فهرست مطالب

پژوهش زبان و ادبیات فارسی - پیاپی 25 (تابستان 1391)
  • پیاپی 25 (تابستان 1391)
  • بهای روی جلد: 60,000ريال
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1391/05/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Amir Bahram Arab Ahmadi * Page 1
    Over the last millennium, Persian Language has influenced many parts of the world. Most researchers believe that the Persian language dominance is limited to Middle Asia and India Peninsula. There have been lots of researches in this regard, but there is little, if any, information about the status of Persian language and literature in East Africa. In fact, East Africa (particularly Tanzania, Independent Republic of Zanzibar, and south parts of Kenya) are among the areas which in spite of far distance from Iran, have accepted considerable effects from Persian language and literature and there remains many of Persian original words. This article attempts to provide information about the status of Persian language and literature in East Africa from very past up to now and explicates its role in formation and strengthening of Swahili language and literature.
    Keywords: Persian Language, Swahili Language, East Africa, Shirazi Immigrants, South Coasts of Iran
  • Muhammad Ali Xazanedar, Loo*, Behrooz Soltani Page 29
    Rouh-al-Amin Shahrestani-e Isfahani named Mir Jomle was born in 981 (L. Hegira) in “Shahrestan environs of Isfahan and died in 1047 Hegira due to jerk and knock kneed maladies in New Delhi. In spite the fact that he was a minister and one of the overwrought and hardworking poets of his time. Imitating Nezami Ganjavi, he has composed a Xamse. He has nearly thirty thousand couplets. His method in poetry is one that Kalim, glorifying him, has said: “he sewed the clothes of words into the meanings”. The comparison of comparables with the original work can help us identify the literary work, and the reasons of its survival and success. Comparing the content, structures and language of Shirin and Xosru” by Rouh-al-Amin Shahrestani-e Isfahani poem With “Xosru and Shirin” By Nezami Ganjavi’s peom, this article attempts to review the differences and similarities between these two poems. Some parts of Rouh-al-Amin’s work which is imitated from Nezami Ganjavi has a different expression method. Many of words, phrases and expressionsused by Nezami have gotten new frames in his poetry, which are cheaper than the original work by Nezami Ganjavi. Rouh-al-Amin did not tend a lot to newness in phrases and expression and words and mostly attempts to change narrations and events of stories.
    Keywords: Literary Criticism, Comparison, Xosru, Shirin by Nezami Ganjavi, Shirin, Xosru by Rouh, al, Amin Shahrestani, e Isfahani
  • Ali Asghar Baba, Safari *, Kourush Manuchehri Page 51
    Literary varieties are divided into Epic, Lyric, Pedagogical, and Dramatic literatures according to content. These varieties are interfered by each other; in other words, a lyric work may have some epic episodes and there may be some signs of pedagogical or lyric in an epic work; the presence of one literary variety in another variety, sometimes, adds to the work variation and attraction and sometimes causes the interruption of tone and language in literary works. Bahman-Name (5th and 6th Hegira century) is written by Iranshah-ibn-e Abi-al-khier is one the epic poems which is not devoid of lyric aspects. Reviewing the lyric themes and their harmony or disharmony with the epic text was done in this article, since epic and lyric are so different from each other in literature. Lyric themes, available in this poem, were extracted and classified in this article which resulted in identifying 12 lyric themes like: apology, oath, praise, elegy, eulogy, gravamen, pride, lampoon, and so on. Epic tone and archaism of language is observed in these lyric themes, too. The presence of lyric themes does not partition the epic tone and this work has a unity in tone.
    Keywords: Bahman, Name, Iranshah, Epic Literature, Lyric Literature
  • Syed Majed Qoravi Neyestani*, Mojtaba Zurvani Page 75
    We first try to clarify our meaning of “paradoxical”; then, we shall see in format of three basic samples that the paradoxical phrases used by Molavi turn to: rhetorical device to array a reduced speech, or is read in a contradictory format, or is reduced to a reasonable method to realize the words. Although these samples are useful guidelines in most cases, they are mostly to solve the problem of Paradox rather than its epistemology. According to the interpretation of Jung on Fundamental paradoxes in human existence, this article tries to provide a new perspective to analyze this issue in Molavi’s thought. This article is not a simultaneity and comparison of Molavi and Jung Mind-set; but it is the formulation of Jung Model for Paradox Analysis, and applying this sample in Molavi’s thought. According to this sample, mystic is encountered with an existential paradox in the deepest levels of “self” and considers this deep contradiction as the voucher of self growth and reach of knowledge.
    Keywords: Paradox, Molavi, Jung, Self, Evil, Suffering
  • Ahmad Rezaee Jamkarani*, Leila Sadr, E. Hashemi Page 93
    According to the reviews, there are 12 common narratives in Masnavi and Fih ma Fih. Since analyzing all common narratives is not possible in a single article, it seems that the first narrative of Fih ma Fih named “looking of Prophet at slaves” whose comparable is seen in the third book of Masnavi has many thinkable aspects like context of text, intermixing historical backgrounds, actions, Molavi innovation and so on which makes it more significant. Molavi intermixes two different backgrounds of Badr and Xandagh wars, and creates two narratives which are common in their first roles, kinds of behavioral, mental and verbal processes; but in Fih ma Fih he adds an episode and as a result expands conversation between characters and some roles and makes a different narrative. The current study reviews the historical background of abovementioned narrative, then, compares the actions and roles and their varieties, the analysis of actions based on kinds of current processes, reviewing characters based on the Grimac view, reviewing details and features of the narrative, features and characteristics of characters, scenery, and conversations in Fih ma Fih and Masnavi all in details, and shows the amount of Molavi’s innovation or his occupation based on the structure of the text.
    Keywords: Narratology, Conversation, Narrative of Slaves, Masnavi, Fih ma Fih
  • Mehdi Zamani* Page 113
    In mystical Ontology of Ibn-e Arabi “Supreme Pen” equals “First intellect”, “global Soul” and “Muhammadian Truth” which have main roles in composition and formulation of the Book of Creation, but making the pen demands ability which is reflected in form of “guarded plate” or “general self”. Ibn-e Arabi attempted to clarify the role of plate and pen in revelation of divine Science and Will via allegory. Along this way, he interprets the Quranic verses based on intuition and mystical doctrine, but in addition to this, he adjusts them with the philosophical principles and old physics; an action which is done by some of Muslim scientists in specification of Grace Theory. Attar of Neyshabur, in the climax of explicating his Ontology in “Mosibat-Name (Tragedy-Letter)”, introduces Plate and Pen respectively as the symbol of Features of knowledge and power of “spirit” and considers the light of Mostafa (the Prophet) or the truth of Perfect Human as the genuine “spirit”. In his descriptions and allegories about the Plate and Pen, he also mentions to the intellectual principles of philosophy and doctrines of old astronomy or the Nine (Skies) Theory. Explaining the doctrines and expressing the similarities and differences of these two famous Muslim mystics are among the results of this study.
    Keywords: Mystical Weltanschauung, Plate, Pen, Mohye, al, Din Ibn e Arabi, Attar of Neyshabur
  • Maryam Ameli Rezaei* Page 133
    Social Novel is an applicatory area to reflect and recreate social realities in the mirror of literature. The challenge between tradition and modernity is one the themes that is reflected in the Persian literature from the constitutional monarchy and is reflected in an appropriate manner with social changes of every era. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran, social novel experienced considerable quantitative and qualitative growth and there is few novels which in this time which has not expressed social themes. The main problem of this study is reviewing the conflict of tradition and modernity concepts in social novels after the Islamic Revolution. The purpose of this study is comparative reviewing and comparing of the authors’ approach toward this issue in the three decades from 1360 to 1390 (1981 to 2011). This study is done applying descriptive-analytic method and using library resources. The result of this research shows that in Novels of 1360 to 1370 (1981 to 1991) this conflict is reflected in a clear and manifest manner particularly in objection to industrialization, the material looks of modernity and losing traditions, but in 1370 to 1390 (1991 to 2011) this experience is internalized and is manifested in form of suspicion, wandering, and traditionalism. However, the acceptance of changes of first decade which were regarded as serious challenges in second and third decade shows the flourishing movement toward modernity particularly in city communities and educated group.
    Keywords: Social Novel, Tradition, Modernity, Immigration, Surface Elements of Modernity, Cultural Elements of Modernity