فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:3 Issue:4, 2014
  • Supplementary
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/06/20
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
  • Cobra Moslemkhani, Vahideh Razavi, Leila Sadeghi, Samad Mobasser, Fatemeh Khelgati Bana, Raheleh Shahbazi Pages 573-580
    Tomato is an important vegetable crop in Iran. Recently symptoms associated with phytoplasma disease were observed in tomato cultivars in Karaj vicinity. The phytoplasmas were detected and characterized using single-tube nested PCR and RFLP. The universal primer pairs were amplified the target DNA with expected sizes from symptomatic samples in direct PCR and single-tube nested PCR. The patterns of RFLP analysis obtained from plants with symptoms of yellowing and showing a bushy aspect corresponded to the profile of tomato big bud phytoplasma–subgroup 16SrI, and that detected from plants with symptoms of shoot proliferation and swollen and virescent buds belonged to tomato big bud phytoplasma–subgroup 16SrVI. Mobeen was the most susceptible cultivar with 23% natural infection, and Alex, Raha, Sadeen 21, and Sadeen 95 cultivars showed no symptoms of disease. The transmission of phytoplasma with vectors may be disorganized, or these cultivars were resistant or tolerant to disease.
    Keywords: tomato, Phytoplasma, cultivar, single, tube nested PCR
  • Mohammad Reza Amin, Mohammad Khanjani, Babak Zahiri Pages 581-587
    The laelapid mite, Gaeolaelapsaculeifer (G. Canestrini) is widespread in soil habitats and feeds on different small arthropods, fungi and nematodes. The development and fecundity of G. aculeifer feeding on Rhizoglyphus echinopus (Fumouze & Robin) as prey was studied at eight different constant temperatures which include: 16, 17.5, 20, 22.5, 25, 27.5, 30 and 32.5 ºC, with relative humidity of 60 ± 5%, and a 16:8 h (Light: Dark) photoperiod. The results showed that the development time of immature stages were 30.80 ± 0.68, 30.57 ± 0.42 days at 16 °C; 8.66 ± 0.09, 8.20 ± 0.18 days at 30 °C and 9.86 ± 0.19, 9.77 ± 0.22 days at 32.5 °C for females and males, respectively. The pre-oviposition period considerably varied from 7.60 ± 3.02 days at 16 °C to 0.81 ± 0.09 days at 30 °C and then increased to 2.07 ± 0.25 days at 32.5 °C. The oviposition period decreased with increasing temperature from 36.93 ± 2.66 days at 20 °C to 17.67 ± 1.90days at 32.5 °C. The average life span of females was 102.40 ± 8.08 days at 16 °C and 37.21 ± 1.98 days at 32.5 °C. The mean daily oviposition per female increased from 0.49 ± 0.14 at 16 °C to 3.76 ± 0.13 at 30 °C and decreased to 1.88 ± 0.15 at 32.5 °C.
    Keywords: bulb mite, immature, oviposition, predator, longevity
  • Masumeh Ziaee Pages 589-595
    Bioassays were conducted to assess the contact toxicity of two plant essential oils against adults of Sitophilus granarius (L.) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val. Essential oils were extracted from seeds of Carum copticum L. and Cuminum cyminum L. Contact toxicity was assessed by topical application and adult’s mortality was counted 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after exposure. Bioassays were carried out at 27 ± 1 °Cand 65 ± 5% RH in continuous darkness. Results indicated the two essential oils tested were topically toxic to both species. The mortality increased as increase in the oils dose and time exposed to each dose. Adults of S. granarius were more sensitive to C. copticum oil (LD50 = 0.009 µg/mg body wt) than C. cyminum essential oil (LD50 = 0.016 µg/mg body wt). In general, T. confusum showed similar sensitivity to both essential oils. However, adults of T. confusum were more resistant than S. granarius. C. copticum and C. cyminum oils have potential to use in stored-product pest management.
    Keywords: Essential oil, stored products, topical application
  • Mohammad Saeed Emami, Parviz Shishehbor, Javad Karimzadeh Esfahani Pages 597-609
    Anthocoris nemoralis (F.) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is one of the most prominent predators of the pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and is considered as a biological control agent against this pest. In order to investigate the effects of plant varieties on predation of C. pyricola by A. nemoralis, the functional response of both the sexes of A. nemoralis to pear psylla nymphs was studied on three pear varieties including ‘Shahmiveh’, as a susceptible host plant and ‘Sebri’ and ‘Coscia’, as partially-resistant host plants. Different densities of C. pyricola nymphs were offered to single A. nemoralis and predation proceeded for 24 h. The experiments were carried out under constant environmental conditions (27 ± 1 °C, 70 ± 5% RH and L: D 16: 8 h). Logistic regression and nonlinear least-squares regression were used to determine the type of functional response and to estimate attack rate (a) and handling time (Th), respectively. The results showed a type II functional response on all varieties. The asymptotic 95% confidence intervals, estimated by the model with indicator variable revealed that there was no significant difference between either the attack rates or between handling times of same sex of the predator on the tested varieties. However, when sexes were compared, the females of A. nemoralis had a shorter handling time and higher searching efficiency than the males on all varieties. The maximum predicted daily prey consumption by a female predator (T/Th) was the highest on the susceptible variety. Based on the type of functional response and its parameter values, the effectiveness of A. nemoralis was not affected by plant resistance; these findings may be promising for the integration of the partially-resistant varieties and A. nemoralis in sustainable pest management programs against the pear psylla. The implications of the results for biological control of pear psylla were discussed in a tritrophic context.
    Keywords: Anthocoris, host plant resistance, pear psylla, predation, Cacopsylla, functional response
  • Shahab Manzari, Ahad Sahragard Pages 611-614
    The East Asian psyllid, Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama, 1908) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is newly reported from Iran. This is also considered as the first record of the genus Acizzia Heslop-Harrison and the subfamily Acizziinae for the country. The psyllid was collected from Persian silk tree, Albizia julibrissin Durazzini (Fabaceae), in Rasht, Guilan province, in July 2013. A brief taxonomic diagnosis is provided to facilitate its recognition.
    Keywords: Acizzia jamatonica, Psyllidae, Acizziinae, Iran, Albizia julibrissin
  • Seyed Mehdi Shetab Booshehri Pages 615-624
    Potential of three physically different formulations of biocontrol agent Thrichoderma harzianum199 as a substitution for chemical seed treatment and a step toward organic wheat production was investigated in a field trial based on a randomized complete block design against wheat common bunt caused by Tilletia laevis Kühn. which imposes economic losses in some parts of the country and is a serious problem in organic wheat fields. Wheat seeds of cv. Chamran were treated with liquid, semi-solid (gel mixed suspension) and solid (talc powder) formulations prior to planting. Field practices were performed based on Khuzestan wheat planting schedule and no chemical was used until harvesting. The results of analyzed data showed significant effect of formulation type (p < 0.01) on common bunt incidence. Tetraconazole (chemical check) showed common bunt reduction (97.7%) and among bio-formulations, gel-mixed suspension was significant (p < 0.05) in disease reduction (43.41%), but was next to talc and liquid formulation in yield, harvested weight, healthy spikes and stem height. Talc formulation reduced bunt infection (39.07 %) and showed better than gel mixed suspension in yield and some yield components. Conversely, liquid formulation enhanced bunt incidence (25.31%) but was almost same as the talc and better than gel formulation in yield and yield components. General findings of this experiment indicate that physical form of T.harzianum 199 formulation can effectively influence both common bunt prevention and agronomical potential of Chamran wheat cultivar.
    Keywords: biological control, biofungicide, formulation, Tilletia laevis, organic wheat
  • Saeid Javadi Khederi, Mohammad Khanjani Pages 625-630
    The grape erineum mite (GEM), Colomerus vitis (Pagenstecher) (Acari: Eriophyidae) is considered to be one of the most important pests, that sometimes causes irreversible damages to grapevine cultivars in western parts of Iran. Studies were carried out in order to find natural enemies associated to GEM, during 2011-2013. Results indicated that natural enemies included two species of predatory mites belonging to the families Phytoseiidae [Typhlodromus (Anthoseius) khosrovensis, T. (Anthoseius) bagdasarjani], Tydeidae (Neopronematus sp.), one species of Anystidae (Anystis baccarum), one species of Stigmaeidae (Zetzellia mali), one species of dipteran: Cecidomyiidae (Arthrocnodax vitis Rubsaamen), four species, belonging to the family Coccinellidae (Stethorus gilvifrons, Coccinella septempunctata, Hipodamya varigiata, Harmonia sp.), two species of predatory bugs belonging to the family Anthocoridae (Orius albidipennis, O. niger) and one species of Chrysopidae (Chrysopa carnea). Amongst them the cecidomiid, the tydeid mite and the phytoseiid mites, had higher population densities in this area.
    Keywords: grapevine, predatory species, grape erineum mite
  • Mohammad Javad Ardeh, Ali Mohammadipour, Raoof Kolyaee, Hassan Rahimi, Hadi Zohdi Pages 631-636
    The Leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina L. (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) is a serious pest of walnut and apple trees in Iran. One of the control methods for this pest is the mass trapping of males using pheromone traps. To determine the best size and color of traps, four different colors (green, yellow, white, gray) and two different sizes (delta shape with standard adhesive surface, 19 × 22 cm and trapezoidal shape with twofold adhesive surface, 36 × 22cm) were compared in a walnut orchard in Alborz province. The results showed that color didn’thave any significant effect on the number of males capture by traps, whereas the newly made, trapezoidal trap could capture more than twice as many as a delta trap. This means that with the same number of pheromone dispensers, more than twice as many moths could be captured by trapezoidal traps than by delta traps, which could increase the efficiency of pheromone traps in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program.
    Keywords: Leopard moth, Zeuzera pyrina, walnut pest, pest control, pheromone trap
  • Chnoor Hoseini, Samad Khaghaninia, Hossein Lotfalizadeh Pages 637-644
    Specimens of the subfamily Milesiinae (Diptera: Syrphidae) were collected using sweeping net from Saqqez region, Kordestan province located in the west of Iran during 2012-2013. In total 25 species in 12 genera were identified. Of which Eumerus transcaspicus (Stackelberg, 1952) is reported for first time from Iran. Diagnostic characters besides supplementary photos of the new record are provided.
    Keywords: Syrphidae, Milesiinae, Fauna, New record, Iran
  • Seyed Ali Asghar Fathi, Nakisa Bakhshizadeh Pages 645-654
    In this study, the spatial distribution of overwintered adults of Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton, was investigated by using dispersion parameters and indices, mathematical distribution, and regression techniques in rainfed wheat fields by sample size of 1 m2 in 2009 and 2010. The dispersion parameters including: mean-variance test and clumping parameter () showed that the overwintered adults of Sunn pest population followed the negative binomial distribution pattern. Furthermore, the dispersion indices including: variance to mean ratio, Lloyd''s index of mean crowding and Morisita index also confirmed the aggregated distribution pattern of overwintered adults of Sunn pest. Also, mathematical distribution and Taylor''s power law () and Iwao''s patchiness regression () showed the contagious distribution of overwintered adults of E. integriceps. These results can be useful in patch spraying for control of overwintered adults of E. integriceps in early season in wheat fields.
    Keywords: The Sunn pest, distribution, wheat fields, Ardabil region
  • Sahar Masumi, Soheila Mirzaei, Ramezan Kalvandi, Doustmorad Zafari Pages 655-662
    Asparaginase and amylase are widely used enzymes in various industries, which can be produced by endophytic fungi. In this study, the ability of producing these two enzymes in endophytic fungi isolated from six species of Thymus has been reported for the first time in the world. Among 89 isolates of the test, 34 isolates produced asparaginase which among M24 (Fusarium subglutinans) displayed the greatest enzyme activity. Thirty three isolates showed the ability to produce amylase while the greatest enzyme activity belonged to M53 (Curvularia akaii). This study can be regarded as a preliminary work and endophytic fungi of high activity are proposed as possible resources to control cancer in human and other industrial applications.
    Keywords: Amylase, Asparaginase, Endophyte, Fungi, Thymus
  • Kowsar Sharifi, Mahdi Davari, Seyed Akbar Khodaparast, Mahmoud Bagheri, Kheirabadi Pages 663-671
    The Erysiphaceae are obligatory parasitic fungi that cause powdery mildew disease of green space plants. During this study, powdery mildew fungi were collected and identified from different localities of Ardabil landscape, Iran. Erysiphe rayssiae (on Spartium junceum), Erysiphe robiniae var. robiniae (on Robinia pseudoacacia) and Euoidium cf. agerati (on Ageratum houstonianum)were new records for mycobiota of Iran. Jasminum sp. is reported as Matrix nova for Erysiphe syringae-japonicae. Also this is the first record of Golovinomyces montagnei on Cirsium arvense and Golovinomyces orontii on Antirhinum majus in Iran. The taxa including Erysiphe astragali on Astragalus sp., Erysiphe crucifearum on Brassica elongata, Erysiphe polygoni on Rumex sp., Golovinomyces cichoracearum on Cichorium intybus and Golovinomyces sordidus on Plantago sp. were newly found in Ardabil province. Furthermore, some specimens belonging to Podosphaera fusca s.l. were assessed. According to the new species concept, concerning these taxa, Podosphaera fusca s.s. was redescribed, and Podosphaera erigerontis-canadensis on Taraxacum sp. is reported for the first time, although previously reported from Iran under the Podosphaera fusca.
    Keywords: Taxonomy, Erysiphales, Powdery mildew, New record, New host
  • Arsalan Khalili, Moghadam, Alireza Saboori Pages 673-682
    This paper reports some species of Ameroseiidae from various habitats in different parts of Iran. Ameroseius bassolase (Vargass, 2001)has been reported from Iran, but it was a misidentification of Sertitympanum aegyptiacus Nasr & Abow-Awad, 1984. Redescription of Ameroseius lidiae Bregetova, 1977 based on female specimens is also presented.
    Keywords: Taxonomy, soil, mite, Mesostigmata, Ameroseiidae, Iran
  • Dalia Adly, Aziza El, Gantiry Pages 683-690
    Developmental periodsof thegrapevine aphid, Aphis illinoisensis Shimer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on the grape, Vitis vinifera L., and its two parasitoid species, Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (exotic) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) and Aphelinus albipodus Hayat and Fatima (indigenous) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were studied at two constant temperatures (20 and 25 ± 2 oC), 70 ± 5 % R.H. and a photoperiod of 14 L: 10D. The life cycle of A. illinoisensis attained 14.7 and 7.1 days at 20 and 25 oC, respectively. The developmental period was shorter as temperature increased. Developmental time from egg to adult of L. testaceipes was shorter than that of A. albipodus Hayat and Fatima at both 20 and 25 oC. Parasitized aphids were dissected daily to determine the percentage of parasitim, number of encapsulated eggs of L. testaceipes and the number of dead larvae of A. albipodus. The percentage of parasitism of aphid by L. testaceipes was 26% and 12.5 % of parasitoid eggs were encapsulated, while 52% of aphids were parasitized by A. albipodus of which 32 % was dead larvae. Therefore, A. illinoisensis has a mechanism for defense against parasitoids and it should be noted that this aphid is not a suitable host for rearing either of the two tested aphid parasitoid species in the laboratory.
    Keywords: Aphis illinoisensis, Aphelinus albipodus, Lysiphlebus testaceipes, developmental period, defense
  • Yousef Panahandeh, Ebrahim Pourjam, Mohammad Reza Atighi, Majid Pedram Pages 691-709
    Two species of Pratylenchoides recovered from the grasslands in Sabalan region and one species recovered from natural habitats of Tehran are illustrated based on morphological, morphometric and molecular characters. The first species, P. crenicauda is characterized mainly by its lip region with three-four annuli, lateral field with four incisures areolated throughout the length and having rod shaped sperm cells. It is further distinguished by the positions of the pharyngeal glands nuclei. P. magnicauda was found in Tehran and its morphological characters and phylogenetic relations with other species are discussed. The Iranian populations of P. variabilis are characterized by three lip annuli, stylet 20-22 µm long, four and six incisures in lateral field, rounded sperm and one of the pharyngeal glands nuclei posterior to pharyngo-intestinal valve. The phylogenetic tree inferred from the partial sequences of D2-D3 segment of 28S rDNA revealed the three sequenced species are separate from each other and form a clade with high (1.00) Bayesian posterior probability (BPP) in Bayesian inference (BI) and 86% bootstrap support value (BS) in maximum likelihood (ML) analyses with other two sequenced species of the genus for this genomic region.
    Keywords: Bayesian, maximum likelihood, Merliniidae, phylogeny, Pratylenchoides crenicauda, P. magnicauda, P. variabilis, Sabalan grasslands, Tehran, 28S rDNA