فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue: 1, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/03/26
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
|
  • Khosro Rezaee, Javad Haddadnia, Mohammad Rasegh Ghezelbash Page 1
    Background And Objectives
    Accurate detection of type and severity of Hepatitis is crucial for effective treatment of the disease. While several computational algorithms for detection of Hepatitis have been proposed to date, their limited performance leaves room for further improvement. This paper proposes a novel computational method for the diagnosis of Hepatitis B using pattern detection techniques.
    Methods
    Clinical data of healthy individuals and those suspected of Hepatitis B were collected from the laboratories of Vasei Hospital in Sabzevar (Iran). Using the algorithm, first, data were normalized, then SVM classifier was used for detection of Hepatitis B, and finally, adaptive FCM was applied for measuring the severity of the disease.
    Findings
    Application of the algorithm to plenary database yielded 98.36%, detection accuracy, 98.44% sensitivity, and 94.06% specificity.
    Conclusions
    Low PPV and high NPV of the proposed method indicate its high reliability for use in practical diagnosis of Hepatitis B and its severity.
    Keywords: Hepatitis B, Chronic Hepatitis, Acute Hepatitis, Diagnosis, Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining, Support Vector Machines (SVM), Fuzzy C, Means (FCM)
  • Emmanuel Ajuluchukwu Ugwa, Liman M. Muhammad, Charity C. Ugwa Page 11
    Background And Objective
    This study was undertaken to assess the levels of job satisfaction and its correlates among nurses and doctors in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH); and to compare the levels of job satisfaction between nurses and doctors.
    Methods
    In a cross-sectional study, 350 nurses and doctors in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital were surveyed. Socio-demographic data, employment characteristics and job satisfaction data were collected using questionnaire. Correlation between job satisfaction and socio-demographic and employment characteristics was examined using chi-square test and Pearson coefficient. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
    Findings
    No significant difference in the average daily duration of work was found between nurses and doctors. The average length of service was significantly higher in nurses as compared with the doctors (P = 0.03). Nurses were found to be significantly more satisfied with their job as compared with doctors (P = 0.001).
    Conclusions
    The finding that nurses in the surveyed hospital are more satisfied with their job compared with the doctors is interesting because the nurses are generally thought to have more difficult work conditions and lower wages. Hence further research worth to be conducted to identify the relevant reasons.
    Keywords: Job satisfaction, Nurses, Doctors, Hospital
  • Mohsen Karchani* Page 19
    Background And Objectives
    Today, 24-hours work is an unavoidable component in several industries. Night-work is an imperative situation for an important part of workforces. Shift-working is called to work at hours out of usual day-work time (7:00 am to 6:00 pm). The present study was a cross sectional descriptive-analytic research, and was carried out in order to investigate sleepiness and changes in vital signs among the clinical shift workers staff at Imam Khomeini hospital in Ilam.
    Methods
    Statistical population of the research was determined to be 79 persons, and data collection process was carried out in a simple random manner. Two questionnaires were used to collect data; a demographic questionnaire, and the Stanford Sleepiness Scale (SSS) questionnaire. A medical thermometer and one manometer were also used to gather data related to oral temperature and blood pressure. Potential relationship between sleepiness and demographic and professional factors was explored using Perason''s correlation coeficient.
    Findings
    Sleepiness was found to be significantly correlated with age, work experience, and Body Mass Index (BMI), and level of education (P < 0.05). In addition, sleepiness showed significant inverse correlations with body temperature and blood pressure (P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    Our results identified a number of important factors influencing sleepiness in clinicians. Considering these factors is of great importance when selecting staff for shift working, in order to enhance health care performance and prevent medication errors.
    Keywords: Sleepiness, Vital signs, Clinical shift workers
  • Asgari Heydari, Leila Riahi Page 25
    Background And Objectives
    In continuous medical learning programs, selection of appropriate learning methods is important for streaming individuals by learning process. The goal of this study is to compare in-presence learning method with distance learning method and explore their effect on the knowledge of health workers (practical nurses) in terms of reduced expenses.
    Methods
    The study is a descriptive study in case – control study. In this study, the researcher performs various learning programs in order to improve knowledge of health workers and assesses this change during a comparison between primary and secondary tests. In one control group and three groups case groups were randomly selected from among practical nurses. The comparison was made by Mc Timar Test, paired t-test, analysis of variance and HSD test.
    Findings
    Participation in classes was found to be difficult for the nurses in half of the studied units (51.7%) and 45.7% of individuals tend to pass their courses (studying hygiene) by distance learning methods (self-teaching + communicating with professors).
    Conclusions
    Distance learning method would be more effective in improving knowledge of health workers compared with in-presence learning method.
    Keywords: Distance learning, In, presence learning, Education, Healthcare workers, Self, teaching
  • Mohammad Moazeni, Bistgani, Shahla Shahrjerdi*, Nasser Khosravi Page 31
    Background And Objective
    Needle stick injuries (NSIs) are a common potential risk for healthcare workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate preventive interventions against needle stick injury incidents among HCWs.
    Methods
    Seven hospitals in the Iranian Chaharmahal-VA-Bakhtiari Province were surveyed between March 2008 to March 2013. Data of the needle stick injuries of healthcare workers was extracted from the hospital documentations. Chi-square test and logistic regression were used for analyzing the data.
    Findings
    A total of 571 exposures (30.9%) to blood and other infected fluids were recorded. Three measures of the preventive interventions against occupational exposures were found to be independently associated with interval reporting time less than 72 hours; a positive history of training courses passed [P=0. 012, OR=0. 440, 95%CI: 0.233-0.832], standard infection control procedures after needle stick injury [P=0. 000, OR=4. 905, 95%CL: 2.777 –8.663], wearing personal protective equipment [P=0. 000, OR=9. 313, 95%CL: 4.142 – 20.940].
    Conclusions
    Personnel protective equipment, training of employees, and use of standard infection control procedures after NSI incident are both essential and effective in preventing viral transmission of blood-borne diseases among healthcare workers.
    Keywords: Healthcare workers, Occupational exposure, Preventive interventions
  • Abolfazl Ghasemzadeh Alishahi Page 37
    Background And Objectives
    Studies of the relationship between personal qualities and job consequences usually find poor and inconsistent correlations. It is suggested that the reason may lie in ignorance of some modifying factors mediating such relationship. The perceived control has attracted much attention as a candidate factor. This study aimed to examine the mediating role of the perceived control in the impact of agreeableness and neuroticism on job stress in the hospital staff.
    Methods
    A conceptual model was developed, in which neuroticism and agreeableness were considered as the independent variables, perceived control, the mediating variable, and job stress the dependent variable. The statistical population of the study included all the staff of Imam Reza Hospital in Urumia of whom 248 were selected using random sampling. Using Morgan Table, sample size of 248 was achieved. Neuroticism and agreeableness were assessed through NEO big five factor inventories. Perceived control was evaluated using Tetrick and Larocco questionnaire (Tetrick and Larocco, 1987). Job stress was measured using the scale developed by House and Rizzo (House and Rizzo, 1972). The conceptual model was fitted to the data using structural equation modeling technique.
    Findings
    Both agreeableness significant positive correlation with job stress and significant negative correlation with perceived control.
    Conclusions
    Our findings suggest that causal impact of personality traits on job stress is mediated through the perceived control.
    Keywords: Personal qualities, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Job stress, Perceived control, Hospital staff
  • Maryam Atari, Saeed Akbari Zardkhaneh, Mohammad Atari, Negin Naderi, Far Page 43
    Background And Objectives
    Questionnaire-based survey is the most common way of assessing patient satisfaction. However, most relevant survey instruments have been developed in western countries, and valid and reliable context-specific survey tools in this area are lacking. To help filling this gap, in this study we have developed and validated the preliminary version of the novel Brief Inpatient Satisfaction Scale (BISS) to be used in an Iranian context.
    Methods
    Initially 32 items were included by reviewing different aspects of patient satisfaction in the literature. A sample of 637 patients from Moheb hospital (Tehran, Iran) was surveyed for the purpose of instrument evaluation in autumn of 2013. In various steps of scale development, 6 items were discarded due to psychometric reasons. Content validity was examined by seeking experts’ opinions, the internal consistency reliability by Cronbach’s alpha, and the construct validity was tested using correlation analysis.
    Findings
    A 26-item survey for measuring patient satisfaction in an Iranian context was developed. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a four-factor solution. The extracted factors were named physician care, nursing care, living arrangements, and communication. Two factors were perfectly loaded while two others showed cross-loadings. An internal consistency reliability of 0.91 was observed for the entire instrument. The subscales showed alpha coefficients of 0.85, 0.86, 0.75, and 0.71, respectively.
    Conclusions
    The preliminary version of BISS could be used to evaluate patient satisfaction in an Iranian context with adequate reliability. Further improvement should focus on improving the reliability of living arrangements, and communication dimensions.
    Keywords: Patient satisfaction, Survey Instrument Development, Brief Inpatient Satisfaction Scale (BISS), Validity, Reliability
  • Ali Reza Taherizade*, Ali Tahmasbi, M. Panahi, A. Najafi Page 49
    Background And Objectives
    Hospital is the largest and most costly operating unit of healthcare system. Provision of optimal care requires that hospital administrators identify hospital performance based on relevant indicators. This study used the Pabon Lasso analysis to assess the performance of hospitals and identify strategies towards an improved hospital performance.
    Methods
    This cross-sectional descriptive study involved all the eight general hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Data on average length of stay, bed occupation and bed turnover rates were collected using questionnaire.
    Findings
    The overall average length of stay, bed occupation and bed turnover rates were 4.78 days, 79.95% and 28.36, respectively. One hospital demonstrated inefficiency and underutilization of resources by falling into Zone I, two hospitals located in Zone II, and five hospitals were placed in Zone IV. None of the hospitals were located in Zone III which represents a satisfactory level of efficiency.
    Conclusions
    The study showed the studied hospitals have generally low performance as indicated by Pabon Lasso analysis. The administrators should therefore seek a strategy for balancing average length of stay, bed occupation and bed turnover rates for an improved hospital performance.
    Keywords: Hospital management, Performance assessment, Pabon Lasso Analysis, Average length of stay, Bed occupation rate, Bed turnover rate