فهرست مطالب

دانش پیشگیری و مدیریت بحران - سال سوم شماره 4 (زمستان 1392)
  • سال سوم شماره 4 (زمستان 1392)
  • بهای روی جلد: 50,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/02/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Golrokh Atighechian, Katayoun Jahangiri (Phd), Mansoor Shishehfroush, Hossein Safari, Zahra Mousavian, Ali Mazaheri Page 349
    Background And Objective
    On Monday, 14 April 2008, due to bulldozer’s driver recklessness belonging to the Department of Transportation in Isfahan-Omidiyeh Oil Pipeline, 500 meters upstream from the river, in Chalvan from Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari province was fractured and the vast quantity of crude oil polluted the surrounding land and Zayande Rood river. After the occurrence of this incident, the drinking water of some cities of Isfahan province was completely cut off for 48 hours. This study was done to present a successful example of intersectional cooperation and interaction in an environmental disaster management.
    Method
    This is an applied research that was carried out in five stages. (1) A review of the literature was done about toxic substances spills and specially oil spill in water resources, (2) Incident was reviewed by existing documents, (3) Identification of roles and responsibilities as well as interventions by the responsible agencies in the mentioned incident through interviews with those responsible or involved in the incident management, (4) Gathering, summarize and analyze obtained data, (5) Design and suggest pattern in order to intersectional cooperation and interaction.
    Findings
    In response to the incident, widespread acts was done by Isfahan Governor, Department of Water and Waste Water, The Environmental Protection Agency, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, The Fire and Safety Services, Oil Company and other agencies responsible for cleaning the area and preventing the entry of crude oil to water retention facilities and emergency water refinery. After cleaning the river, water purification stages were carried out under control of relevant organizations with the necessary tests and standards. Also by headquarters coordination in the province, side problems of water interruption were reduced to a minimum.
    Conclusion
    One of the most persistent and dangerous pollution of water resources is oil pollution. This type of pollution is a serious threat to groundwater resources and surface water resources. To reduce the risks of oil spills it is necessary to predict and identify black spots and actions that lead to the occurrence of such events. Also, before the occurrence of such crisis should be considered some alternatives for intersectional cooperation and interaction between involved organizations.
    Keywords: Intersectional cooperation, Oil spill, Zayandeh, Rood River, Incident, Disaster management, Isfahan, Anthropogenic Disasters
  • Mojtaba Amiri, Musa Pourmousavi, Rezvan Salamat* Page 359
    Background And Objective
    One of the effective solutions that are considered by the city managers more than before is the use of people's capabilities. So first of all, in addressing hazards and after that, developing and implementing of its strategies, we need to have knowledge and awareness of attitudes and approaches in the field of public participation in the community and for solving natural disasters. The main goal of this study was to determine the reflection of neighborhood-based public participation in reducing the impacts of natural hazards that is provided with a look at the future.
    Method
    The research method was descriptive-analytic that in the first phase library, organization and internet resources were used and in the second phase of research data were gathered by questionnaire in a form of a survey. The statistical populations were Tehran disaster management and mitigation headquarter's staff. Data was analysed by using t and binomial tests.
    Findings
    Significant influence of neighborhood-based public participation in reducing impacts of natural hazards with the futures research approach was seen. Then, management of neighborhood-based was identified as an effective step in reducing the impacts of natural hazards.
    Conclusion
    According to the findings, mechanisms and recommendations were presented to strengthening public capacity and better leading helps and participants in the field of natural hazards.
    Keywords: Public participation, Neighborhood, Based, Environmental hazards, Futures research
  • Ali Akbar Ghahramani, Maryam Ramazaninosrati* Page 373
    Background And Objective
    Iran is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world and for that reason disaster management is considered an important subject and has priority. One of the approaches used for disaster management is neighborhood-based approach. The aim of the present study is to identify effective factors that can be useful for DAVAM groups as a local contributor in achieving goals and success in difficult moments of possible disasters.
    Method
    This is an applied, descriptive-survey research that provides effective factors on increasing performance effectiveness of DAVAM groups in self-relief and other relief. The statistical populations are active members of DAVAM groups in region 4 of Tehran municipality and a sample of 63 members of DAVAM groups of Kuhak, Hakimie, New Shemiran and West Tehranpars who were selected by cluster sampling. Data was gathered by researcher made questionnaire (=0.80). To analyze data correlation and regression tests were used.
    Findings
    Many individual and organizational factors are effective in achieving specified goals for DAVAM groups. By recognizing and paying attention to these factors can gain more success in the best way possible.
    Conclusion
    Organizational factors have a greater impact than individual factors, but this doesn’t mean ignoring individual factors; but it shows the task of disaster management headquarters and local units in recruiting, training, organizing and stabilizing of volunteers according to effective individual factors mentioned in this study.
    Keywords: Performance effectiveness, DAVAM Group, Disaster, Public participation, Emergency response
  • Habibolah Danaei, Akram Sorouri* Page 387
    Background And Objective
    To prevent incidents from happening and planning for reduction of financial and life loses, a strategic plan is needed when disasters occur in a metropolis. The aim of this study was to determine the appropriate executive strategies in Tehran 7th district disaster management and mitigation headquarters.
    Method
    At the beginning, the mission statement of headquarters was determined and then in the input stage, the evaluation matrix of external and internal factors was made. According to the obtained data in the previous stages, in matching and comparing stage we formed SWOT and Internal and External (IE) matrix and then in the decision stage by using of quantitative strategic planning matrix (QSPM), different strategic options were identified and evaluated and the best strategy for this district’s disaster management headquarter was selected.
    Findings
    Based on the matrix, the internal and external matrix showed the headquarters situation in fourth cell (defensive). Thus, strategies that are used in defensive situation should be considered and used. Among the selected strategies by QSPM matrix implementation priority was obtained by focusing on retrofitting existing building plans in that region.
    Conclusion
    According to scores obtained from the evaluation strategy, the headquarters should use these items in priority order: 1) focus on existing building safety programs and follow its implementation, 2) developing cooperation with NGOs in light of public empowerment and education and 3) expanding programs’ notification and educations in other areas of municipality.
    Keywords: Strategic planning, Disaster management, Disaster management, mitigation headquarters, Municipality districts, Municipality 7th district, Tehran, SWOT, Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM)
  • Morteza Ahmadi*, Abbas Seifi Page 395
    Background And Objective
    By looking at natural disasters which have occurred in recent decades, we will understand that such disasters will cause financial and human costs for governments and societies. One of the most important activities which is done in every relief operation and encompass roughly 80 percent of all activities is logistics operations. Because of this matter, a new area and subject to title of humanitarian logistics is stated in the literature in recent years. Humanitarian logistics aims to minimize loss of lives by using common models in commercial logistics and considering specific situation and issues such as stochastic demand, lack of precise information aftermath of a crisis, transportation network failure, and very short and limited relief time.
    Method
    This review article explores every aspect of humanitarian logistics and shows its active and widespread role in preparedness and response of any relief operations.
    Conclusion
    In this paper, definition of humanitarian logistics and in upper level humanitarian relief chain is presented and then, literature review of this issue is stated. Finally, the most important and unknown factors which must be considered to improve the level of humanitarian logistics operations before and the aftermath of an earthquake are discussed.
    Keywords: Humanitarian logistics, Humanitarian relief chain, Preparedness, response, Disaster management, Earthquake
  • Yousef Mohamadi, Moghadam, Javad Madani* Page 407
    Background And Objective
    Urban smart growth is a plan for the development of cities and suburbs. With the expansion of cities, uncontrolled environment of the cities pulled towards the marginal areas. This space as low density and separated development caused problems and difficulties such as threatened by disasters, increasing the use of energy, increasing transportation costs, increased pollution, increasing the population, lack of facilities and services and etc. Therefore, to prevent the emergence of crisis in the cities strategies should be considered. One of the most and best principled strategies is a smart growth strategy for disaster prevention and response.
    Method
    This is a review study that by using of the document analysis and library studies, investigates research findings related to urban smart growth and disaster management.
    Findings
    In addition to smart growth strategy, strategies such as establishing and creating disaster preparedness teams, training people from every segment against disasters and governmental supports and measures have been introduced. Also the necessity of a skilled team for smart disaster management has been addressed.
    Conclusion
    The necessity of attention to urban smart growth is an undeniable fact and impossible to ignore. The fact which all countries, organizations, agencies and managers should take it serious is to prevent the emergence of disasters and reduce the losses of life and property.
    Keywords: Urban Smart Growth, Disaster, Disaster management, Vulnerability, Disaster prevention
  • Chris Ansell*, Arjen Boin, Ann Keller, Translated By Alireza Hosieni, Hajeie Page 421
    In recent years, crises have become increasingly transboundary in nature. This exploratory paper investigates whether and how the transboundary dimensions of crises such as pandemics, cyber attacks and prolonged critical infrastructure failure accentuate the challenges that public and private authorities confront in the face of urgent threats. We explore the transboundary dimensions of crises and disasters, discuss how an increase in ‘transboundedness’ affects traditional crisis management challenges and investigate what administrative mechanisms are needed to deal with these compounded challenges. Building on lessons learned from past crises and disasters, our goal is to stimulate a discussion among crisis management scholars about the political-administrative capabilities required to deal with ‘transboundary’ crises.
    Keywords: Transboundary crises, Disaster response, Inter, organizational organizing, Inter organizational coordination, Response organization, Boundary, spanning, Disaster communication, Networked coordination, Incident Command System (ICS)