فهرست مطالب

International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture - Volume:3 Issue:3, 2014
  • Volume:3 Issue:3, 2014
  • 104 صفحه،
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/08/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
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  • Characterization of biosolids and evaluating the effectiveness of plastic-covered sun drying beds as a biosolids stabilization method in Lusaka, Zambia
    James S. Phiri, Reuben C. Katebe, Chisha C. Mzyece, Phillimon Shaba, Hikabasa Halwindi Page 157
    Introduction
    The Lusaka Water and Sewerage Company (LWSC) produces ~800–1,000 kg of treated sewage sludge per day at its Manchinchi wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The biosolids are used for land application purposes although the contaminant and pathogen composition and quality of the biosolids have been unknown until this study. Zambia does not have legal standards and guidelines for biosolids management or application. The Manchinchi plant in Lusaka suffers from constant breakdowns such that the effectiveness of the plant to produce quality grade biosolids for land application use is questionable. In peri-urban areas, the problem of poor sanitation is being addressed using different technologies including urine diversion ecosan toilets. The effectiveness of ecosan toilets to stabilize faecal sludge has not been assessed in Zambia. The purpose of this study was to stabilize and characterize the biosolids from Manchinchi plant and ecosan toilets. Stabilization was done by use of drying beds and irradiation. The parametres that were used for characterization were microbiological, parasitological and heavy metals.
    Results
    Biosolids from the Manchinchi WWTP sun drying bed, ecosan toilets and from an experimental plastic-covered drying bed were found to contain different pathogenic microorganisms and contaminant levels. A radiation dose and time-related declining trend in pathogens loads in biosolids were observed. By the third week, no viable Ascaris eggs were detected. Based on controlled conditions, the biosolids quality was found to be within the internationally acceptable standards for restricted use.
    Conclusions
    Both the untreated LWSC biosolids and ecosan sludge contained pathogen levels with the potential to cause environmental and public health hazards if used for agriculture purposes. Under plastic-covered drying beds, viable Ascaris eggs were not detected by the fourth week of treatment and the biosolids were stabilized to levels equivalent to Class C of the Australian standards for restricted land application. Covered drying beds can be considered as cost effective stabilization treatment technology for biosolids in developing countries. The technology has potential benefits for improving public health and reducing environmental pollution in Zambia, especially during the rainy season when biosolids are directly discharged into the environment.
  • Management of municipal solid wastes and production of liquid biofertilizer through vermic activity of epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida
    Kanchan Mishra, Keshav Singh, C. P. Mani Tripathi Page 167
    Background
    Animal and municipal solid wastes (MSW) create environmental pollution. It is one of the most challenging problems which require attention. Efforts were made for the conversion and eco-management of animal and municipal wastes into safe and hygienic products by an epigeic earthworm Eisenia fetida. The excess use of chemical fertilizer and synthetic pesticide has changed the texture of soil and its fertility.
    Result
    The chemical analysis of different combinations of MSW and animal wastes before and after vermicomposting showed, that there was significant decrease in total organic carbon, C/N ratio and pH in the final vermiwash. The significant increase in the level of total Kjeldahl nitrogen, total potassium, total phosphorus and total calcium was observed after vermicomposting in all the prepared combinations of MSW with different animal dungs.
    Conclusion
    It was recorded that due to the vermic activity, the MSW and animal wastes get changed into nutrient rich, ecofriendly, and biofertilizer. The observations reveal that by vermicomposting not only ecofriendly management of MSW can be achieved but also potent vermiwash can be made which are helpful in increasing the production of crops.
  • Financial sustainability of modern composting: the economically optimal scale for municipal waste composting plant in developing Asia
    Andante Hadi Pandyaswargo, Dickella Gamaralalage Jagath Premakumara Page 175
    There is a widespread interest in converting organic waste into compost fertilizer to extend the life of landfills, create economic and environmental benefits, and ultimately reduce the pressure on local governments in managing the ever-increasing complexity of municipal solid waste. However, composting is still seldom considered as a strategic element. There is also very little evidence available of its economic feasibility. This study, therefore, aims to analyze key factors that influence the economic feasibility of municipal composting plant and identify a range of plant capacity or scale where a composting project could have higher opportunity to be financially sustainable. A cost–benefit analysis (CBA) was carried out using the data gathered from five composting plants in Asia, including Surabaya, Bali and Bekasi in Indonesia, Beijing in China, and Matale in Sri Lanka. The results identified that the medium-scale and lower large-scale composting plants have an optimal opportunity for being financially feasible as compared with the smaller and larger capacity plants. The study also identified that the economic viability of the composting plants depends on the number of factors, such as selection of suitable processing methods, technologies, scale, quality of product and marketing strategies. The advantages of the medium and lower large-scale composting plants are (1) waste input and product quality are easier to control than larger scale compost plants, and (2) there are extra income opportunities such as tipping fees and carbon credits that are limited in the case of small-scale composting plants. The scale of composting plant is one of the key factors to be considered at the initial stage of planning composting plants.
  • Recycling of mushroom compost wheat straw in the diet of feedlot calves with two physical forms
    Hassan Fazaeli, Housain Shafyee-Varzeneh, Ali Farahpoor, Abdolossein Moayyer Page 189
    Background
    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of diet contained mushroom spent wheat straw (MSWS) remained from Agaricus bisporus mushroom as well as the physical form of the diet on the performance of the feedlot calves. At the end of mushroom harvesting period, MSWS was collected from production room and the casing soil was removed from the whole compost, then it was sun dried and sampled for chemical analysis. In a completely randomized design, 24 Holsteins male calves with initial weight of 201.9 ± 1.0 kg were allocated to four experimental diets containing (1) standard pellet diet; (2) pellet diet with 15 % MSWS; (3) standard mash diet and (4) mash diet contained 15 % of MSWS.
    Results
    Average daily gain was 1,261, 1,146, 1,093 and 830 g; dry matter intake was 7.91, 6.51, 8.07 and 8.15 kg/animal/day and feed conversion ratio was 6.32, 5.69, 7.39 and 8.76 for the diets respectively that were significantly different (P < 0.05) among the treatments. Results of slaughtering observations showed that no differences could be detected in carcass and internal organs of the calves that received different diets.
    Conclusions
    The spent compost straw could be included up to 15 % in finishing calve diet in the pellet form.
  • Forms of phosphorus of vermicompost produced from leaf compost and sheep dung enriched with rock phosphate
    Ebrahim Adhami, Sara Hosseini, Hamidreza Owliaie Page 197
    Introduction
    Vermicomposting could increase nutrients availability including phosphorus. During vermicomposting, a decomposition of organic substrates leads to the production of several organic acids, such as malonic, fumaric, succinic acids. Microorganisms both in the intestinal organ of the worms and the organic waste have the ability to convert insoluble P into soluble forms. Little information exists about the effects of vermicomposting on rock phosphate (RP) solubilization. Present study was conducted to evaluate the solubilization of powdered RP during vermicomposting.
    Results
    Vermicomposting and RP application increased NaHCO3-Pi. Rock phosphate application in vermicomposting significantly increased NaHCO3-Po. Vermicomposting significantly increased NaOH-Pi in all of the treatments. RP application and vermicomposting increased HCl-Pi in both organic sources. Generally, vermicomposting increased HCl-Po. Vermicomposting decreased pH but its effect was more evident in the presence of RP. Vermicomposting increased EC in both organic sources.
    Conclusion
    Present study showed that vermicomposting helps to enhance the transformation of P from RP into various organic or inorganic P forms, which would be readily or moderately available, thus, increase the availability of P from both RPs.
  • Pearl millet (Pennisetum Glaucum L.) response after ferti-irrigation with sugar mill effluent in two seasons
    Vinod Kumar, A. K. Chopra Page 203
    Background
    The disposal of sugar mill effluent has become a major problem in India due to generation of huge volume of effluent. The value of wastewater for crop production has been recognized in many countries, including India. The effluents not only contain nutrients that stimulate growth of many crops, but also may have various toxic chemicals, metals, metallic oxides along with nitrogenous and phosphate compounds, which may affect various agronomical characteristics of crop plants. The present investigation was conducted to asses the agro-potentiality of agro-based sugar mill effluent as ferti-irrigant, and an alternative of irrigation water. Six plots were selected for six treatments of sugar mill effluent viz. 0 % (control), 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 % for the fertigation of Pennisetum glaucum L., cv. Nandi 35. P. glaucum was grown, fertigated with effluent till harvest and effect of effluent fertigation on the soil and agronomical characteristics of P. glaucum were analyzed.
    Results
    The fertigant concentration produced changes in electrical conductivity (EC), pH, organic carbon (OC), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), phosphate (PO4 3−), sulfate (SO4 2−), iron (Fe), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) of the soil in both seasons. The agronomic performance of P. glaucum increased from 20 to 40 % in both seasons compared to controls. The accumulation of heavy metals increased in soil and P. glaucum from 20 to 100 % sugar mill effluent concentrations in both seasons. Biochemical components like crude proteins, crude fiber, and crude carbohydrates were found maximum with 40 % sugar mill effluent in both seasons. The contamination factor (Cf) of various metals were in the order of Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd > Cr for soil and Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Cd for P. glaucum in both seasons after fertigation with sugar mill effluent. Sugar mill effluent irrigation increased nutrients in the soil and affected the growth of P. glaucum in both seasons.
    Conclusions
    It appears that sugar mill effluent can be used as a biofertigant after appropriate dilution to improve yield of P. glaucum
  • Thermal and probiotic treatment effects on restaurant waste for incorporation into poultry diet
    Sadegh Cheraghi Saray, Ali Hosseinkhani, Hossein Janmohammadi, Peyman Zare, Hossein Daghighkia Page 217
    Background
    Restaurant waste (RW) can be considered as a valuable feedstuff for animal nutrition due to its high nutritional value and low price. The aim of this study was to determine nutritional value and the microbial load of the waste in order to incorporate it in the poultry feedstuff. To our knowledge the current study is the first attempt in the field of RW processing with Lactobacillus strains. Then the second goal of this experiment was to study the effect of RW processing with Lactobacillus on nutrient and chemical composition of RW. The four Lactobacillus strains applied in the study included Lactobacillus casei subsp-1608 ATCC 39392, Lactobacillus plantarum-1058 ATCC 8014, Lactobacillus acidophilus-1643 DSM 20079 and Lactobacillus reuteri-1655 DSM 20016.
    Results
    The experiments in the case of chemical composition showed that the mixed processing caused a significant improvement in nutritional value compared to the raw waste (P < 0.05). Among the strains, L. acidophilus had the highest mean amount of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), dry matter and gross energy (GE) with 21.40, 19.91, 41.02 and 4,872.61 kcal/kg, respectively, and the lowest amount of ash (3.67 %) compared with other strains. In the second phase of the experiment, the results obtained from comparing the average total count of bacteria and coliforms in five types of RW proved that the means of both bacteria and coliforms are within the standard range and can be applied as poultry feed. However, regarding the average total count of bacteria, barbecue waste with 9.85 × 104 CFU/g and chicken waste with 9.51 × 103 CFU/g were the most contaminated and the healthiest foods, respectively. In addition, barbecue waste with 1.28 × 102 CFU/g and fish waste with 1.08 × 102 CFU/g had the highest and lowest count of coliforms, respectively.
    Conclusion
    Nutritional value determination of RW samples showed that it is in the level that can be used in poultry diet. It was also presented that by adding Lactobacillus strains to the waste, the amount of GE, CP and EE increased and ash amount decreased. Therefore, its use in poultry diet is highly economic. In addition, this study showed that RW microbial load is in the level that can be applied as poultry feedstuff.
  • Domestic sewage irrigation on dynamics of nutrients and heavy metals in soil and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production
    S. R. Salakinkop, C. S. Hunshal Page 225
    Background
    Evaluation of urban sewage for its feasibility and potentiality as sources of irrigation water and plant nutrient is need of the hour. In this context, a field experiment was laid out in split–split plot design with three replications. Main plots constituted two types of lands (fields irrigated with sewage and bore well water since 1992). Subplots were allotted with three sources of irrigation which consisted of sewage water alone, bore well water alone (good water) and conjunction of sewage and bore well water. And sub-subplot constituted of four fertilizer levels (no fertilizer, 50 % recommended rate of fertilizer (RRF), 75 % RRF and 100 % RRF.
    Results
    Crop growth in terms of photosynthesis, net assimilation rate and dry matter production significantly increased in sewage-irrigated land compared to bore well-irrigated land. Similarly, significantly higher wheat grain yield (4370 kg ha−1), protein (12.88 %) and dry gluten (9.22 %) were obtained in field irrigated with sewage water compared to bore well-irrigated land. Sources of irrigation also differed significantly producing higher grain yield (4,100 kg ha−1), protein (12.81 %), dry gluten (8.97 %) in sewage irrigation compared to bore well water irrigation. Enhanced activity of dehydrogenase and phosphatase enzymes and organic carbon in sewage-irrigated field contributed more to available nutrient pool of soil. Pooled results of 2 years revealed that wheat roots accumulated significantly higher amount of Cr, Ni, Pb and Cd in sewage-irrigated land compared to bore well-irrigated land. The same trend was noticed in stem with respect to Cr and Ni. In general, concentration of heavy metals was higher in root followed by stem and lower in grain. The Pb concentration in plant parts (root, stem and grain) was not influenced by land type and sources of irrigation. None of the treatments did show accumulation of these heavy metals in wheat plant parts more than normal range found in food plants. The values of these metals were below the recommended maximum tolerable levels proposed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives, Summary and conclusions. In: 53rd Meeting, Rome, (1999).
    Conclusion
    Increased wheat grain yield in sewage-irrigated land compared to bore well-irrigated land was attributed to increased soil fertility that was a result of continuous sewage irrigation. Long-term irrigation of farm lands with wastewater leads to contamination of soil and plant system with heavy metals in the study area. Wastewater-irrigated soil showed significant (p < 0.05, p < 0.01) accumulation of heavy metals compared to the freshwater-irrigated soil indicating concern of their increased absorption in wheat plant. The accumulation of heavy metals in wheat plant was in the order of roots > stems > grains. However, all these heavy metals in plant system were lower than the recommended threshold level.
  • Decomposition and nutrient release pattern of wheat (Triticum aestivum) residues under different treatments in desert field conditions of Sudan
    Fatoma A. M. Rezig, Elsadig A. Elhadi, Mubarak R. Abdalla Page 237
    Background
    Recycling of crop residues is essential to sustain soil fertility and crop production. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to study the decomposition of crop residues particularly in the arid tropics. The decomposition and nutrient release pattern from crop residues incorporated in the soil have rarely been investigated under semi-arid climatic conditions in Sudan. Decomposition and nutrient release pattern from wheat residue were investigated in a 12 week litter bag experiment under field condition. Litter bags contain 50 g wheat residue were buried in plots cultivated with guar and treated with following treatments: crop residue (CR), recommended fertilizer + crop residue (RF + CR), sewage sludge (SS) and non treated control (C). In each plot of each block, 12 litter bags were buried. Four bags from each treatment were retrieved at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks of decomposition. The decomposed residue was analysed for remaining dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) contents. Mass loss and nutrients released from wheat residue followed the exponential model, W t = W 0 × e−kt from which the specific decay rate constants (k) and t 0. 5 and t 0. 95 were calculated.
    Results
    The result show that the mineral fertilization combined with crop residues (RF + CR) resulted in the maximum decomposition and nutrient release compared to the other treatments. The half-life (t 0. 5) values of the treatments were in the following order: RF + CR (6. 70 weeks) < SS (8. 0 weeks) < CR (9. 60 weeks) < C (11. 91 weeks). The percentage remaining DM in the litter bags followed the order C (73. 25 %) > CR (66. 45 %) > SS (59. 85 %) > RF + CR (53. 85 %). A 50 % loss of residue N was found after 8. 88 weeks in the C treatment and 5. 04 weeks in RF + CR treatment. Generally, nutrient loss from all treatments in the order of Mg > K = N > Ca > P. Conclusionsي: Application of mineral fertilizer or sewage sludge enhances the decomposition of low-quality residue (wheat). Therefore, it is essential to apply fertilizer in degraded soil before incorporation of crop residue with high carbon to nitrogen ratio.
  • Study of physico-chemical and biochemical parameters during rotary drum composting of water hyacinth
    D. Sarika, Jiwan Singh, Ravi Prasad, Isha Vishan, V. Sudharsan Varma, Ajay S. Kalamdhad Page 247
    Background
    Water hyacinth (Eichhorniacrassipes) is one of the most uncompromising weeds in the whole world. Its adverse effects due to fast growth rate are main physical interference with fishing and navigation. Water hyacinth also causes eutrophication due to the large release of organic nutrients after its degradation, consequentially deterioration of water quality and also adversely affecting aquatic flora and fauna. Therefore, composting is one of the best methods for control and utilization of water hyacinth. Water hyacinth being the plant material is rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin content which hinders the rate of degradation during composting. The raw materials including water hyacinth along with sawdust and cattle manure in five different proportions trial 1 (10:0:0), trial 2 (8:1:1), trial 3 (7:2:1), trial 4 (6:3:1), and trial 5 (5:4:1) were composted using rotary drum composter.
    Results
    Final product of water hyacinth composting was flourishing of nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. The lignin reduction in all the five trials was obtained between 10 and 40 %. The reduction in cellulose was observed ranging from 4 to 55 % in different trials. Similar as cellulose and lignin, hemicellulose was also reduced about 11–46 % in all five trials during the process.
    Conclusion
    The maximum reduction inorganic matter, lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose was observed in trial 4; whereas, the nutrient contents (nitrogen, phosphorus, Na, K, Ca, and Mg) were increased significantly during the process. On analyzing the FTIR results, trial 4 showed that aliphatic and polysaccharides have easily degraded and aromatic compounds have increased with composting time in trial 4.