.29- 3.93) respectively. For both groups of patients with stage II cancer, the highest risk was related to radiotherapy (HR=3.02, CI: 2.26-4.03) (HR=2.16, CI:1.85-2.52). For both groups of patients with stage III cancer, the highest risk was for surgery (HR=0.49, CI: 0.33-0.73), (HR=0.45, CI: 0.36-0.57). For patients of age 50 years or less with stage IV cancer, none of the treatments were statistically significant. In group of patients over age 50 years old with stage IV cancer, the highest hazard was related to surgery (HR=0.64, CI: 0.53-0.78).
    Conclusion
    The results of this study show that for patients with stage I and II breast cancer, radiotherapy and chemotherapy had the highest hazard; for patients with stage III and IV breast cancer, the highest hazard was associated with treatment surgery.
    Keywords: Cox PH regression, stratified Cox model, breast cancer, type of treatment
  • Mehdi Pooladi, Mostafa Rezaei, Tavirani, Mehrdad Hashemi, Saeed Hesami, Tackallou, Solmaz Khaghani, Razi, Abad, Afshin Moradi, Ali Reza Zali, Masoumea Mousavi, Azadeh Rakhshan, Leila Firozi, Dalvand, Roghayeh Omidi Pages 130-136
    Background
    Dihydropyrimidinase Related Proteins (DRPs) have known homologous to the Collapsing Response Mediator Proteins (CRMPs). The DRP gene family has comprised four members, DRP 1, 2, 3, and 4, all out of which have considered to be involved in axonal outgrowth and path-finding.
    Methods
    The protein has extracted from tumor, normal brain tissues, and then the protein purity has evaluated by Bradford test and spectrophotometric methods. In this study, proteins has separated by Two-Dimensional Gel (2DG) electrophoresis method and then spots have analyzed and compared using statistical data and specific software (Progenesis Same Spots).Spots have identified by pH isoelectric, molecular weights and data banks.
    Results
    The 2D gel has shown 800 spots totally. Two spots have reported for DRP2, and one spot has reported for DRP3 in the human brain proteome, that have differed in pH isoelectric, and Molecular Weights values.
    Conclusion
    This protein family has involved in neuronal differentiation and axonal guidance, and abundantly influenced in the developing brain, but their expression persisted into adulthood. DRP2 has regulated by phosphorylation, Glycogen synthase kinase 3, regulate phosphorylation of DRP2 an inactive from, and induced neuronal polarity.
    Keywords: Asterocytoma, Proteomics, DRP, 2DG Electrophoresis
  • Mostafa Ghaderi, Farzaneh Sabahi, Majid Sadeghi, Zadeh, Zahra Khanlari, Azam Jamaati, Dawood Mousavi Nasab, Nasrin Majidi Gharenaz, Mehdi Ajorloo, Maryam Fazeli Pages 137-141
    Background
    Recently, the use of T7 RNA polymerase instead of other viral and cellular promoters is increasing due to high efficacy of transcription in the cell cytoplasm by this polymerase. In order to translate the transcripts produced by T7 RNA polymerase in mammalian cell lines, it is necessary to include Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) sequences. In addition, if sequence of poly A signal would be included after interested gene, the rate of expression could be increased in the cells.
    Methods
    For expression of eGFP in HEK-293 and T7-BHK cells by T7 RNA polymerase, the sequence of eGFP as well as IRES sequences upstream of eGFP gene and poly A signal were inserted into a pUC57 plasmid. On the other hand, gene of T7 RNA polymerase was cloned into modified pIRES2-EGFP plasmid. Then, the constructed plasmids were transfected into HEK-293 cells. T7-BHK cell was used for control of T7 RNA polymerase activity.
    Results
    Our results showed that using T7 RNA polymerase for expression of foreign genes in mammalian cell lines is highly efficient.
    Conclusion
    Highly efficient eGFP expression in HEK-293 cells showed that T7 RNA polymerase could be used for cytoplasmic RNA transcription such as production of anti-cancer proteins and oncolytic viral genomic RNA by reverse genetics.
    Keywords: T7 RNA polymerase, Cancer gene therapy, Oncolytic RNA viruses
  • Mosa Al Reza Hadjzadeh, Habib Ghanbari, Zakieh Keshavarzi, Jalil Tavakol, Afshari Pages 142-146
    Background
    Although the incidence of gastric cancer is declining during the last half century, this cancer still is the second morbid cancer in the world after lung cancer. The incidence of gastric cancer is 26 per 100,000 in Iran. This study evaluated the effect of Alpinia galangal on AGS cells (human gastric adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line) and L929 cells (as a standard cell line originated from mouse fibroblast cells).
    Methods
    After culturing the cells in Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI) medium, the cells were incubated with different doses of Alpinia galangal (0 (control), 125, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 µg/ml) in 24, 48 and 72 hour periods and then, cells viability were assessed using MTT based cell proliferation assay.
    Results
    After 24 hours, the percentage of living AGS cells compared to the control group showed no significant decrease at the concentrations of 125 and 250µg/ml. But in the rest concentrations were significant (p<0.05). Only, the percentage of surviving L929 cells at concentration of 125µg/ml of the extract was not significant, but these percentages in the other concentrations were significant. After 48 and 72h incubation, in the last three extract concentrations, the percentage of living AGS and L929 cells significantly decreased compared to control cells (p<0.05).
    Conclusion
    We have demonstrated, using cell culture model, anti-proliferative effect of aqueous extract of Alpinia galangal on human gastric tumor (AGS) and L929 cell lines. This effect was prominent in high concentrations.l
    Keywords: Alpinia galangal, AGS, L929, MTT
  • Seyed Amir Aledavood, Mohammad Reza Ghavamnasiri, Kamran Ghaffarzadegan, Hamid Reza Raziee, Golnaz Saboori, Kazem Anvari, Samira Mohtashami, Mitra Ahadi, Bahram Memar Pages 147-151
    Background
    Various infectious agents like Ebstein Barr Virus (EBV), HTLV-1 and Helicobacter pylori have known as etiologic factors in different sub-types of lymphoma. Although Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has not only been important for its hepatotropism and hepatitis development, but also in recent years its association with some forms of non- Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), especially B cell NHL, has reported.In some countries, the rate of B cell NHL development in HCV infected patients was four times more than general population, and then association between HCV infection and B-NHL has proposed in many studies.
    Methods
    To assess this relationship in our geographic region, in a descriptive study; we have evaluated patients with B-NHL in an oncology center in northeast of Iran for HCV infection.
    Results
    Out of 128 B-NHL patients, HCV Antibody test (with third generation ELISA method) was positive in only one patient, which confirmed with Nested PCR technique. Then the frequency of HCV infection in our patients was 0.7%.
    Conclusion
    Respecting to the incidence of HCV infection in general population in Iran, which is between 0.5-1%, we couldn’t show higher prevalence of HCV infection in NHL patients than general population, and hence couldn’t confirm relation between HCV infection and B-NHL in our region.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C, non, Hodgkin's lymphoma, B, cell, Epidemiology
  • Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Forough Yousefi, Seyed Fazloallah Mousavi, Jafar Amani Pages 152-164
    Background
    Bacterial superantigen Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (SEs), has stimulated polyclonal T cells irrespective of their antigen specificity, resulted a massive release of cytokines, and suggested that they could be assigned as a candidate of new antitumor agents. Recent attempts have done to specifically target superantigens towards tumors, subsequently Monoclonal antibodies and tumor-related ligands have employed as targeting molecules of superantigen for the preclinical treatment of different tumors. Here, we have evaluated TGFαL3-SEB fusion protein as a new antitumor candidate by genetically fusing the third loop of transforming growth factor alpha (TGFαL3) to Staphylococcal Enterotoxin type B.
    Methods
    An in silico techniques have launched to characterize the properties and structure of the protein, before initiating the experimental study, we have predicted physicochemical properties, structures, stability, MHC binding properties and ligand-receptor interaction of this chimeric protein by means of computational bioinformatics tools and servers.
    Results
    Our results have indicated codon adaptation index of tgfαl3-seb fusion gene has increased from 0.5 in the wild type sequences to 0.85 in the chimeric optimized gene. The mfold data has shown the tgfαl3-seb mRNA was stable enough for efficient translation in the new host. Based on Ramachandran plot TGFαL3-SEB has classified as a stable fusion protein. Our result has shown fusing of TGFaL3 in N-terminal of the TGFαL3-SEB construct, had no effects on MHC binding and subsequently superantigenic activity of SEB. Finally based on ligand-receptor docking the binding ability of TGFaL3 was strong enough to its receptor, so TGFαL3-SEB could be assigned as a new antitumor candidate in cancer immunotherapy.
    Conclusion
    Our results have proposed that TGFαL3-SEB was a stable fusion protein with proper affinity to its receptor that overexpressed in various human carcinomas, so it could generate potent immune response towards tumors.
    Keywords: Enterotoxin type B_Growth Factor α Cancer Immunotherapy_in silico modeling
  • Sahar Mohabbatbahar, Mahmoud Golzari, Mohammad Moradi, Joo, Mohammad Esmaiel Akbari Pages 165-170
    Background
    Breast cancer is the most incident cancer and the fifth cause of death due to malignancies among Iranian women. A strong breast cancer patients'' sense of meaning and purpose in life appears to decrease anxiety in their life. The present study has investigated the effectiveness of group Logotherapy on the reduction of anxiety in women with breast cancer.
    Methods
    The research was quasi-experimental with pre-test, post-test and control group. For this purpose, 30 patients with breast cancer were randomly divided into two experimental group and control group. Then, all patients completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The experimental group received Logotherapy-based group counseling for eight sessions; however, the control group did not receive any specific training. In the end, both groups were tested again. After collecting the questionnaires, data was analyzed by the statistic software SPSS version 18 and using analysis of covariance.
    Results
    The research results showed that group Logotherapy was effective in reducing anxiety in women with breast cancer (p<0.005). In other words, this intervention could reduce anxiety in the experimental group.
    Conclusion
    The results suggest that in line with current medical treatment, psychosocial interventions can be used to reduce anxiety in the breast cancer patients.
    Keywords: Logotherapy, Anxiety, Breast Cancer
  • Amin Shafizad, Mohammad Mohammadianpanah, Hamid Nasrolahi, Maral Mokhtari, Seyed Abdolah Mousavi Pages 171-174
    The Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST) is a rare mesenchymal tumor of gastrointestinal (GI) tract. This tumor has tendency to liver metastasis and peritoneal recurrence, however; the primarily lymph node involvement or metastasis is rare. Here we reported a 17-years-old girl with multifocal gastric GIST and multiple lymph node involvement at presentation and recurrence in celiac lymph nodes. We also review some case reports on lymph node metastasis in GIST.
    Keywords: Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Lymph Nodes, Neoplasm Metastasis
  • Malihe Hasanzadeh, Amir Zamiri, Akhlaghi, Maryam Hassanpoor, Moghaddam, Soodabeh Shahidsales Pages 175-178
    Background
    Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva is primarily a disease of postmenopausal women and thus is rarely associated with pregnancy.Case: We have reported on a young woman under 40 years old with vulvar carcinoma, which occurred during the pregnancy but optimal treatment was delayed to the postpartum period. This 37-year-old woman was diagnosed with 3x3 cm vulvar lesion, 2 weeks after cesarean section, subsequent biopsy revealed squamous cell carcinoma. She had a history of an ulcer on her left labia minor at the third month of the pregnancy. She was treated by a modified radical vulvectomy and bilateral groin lymphadenectomy. She did not receive any additional treatments. Now after two years, she has had no recurrence of the disease.
    Conclusion
    This case emphasizes on the need to consider malignancy as a differential diagnosis in vulvar lesions of pregnant young women.
    Keywords: Vulvar Carcinoma, Pregnancy, Squamous Cell Carcinoma