فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:4 Issue:5, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/06/17
  • تعداد عناوین: 8
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  • Anahita Alizadeh, Mohammad Moshiri, Javad Alizadeh, Mahdi Balali Mood Pages 297-311
    Black henbane (BH) or Hyoscyamus niger, has been used as a medicine since last centuries and has been described in all traditional medicines. It applies as a herbal medicine, but may induce intoxication accidentally or intentionally. All part of BH including leaves, seeds and roots contain some alkaloids such as Hyoscyamine, Atropine, Tropane and Scopolamine. BH has pharmacological effects like bronchodilating, antisecretory, urinary bladder relaxant, spasmolytic, hypnotic, hallucinogenic, pupil dilating, sedative and anti-diarrheal properties. Clinical manifestations of acute BH poisoning are very wide which include mydriasis, tachycardia, arrhythmia, agitation, convulsion and coma, dry mouth, thirst, slurred speech, difficulty speaking, dysphagia, warm flushed skin, pyrexia, nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision and photophobia, urinary retention, distension of the bladder, drowsiness, hyper reflexia, auditory, visual or tactile hallucinations, confusion, disorientation, delirium, aggressiveness, and combative behavior. The main treatment of BH intoxicated patients is supportive therapies including gastric emptying (not by Ipecac), administration of activated charcoal and benzodiazepines. Health care providers and physicians particularly emergency physicians and clinical toxicologists should know the nature, medical uses, clinical features, diagnosis and management of BH poisoning.
    Keywords: Black henbane, Hyoscyamus niger, Anticholinergic, Benzodiazepine, Poisoning, Physostigmine, Atropine, Hyoscyamine
  • Maryam Rezazad, Farah Farokhi Pages 312-319
    Objective
    Present study investigated the effects of parsley extract on pregnant rat kidneys which have undergone clinical abortion using prostaglandins. The renal protective effect of parsley extract was evaluated in pregnant rats which had an abortion. Parsley was used due to its antioxidant properties.
    Materials And Methods
    Fifty-four female rats were divided in 9 groups of 6: control pregnant, two pregnant groups which received parsley extract and prostadin, two non-pregnant groups treated with parsley extract and prostadin, a group administered with both treatments, and three groups which received parsley extract in pre-implantation, implantation, and post-implantation periods of embryos. Ethanolic extract (5 mg/kg) was given daily to animals for 18 days of pregnancy period. Parameters such as malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant statues (TAS), creatinine, and urea were measured using biochemical assays. Histopathologic studies were also done with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining method.
    Results
    After 18 days of treatment, significant differences were observed in serum creatinine, urea, and MDA and TAS levels. Kidney cross-sections showed edema in prostadin-treated rats while improvements in parsley + prostadin -treated rats were observed.
    Conclusion
    These results suggested that ethanolic extract of Petroselinum crispum reduced the dysfunction in rats kidney caused by prostadin-induced abortion and could have beneficial effect in reducing the progression of prostaglandin-induced edema.
    Keywords: abortion, Dysfunction, Kidney, Petroselinum crispum
  • Kazi Nahid Akter, Palash Karmakar, Abhijit Das, Shamima Nasrin Anonna, Sharmin Akter Shoma, Mohammad Mafruhi Sattar Pages 320-329
    Objective
    The study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial and anthelmintic activities and to determine total phenolic contents of methanolic extract of Piper betel leaves.
    Materials And Methods
    The extract was subjected to assay for antibacterial activity using both gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains through disc diffusion method; anthelmintic activity with the determination of paralysis and death time using earthworm (Pheritima posthuma) at five different concentrations and the determination of total phenolic contents using the Folin-ciocalteau method.
    Results
    The extract showed significant (p<0.01) zone of inhibitions against gram positive Staphylococcus aureus [(6.77±0.25) mm] and Gram negative Escherichia coli [(8.53±0.25) mm], Salmonella typhi [(5.20±0.26) mm], Shigella dysenteriae [(11.20±0.26) mm] compared to positive control Azithromycin (ranging from 20.10±0.17 to 25.20±0.35 mm) while no zone inhibitory activity was found for both the extract and the standard drug against Gram positive Bacillus cereus. The extract also showed potent anthelmintic activity requiring less time for paralysis and death compared to the standard drug albendazole (10 mg/ml). At concentrations 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/ml, leaves extract showed paralysis at mean time of 9.83±0.60, 8.50±0.29, 6.60±0.17, 6.20±0.44 and 4.16±0.60; death at 11.33±0.88, 9.67±0.33, 7.83±0.17, 7.16±0.60 and 5.16±0.72 minutes, respectively. Whereas the standard drug showed paralysis and death at 19.33±0.71 and 51.00±0.23 minutes respectively. The extract confirmed the higher concentration of phenolic contents (124.42±0.14 mg of GAE /g of extract) when screened for total phenolic compounds.
    Conclusion
    Asresults confirmed potential antibacterial and anthelmintic activities of Piper betel leaves extract, therefore it may be processed for further drug research.
    Keywords: Anthelmintic activity, Antibacterial activity, Leaf extract, Piper betel, Total phenolic contents
  • Arash Omidi, Narges Riahinia, Mohammad Bagher Montazer Torbati, Mohammad, Ali Behdani Pages 330-336
    Objectives
    Acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity is known to be common and potentially fatal. This study aims to investigate the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract, remaining from Crocus sativus petals (CSP) against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by measuring the blood parameters and studying the histopathology of liver in male rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Wister rats (24) were randomly assigned into four groups including: I) healthy, receiving normal saline; II) Intoxicated, receiving only APAP (600 mg/kg); III) pre-treated with low dose of CSP (10 mg /kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg); IV) pre-treated with high dose of CSP (20 mg/kg) and receiving APAP (600 mg/kg).
    Results
    The APAP treatment resulted in higher levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and bilirubin, along with lower total protein and albumin concentration than the control group. The administration of CSP with a dose of 20 mg/kg was found to result in lower levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin, with a significant higher concentration of total protein and albumin. The histopathological results regarding liver pathology, revealed sever conditions including cell swelling, severe inflammation and necrosis in APAP-exposed rats, which was quiet contrasting compared to the control group. The pre-treated rats with low doses of ‍CSP showed hydropic degeneration with mild necrosis in centrilobular areas of the liver, while the same subjects with high doses of ‍CSP appeared to have only mild hepatocyte degeneration.
    Conclusions
    Doses of 20 mg/kg of CSP ameliorates APAP–induced acute liver injury in rats. It was concluded that the antioxidant property of CSP resulted in reducing the oxidative stress complications of toxic levels of APAP in intoxicated rats.
    Keywords: Acetaminophen (APAP), Crocus sativus (CS), Flowers, Hepatotoxicity, Rats
  • Kobra Shirani, Javad Behravan, Fatemeh Mosaffa, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Babak Mehmankhah, Kamal Razavi, Azarkhiavi, Gholamreza Karimi Pages 337-342
    Objective
    Ferula szowitsiana has been widely used for medicinal purposes around the world. The anti-oxidant effect of F.szowitsiana had been proved. The current study aims to determine the protective effects of galbanic acid, a sesquiterpene coumarin from F. szowitsiana, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) - induced oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes.
    Materials And Methods
    Human lymphocytes were incubated with H2O2 (0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 µM), galbanic acid (200 and 400 µM) and a combination of galbanic acid (200 and 400 µM) and H2O2 (25 µM) at 4 C for 30 minutes. Solvents of galbanic acid without H2O2 were used as negative controls.
    Results
    The findings of this study demonstrated that H2O2 exposure leads to a significant concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage. Galbanic acid did not cause DNA damage compared with the control cells. Data showed that galbanic acid does not have a protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative DNA damage in human lymphocytes.
    Conclusion
    According to the results, it is concluded that the capability of F. szowitsiana in reducing reactive oxygen species and the anti-inflammatory property of its methanolic extract may be due to its other ingredients.
    Keywords: Comet assay, DNA damage, Galbanic acid, Ferula szowitsiana
  • Amin Morabbi Najafabad, Rashid Jamei Pages 343-353
    Objectives
    Consumption of fruits, such as plums and prunes, is useful in treating blood circulation disorder, measles, digestive disorder, and prevention of cancer, diabetes, and obesity. The paper presents a description of antioxidant and antiradical capacity of plum (Prunus domestica L.) in both fresh and dried samples.
    Materials And Methods
    Samples were mixed with methanol and ethanol (as solvents) and were extracted on magnetic shaker, separately. The experiments were carried out to measure the Total Phenolic Content (TPC), Total Flavonoid Content (TFC), Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Reducing Power Assay (RPA), Chain Breaking Activity (CBA), and quantity of Malondialdehyde (MDA), 2,2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH),Nitric Oxide (NO),Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide(O2-) radicals inhibition.
    Results
    The results showed that the highest values for the TPC, TFC,TAC, RPA, CBA, DPPH, and NO were related to ethanolic extractsof dried sample which showed statistically significant differences (p2O2 and O2-were related to ethanolic extracts of fresh sample. The correlations data were analyzed among all parameters and the TPC and TFC had a significant correlation (r2=0.977). Moreover, it was found that methanol was more successful in extraction procedure than ethanol (p<0.01).
    Conclusion
    Findings suggest that the fresh samples are more successful in collecting oxygen free radicals such as superoxide (O2-) and peroxy radicals (ROO.) than dried.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Correlation, Phenolic compounds, Prunusdomestica L
  • Hiren Manubhai Chawda, Divyesh Rasiklal Mandavia, Seema Natvarlal Baxi, Vishalkumar Kishorbhai Vadgama, Chandrabhanu Rajkishor Tripathi Pages 354-363
    Objectives
    Cow urine ark (CUA), known as “Amrita” as mentioned in Ayurveda, contains anti-hyperglycemic and antioxidant effects. Therefore, we designed the present study to evaluate the lipid lowering activity of CUA and its possible implication in metabolic syndrome.
    Materials And Methods
    Thirty guinea pigs of either sex were divided into five groups: Group 1 and 2 serving as a vehicle and sham control, received normal and high fat diet for 60 days respectively; Group 3, 4 and 5 received high fat diet for 60 days with CUA 0.8 ml/kg, 1.6 ml/kg and rosuvastatin (1.5 mg/kg) on the last 30 days of study period, respectively. Serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL- C, VLDL-C, HDL-C, total Cholesterol/HDL-C) and serum enzymes (ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and CK-MB) were performed in each group at the beginning and end of the study. Histological study of liver and kidney was done in each group.
    Results
    CUA (0.8 ml/kg) significantly decreased the serum triglycerides and VLDL-C, but CUA (1.6 ml/kg) decreased the total serum Cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C (p < 0.05). Higher dose (1.6 ml/kg) of CUA also increased HDL-C level, significantly (p < 0.05). CUA reduced serum AST, ALP and LDH level, which was statistically significant as well, while it also decreased the accumulation of lipid in hepatocytes as compared to sham control.
    Conclusions
    CUA reduced triglycerides, increased HDL-C and found to be hepatoprotective in animals that are on a high fat diet.
    Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Cow urine ark, Dyslipidemia, Hypolipidemia, Guinea pig, Statin
  • Muhammad Parvaiz Pages 364-370
    Objective
    This study was conducted to collect indigenous traditional knowledge about the medicinal plants and their uses in Mangowal, District Gujrat, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Materials And Methods
    The ethnomedicinal data were gathered through questionnaires and extensive personal dialogues with native individuals comprising 40 males and 20 females of diverse age groups between 50 to 80 years and also tabibs and hakims. Ethnobotanical investigations were directed from January 2013 to March 2013 under the acquiescence of university of Gujrat (UOG), Punjab, Pakistan.
    Results
    About 40 plant species belonging to 22 families were investigated which are utilized by native people to cure various disorders and ailments such as asthma, ulcer, gonorrhea, piles, stomach pain, and skin diseases. Medicinal plants comprises of combination of active compounds which are side effect neutralizing and synergistic. Herbal medicines were prepared from different part of plants. Mostly used plant parts were leaves, fruits, barks, roots, seeds, and sometimes whole plant.
    Conclusion
    The results demonstrated that the area is rich in vegetation but remained botanically virgin and not explored extensively and intensively.
    Keywords: Ethnomedicinal surveys, Mangowal, Medicinal uses, Pakistan, Punjab, UOG