فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2013
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1392/07/18
  • تعداد عناوین: 7
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  • Samad Muhammadnejad, Hossein-Ali Arab*, Seyed-Muhammad Faghihi, Hossein Hassanpour, Ahad Muhammadnejad Pages 1-10
    The chick model is a useful research tool to investigate the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Recognition of appropriate markers for detection of chick enteric ganglia will allow better utilization of this model to study abnormalities of the ENS. This study aimed to validate a set of antibodies for avian ENS studies on wax sections. The specimens were taken from jejunum and colorectum of early post-hatching chicks، fixed in 4% buffered formaldehyde and stained using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)، neuron specific enolase (NSE)، synaptophysin and S-100 immunohistochemical biomarkers were employed on paraffin-embedded blocks to identify enteric ganglia. The immuno-reactivity scoring was recorded using a semi-quantitative fourtiered system (0، 1+، 2+، and 3+). In jejunum specimens، the immune-reactivity of GFAP was significantly higher than both synaptophysin (p=0. 001) and S-100 (p=0. 001). There was also a significant difference (p=0. 03) between the immune-reactivity induced by NSE and S-100 in the jejunum samples. Significant differences were observed between GFAP immuno-reactivity and both synaptophysin and S-100 (p=0. 013; and p =0. 005، respectively) in the samples collected from colorectum. The level of immuno-reactivity between NSE and both synaptophysin and S 100 biomarkers in the colorectal specimens were also different significantly (p=0. 02 and 0. 0، respectively). The results of the present work showed that GFAP and NSE biomarkers can be used with high immuno-reactivities to examine the chick enteric ganglia as an appropriate animal model in ENS developmental disorders.
    Keywords: Enteric Nervous System, Immunohistochemistry, Chick
  • Fatemeh Bibak, Gholam Ali Kalidari*, Jamshid Razmyar, Mehrnaz Rad Pages 11-18
    Mycoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases in the poultry industry. Its causative agent, mycoplasma has various species, which two of them, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) are the most important species. Due to the enormous losses in the production farms of industrial poultry, achieving a rapid, accurate and definite diagnosis of mycoplasma is of great importance. An early and definite diagnosis can guarantee the farm management on keeping herd health. In many countries such as Iran, the disease and its complications have still remained as a serious problem. Given this issue, we decided to identify the mycoplasma infection from broiler poultry flocks through culture method. 150 carcasses of broiler chicken belonging to 50 broiler flocks were sampled in which the signs of air sacs involvement and secretions in the airways, trachea and bronchi were seen. Samples taken from trachea, palatine cleft, nasal passages and air sacs, were cultivated into PPLO liquid medium using membrane filters (0.45 micron). They were incubated at 37 °C and were examined for pH (color) changes for every 48 hours. Duringthe first 24 hours after cultivation, every color change to yellow or dark visible with the bare eye was considered as bacterial contamination, therefore, the contaminated samples wereremoved from the incubator. The color change in the liquid media was compared with the uninoculated medium as negative control. If a color change was observed in the liquid media after 48h, subculture was done in the PPLO agar. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for 14 days. They were examined for mycoplasma colonies using a microscope with magnification of 10 in every other day. The results showed that out of 150 samples obtained from 50 broiler flocks, 16 (10.66%) were positive for mycoplasma, while in terms of contamination, 4 flocks 8%) were positive. The contamination of positive cultures was finally confirmed through PCR method with universal primer.
    Keywords: Mycoplasmosis, PPLO medium, mycoplasma colonies, universal primer
  • Shivesh Deshmukh*, Sanjay Punjabrao Ingole, Durga Chaurasia Pages 19-25
    Aseel is an indigenous breed of poultry recognized for its majestic gait and cock fighting. Southern part of Chhattisgarh is its breeding tract. Vanaraja is a crossbreed beingpopularized by the Department of Animal Husbandary (C.G.) to improve the livelihood of tribal peoples.Ductus deferens is part of reproductive system which plays an important role in transportation of spermatozoa and fertilization. In the present study, 10 birds of two age group viz. 5 months (grower) and 13 months (adult) of each breed were used. Ductus deferens was collected, processed and sections were stained for demonstration of normal histological structure, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, reticular fibers, carbohydrates and mucopolysaccharides. The height of epithelium, height of mucosal folds at different segments, number of mucosal folds per transverse section, thickness of wall excluding mucosal folds, maximum and minimum diameter of ductus deferens was significantly higher in growers and adults of Vanaraja than Aseel. The density of connective tissue fibers, PAS activity and AB-PAS activity was higher in both groups of Vanaraja compared to Aseel.
    Keywords: histology, histochemistry, Aseel, Vanaraja, ductus deferens
  • Reza Narenji Sani, Parviz Tajik*, Mohammad Hasan Yousefi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Shiva Shafiei Pages 26-34
    Stem cells are generally defined as clonogenic cells capable of both self-renewal and differentiation. Probably the best method for long-term preservation of spermatogonial stem cells is cryopreservation. In this study, effects of Follicle Stimulating Hormone andTestosterone on viability rate of cryopreserved spermatogonial stem cell after Thawingwere investigated. Sertoli and spermatogonial cells were isolated from 3-5 months old calves. Cocultured sertoli and spermatogonial cells were treated with Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Testosterone in treatment groups before cryopreservation. Results indicated that Follicle Stimulating Hormone increased viability rate of cryopreserved spermatogonial cells in comparison with Testosterone and control group. In conclusion, using Follicle Stimulating Hormone provided proper bovine spermatogonial stem cell culture medium for in vitro culture and cryopreservation of these cells.
    Keywords: Cryopreservation, Bovine, FSH, Testosterone
  • Identification of Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) Outbreak in a Dairy Farm in Varamin, Iran
    Taghipour Bazargani T. *, Movassaghi, A. R., Bahonar, A. R., Bani Hassane., Emmatzadehf., Khedmati, K. Pages 35-44
    Bovine Ephemeral Fever (BEF) flared up in a dairy farm with 2097 animals. The disease started in September، 2006، with daily means of environmental temperature (ET) and relative humidity (RH) of 23. 8 ºC and 37%، respectively، and ended after 48 days with ET and RH of 16. 2 ºC and 68%، respectively. In this outbreak، the age of affected animals was more than 10 months and the morbidity rate was 13. 07%. Clinical signs included fever، hyperpnoea، mouth breathing، subcutaneous emphysema and death. Histologically، there were vasculitis، hyperemia; hemorrhage and edema in soft tissues and rupture of alveolar walls. Both Culex and Colicoides spp. were captured as vectors. Bovine Ephemeral Fever virus genome was detected in blood samples by RT-PCR and the CPE was shown by blood sample culture.
    Keywords: Bovine ephemeral, fever, vasculitis, subcutaneous emphysema, pneumoperitoneum
  • Mansour Mayahi, Saleh Esmaeilzadeh, Nader Mosavari, Kaveh Parvandar Asadollahi* Pages 45-56
    The aim of this study was to investigate the histopathology of avian tuberculosis in naturally infected domestic pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Avian tuberculosis is one of the most important diseases that affect all species of birds, and is most often caused by Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium genavense. 80 out of morethan 600 pigeons were selected based on their clinical signs and poor health conditions and under standard conditions were euthanized, necropsied, followed by bacterial culture on specific media for Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium. Fifty Mycobacterium avium subsp. Avium were isolated from pigeons. All acid-fast bacilli isolates were tested by the PCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA,IS1245 and IS901 genes. After definitive identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium by culturing and PCR assay, 45 fixed samples including liver, gizzard, proventriculus, intestines, kidneys and lungs from positive pigeons were subjected for histopathology studies. Tissues sections were prepared as usual and stained by haematoxylin and eosin, Ziehl-Neelsen and Congo red. Based on gross findings, liver and intestines were the most affected organs. Histologically, caseative uncalcified granulomatous inflammation was noticed in the affected organs. Also histopathology examinations showed that most of the granulomatous lesions in the lungs were in microscopic size and it seems that lungs were affected more than it was expected. In Ziehl- Neelsen’s staining, a large number of acid-fast bacilli were observed within multinucleated giant cells and in necrotic areas. Also in Congo red staining, deposition of amyloid in liver and kidneys sections were observed. In conclusion, histopathology findings were typical of avian tuberculosis, including acid-fast bacilli and uncalcified caseous necrosis centers that were surrounded by multinucleated giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes.
    Keywords: Pigeon, Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium, amyloid, granulomatous lesions, acid, fast bacilli
  • Ali Reza Taghavi Razavizadeh*, Mohammad Reza Aslani Pages 57-63
    Atrial fibrillation (AF) was detected as an incidental finding in a 14 years old brood mare horse which was maintained for student education in the teaching hospital، Faculty of Veterinary Medicine، Mashhad. Irregular heart rhythm، variable intensity of heart sounds and «f» waves were revealed in clinical examination and electrocardiography. Hematology showed normal values and hyponutremia was observed in serum biochemical analysis. Treatment of the horse was done with oral administration of quinidine sulfate (200 mg tabs). Normal rhythm was appeared after 24 hours of treatment. Herein، we have discussed the etiology and the treatment procedure of this dysrhythmia.
    Keywords: Atrial fibrillation, Quinidine sulfate, Electrocardiogram, Biochemical factors, Horse