فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue:3, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/06/31
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
|
  • Maliheh Amiri Dumari, Hadi Sarir *, Omid Fani Makki, Nazar Afzali Pages 1098-1103
    Background
    This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs) in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in a contaminated diet fed to broilers.
    Methods
    Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb) and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1%) were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) and influenza disease (ID) in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period.
    Results
    Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01). Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01). The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.
    Keywords: Aflatoxin, Antibody Titer, Broiler, Lipid Profiles, Liver Enzymes, Milk Thistle
  • Ali Arjmand Shabestari, Zahra Purfarzad, Mojtaba Ghorbani* Pages 1104-1108
    Background
    Poisoning is one of the important reasons for children’s admission to hospital. Knowledge of epidemiology of poisoning in each region plays an important role in planning prevention, care, and treatment of patients. This study was conducted to determine the characteristics of acute poisoning epidemiology in children attending pediatric wards of Amirkabir Hospital in Arak in a five-year period (March 2008 to March 2012).
    Methods
    This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 224 children admitted for poisoning. Data were retrospectively collected from patients’ files and analyzed using SPSS 16 software.
    Results
    Of the total population, 54.9% were boys and the rest were girls. Mean age of children was 3.54±2.99 years, and the most common age range was 1-3 years (50.9%). The highest rate of children’s admission due to poisoning was in the winter (30.8%). The most common causes of poisoning included drugs (65.2%), kerosene (7.1%), and food poisoning (5.4%). The most common poisoning drugs, included benzodiazepines (21.9%), gastrointestinal drugs (19.9%), opioid analgesics (15.1%). The most prevalent drugs were methadone, metoclopramide, and clonazepam. At admission, the most common presenting symptoms were neurological (51.3%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (38.4%).
    Conclusion
    High prevalence of poisoning with groups of drugs mentioned could indicate community-wide excessive use of these drugs, as well as negligence of families in keeping them out of children’s reach. Therefore, raising knowledge and awareness about variety of poisoning and how to prevent them, through holding workshops, national media, schools, and health centers can be a valuable step toward upkeep of children’s health.
    Keywords: Children, Epidemiology, Poisoning
  • Mohammad Navid Forsatkar, Mohammad Ali Nematollahi *, Bagher Mojazi Amiri Pages 1109-1113
    Background
    Fluoxetine (ProzacTM) is one of the most popular antidepressant that can be released to aquatic systems via sewage-treatment effluents. It is suspected to provoke substantial effects in the aquatic environment.
    Methods
    In spawning tanks, specimens were exposed to concentrations of 0 and 0.54 µgl-1 fluoxetine from male introduction until the larvae had hatched. Prior to spawning, nest area and time spent for nest building were measured. Also, spawning duration, number of copulations per spawning and eggs per copulation, total produced eggs and hatching rate were recorded.
    Results
    The number of copulations, eggs per copulation and total produced eggs did not differ between the two treatments. Fluoxetine treatment significantly decreased the nest size, time spent for nest building and spawning duration. Also hatching rate was significantly lower during fluoxetine treatment than in the control condition. Notably, five fluoxetine treated males cannibalized their eggs and larvae.
    Conclusion
    We showed that environmental exposure of fighting fish to fluoxetine potentially alters specific aspects of nest building and sexual behavior and, as a consequence, reproductive output.
    Keywords: Animal Sexual Behavior, Fighting Fish, Filial Cannibalism, Fluoxetine, Reproduction
  • Bahram Kamarehie *, Hassan Asilian Mahabadi, Ahmad Joneidi Jafari Pages 1114-1123
    Background
    In this research, the decomposition of Aroclor 1254, including 20 kinds of poly chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in real waste transformer oil in the presence of PEG1000, NaOH, zero valent iron and H2O by microwave (MW) irradiation was studied.
    Methods
    Central composites design (CCD) method was carried out for experimental design. The effects of microwave power levels (200- 1000 W), reaction time (30-600 s), polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1.5-7.5 g), zero valent iron powder (0.3-1.5 g), NaOH (0.3-1.5 g) and H2O (0.4-2 ml) were surveyed on the decomposition efficiency of PCBs.
    Results
    The results specified that polyethylene glycol and NaOH, as reactants, greatly influenced the decomposition of PCBs. Nevertheless, zero valent iron had no effect, and H2O decreased the decomposition efficiency of PCBs. Furthermore, experimental results showed that at the optimum amounts of variables (PEG = 5.34g, NaOH= 1.17g, Fe= 0.6g, H2O= 0.8 ml, microwave power 800 w), 93% of PCBs were decomposed over the reaction duration of 6 min. Therefore, PCBs degradation efficiency without water rose up to 99.99% under the MW at 6 min.
    Conclusion
    The results indicated that MW, PEG and NaOH were important variables on PCBs degradation from real waste transformer oil. It is therefore suggested that microwave radiation with the assistance of PEG and alkali can be introduced as a potential technology for PCBs removal from real waste PCB-contaminated oil.
    Keywords: Aroclors, Microwaves, Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Polyethylene Glycols
  • Ali Sadeghi *, Aliakbar Hedayati Pages 1124-1129
    Background
    The presence of pesticides is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These toxic substances may accumulate in the food chain and cause serious ecological and health problems. The aim of this study was to determine the acute toxicity of glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor as potential dangerous organic pesticides to assess lethal effects of these chemicals agents to the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata).
    Methods
    Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate (41%) (0, 2, 5, 10, 15 and 25 ppm), deltamethrin (2.5%) (0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10 and 0.30 ppm) and pretilachlor (50%) (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm) for 96 h and cumulative mortality of the guppies was calculated with 24 h intervals.
    Results
    LC50-96h was 12.01±1.00, 0.08±0.47 and 8.24±0.42 for glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor respectively. The very low LC50 obtained for glyphosate (12.01±1.00 ppm), deltamethrin (0.08±0.47 ppm) and pretilachlor (8.24±0.42 ppm) indicate that glyphosate, deltamethrin and pretilachlor are highly toxic to guppies.
    Conclusion
    Our results demonstrated that deltamethrin and glyphosate had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the guppy respectively.
    Keywords: Deltamethrin, Glyphosate, Guppy, LC50, Pretilachlor
  • Zinat Sargazi, Mohammad Reza Nikravesh *, Mehdi Jalali, Hamid Reza Sadeghnia, Fatemeh Rahimi Anbarkeh, Leila Mohammadzadeh Pages 1130-1135
    Background
    DZN (diazinon) is an organophosphate insecticide that had been used in agriculture and for domestic and veterinary use for several years and caused many negative effects on plants and animal species, especially on human. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of DZN on MDA (malondialdehyde) and GSH (glutathione) levels in female rat reproductive tissue (ovary) and to assess the protective role of vitamin E.
    Methods
    A total of 30 adult female Wistar rats were divided into five groups: control group (without any intervention), sham group (received only pure corn oil, as solvent), experimental group 1 (DZN+corn oil, 60 mg/kg), experimental group 2 (vitamin E, 200 mg/kg), and experimental group 3 (DZN+vitamin E, the same dosage). All drugs were injected intraperitoneally, except vitamin E which was administrated by gavage. The animals were scarified after two weeks and MDA as a marker of lipid peroxidation and GSH content were measured in ovarian tissue.
    Results
    DZN reduced GSH content and increased MDA level in ovary compared with the control group (P<0.001). Vitamin E plus DZN increased GSH content but decreased DZN-induced MDA elevation in rat ovarian tissue.
    Conclusion
    Oxidative stress contributes to DZN-induced ovarian toxicity. The results of this study suggested that vitamin E may have a protective effect on DZN-induced ovarian toxicity.
    Keywords: Diazinon, Glutathione, Malondialdehyde, Ovary, Vitamin E
  • Javad Saien, Amir Azizi *, Ali Reza Soleymani Pages 1136-1144
    Background
    Heavy metals in aquatic systems usually interfere with many beneficial uses of water. Divalent nickel is a commonly occurring toxic metal in natural ecosystems due to the effluent of refineries, electroplating, and casting industries. In aquatic environments, nickel appears as Ni (II) and Ni0. Despite the high reported toxicity for Ni (II), Ni0 is only slightly toxic. Various methods have been proposed for the treatment of aqueous solutions containing Ni (II). Photocatalytic reduction is an important process; titanium dioxide has been mostly used as a very efficient photocatalyst.
    Methods
    In this study, the removal of divalent nickel ions in aqueous solutions was studied in the presence of remarkably low dosages of nano-titania photocatalyst. Direct imposed irradiation was utilized for treatment of solutions. Accordingly, the influence of four operational parameters, including temperature within the conventional range of 20 to 40 °C, was investigated. Design of experiments, modeling and process optimization were accomplished using central composite design of response surface methodology.
    Results
    Reduced quadratic expression was developed for the reduction efficiency (RE), and the analysis of variance showed its capability in reproducing the data. The effectiveness of each parameter was determined. At the best found conditions of [TiO2] = 42 mg/L, pH = 9.2, T = 34 °C and after 90 minutes of treatment, about 85% removal was achieved for initial 5 mg/L nickel solutions. Pseudo first order reactions proceeded.
    Conclusion
    Based on CCD method, the influence of individual operating parameters and their interactions were obtained. A quadratic equation predicted the variations quite well.
    Keywords: Divalent Nickel, Kinetic, Modelling, Nano, Titania, Photocatalytic Process
  • Soheil Sobhanardakani *, Raziyeh Zandipak, Hassan Parvizimosaed, Arash Javanshir Khoei, Mehran Moslemi, Mahsa Tahergorabi, Seyed Mehdi Hosseini, Parisa Delfieh Pages 1145-1151
    Background
    Heavy metals have been recognized as harmful environmental pollutant known to produce highly toxic effects on different organs and systems of both humans and animals. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the adsorption potential of chitosan for the removal of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions.
    Methods
    This study was conducted in laboratory scale. In this paper chitosan has been used as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) from aqueous solution. In batch tests, the effects of parameters like pH solution (1.0-8.0), initial metal concentrations (100-1000 mgL-1), contact time (5.0-150 min) and adsorbent dose (1.0-7.0 g) on the adsorption process were studied.
    Results
    The results showed that the adsorption of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions on chitosan strongly depends on pH. The experimental isothermal data were analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and it was found that the removal process followed the Langmuir isotherm and maximum adsorption capacity for the adsorption of Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions by the chitosan were 55.5mg g−1, 71.4 mg g−1 and 59 mg g−1, respectively, under equilibrium conditions at 25±1 ºC. The adsorption process was found to be well described by the pseudo-second-order rate model.
    Conclusion
    The obtained results showed that chitosan is a readily, available, economic adsorbent and was found suitable for removing Pb(II), Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution.
    Keywords: Adsorption, Chemical Water Pollution, Chitosan, Heavy Metals, Removal Efficiency
  • Mahboubeh Taherkhani * Pages 1152-1156
    Background
    Essential oils are found to have multiple active components which can show in vitro cytotoxic action against various cancerous cell lines. This study reports the in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae) growing wild in Iran.
    Methods
    Water-distilled essential oil of A. absinthium collected from Ardabil, north-western Iran, was examined for its cytotoxic effects using a modified MTT assay. Air-dried aerial parts of A. absinthium was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus. Cytotoxicity of the essential oil was measured against Hela and human healthy peripheral blood cells.
    Results
    The 50% cytotoxic concentrations were found to be 48.59 µg/ml and 5456.07 µg/ml for Hela cells and human lymphocytes, respectively. The volatile oil displayed good cytotoxic action against the human tumor cell line.
    Conclusion
    The IC50 shows that cytotoxicity of the oil against human tumor cell line is much higher than that required for healthy human cells. These results indicate low adverse effects for this oil. The findings of this study necessitate the need for further consideration of this essential oil in anti-neoplastic chemotherapy.
    Keywords: Artemisia Absinthium, Cytotoxicity, Hela Cells, Lymphocyte
  • Mohammad Majidi *, Solmaz Nekouei Fard Pages 1157-1159
    Background
    Tramadol, an analgesic drug abused by opioid addicts, is also abused accidentally or for suicidal purposes. Tramadol poisoning can induce CNS depression, seizures, coma, and ultimately death. Case: In this report, a 30-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department due to suicidal attempt with ingestion of 14000 mg (140 tablet 100 mg) of tramadol. He had history of suicidal attempts in past years as well as depression in his past medical history, but he had not abused tramadol and other drugs in his history. There was no history of epilepsy or head trauma in. He presented with generalized seizures two hours post ingestion, and, then, he was referred to hospital four hours later. Generalized seizures were poorly controlled by multiple medications. Due to respiratory arrest, endotracheal tube was inserted and he was admitted to the ICU immediately. At admission, he experienced hypovolemic shock, hypoglycemia, coma, apnea, refractory seizures, muscle spasms, acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagolative disorder, rhabdomyolysis, and acute renal failure. Despite medical managements, he died 38 days after ingestion.
    Conclusion
    In this report, despite using inhalational anesthetic drugs, seizures continued and were very poorly controlled. Cause of death in this patient can be seen as the side effects of tramadol poisoning.
    Keywords: Poisoning, Refractory Seizures, Tramadol