فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/08/14
  • تعداد عناوین: 50
  • M. Hosseini, Z. Memari, M.R. Ganjali, M. Khoobi, F. Faridbod, A. Shafiee, P. Norouzi, M. Shamsipur, A. Hajinezhad Pages 861-870
    In this work, a novel Hg2+ sensitive fluorescent chemosensor is constructed. The proposed nano-chemosensor was prepared through the preparation of 3-(benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-7 hydroxy-2H-chromen- 2-one functionalized silica nanoparticles which has high magnetization properties (BTC-Fe O4@SiO2). The ûnal product was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and UVvisible absorption and ûuorescence emission. The material was found to demonstrate selective interactions with Hg2+ ions. This interaction is most probably due to the presence of the ûuorophore moiety at the surface of nanomaterial. Fluorescence measurements revealed that the emission intensity of the Hg2+-bound with the magnetic core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs increases signiûcantly upon addition of various concentrations of Hg2+, while in case of other mono, di, trivalent cations no changes or weak changes in the intensities were observed. The enhancement of ûuorescence is attributed to the strong covalent binding of Hg2+ ions with the binding constant value of 1.7×105/M. The sensor can be applied for analysis of mercury in environmental sample.
    Keywords: Mercury ion, Fluorescent probe, Nano, chemosensor, Functionalized magnetic core, shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles
  • N. Pourang, A.S. Noori Pages 871-886
    Concentrations of six heavy metals including Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn were determined in top soil (from 47 grid cells), surface water (4 streams) and groundwater (8 wells and 4 qanats) from an agricultural area located at south part of the Iranian capital, near the Tehran oil refinery. Concentrations of the elements were measured using flame and flameless atomic absorption spectrometry. Based on the results of agglomerative hierarchical method for clustering of the soil grid cells, some similarities between the dendrograms of Mn and Ni, Pb and V, and Zn and Cr were observed. The pattern of metal occurrence exhibited the following descending order: Mn> Zn > Cr > V > Ni > Pb for soil, Pb, Ni, Mn > Zn, V, Cr for wells and Ni, Pb > Cr, V > Mn, Zn for streams. Significant positive correlations were found among Zn, Cr and Ni as well as between Mn and Zn, Ni and V, and Pb and Zn in soil. Significant positive associations were also observed in the case of Mn-Ni and Mn- Cr in wells and streams, respectively. The mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the soil exceeded the normal uncontaminated soils (with the exception of V). In the case of Cr, Zn and V, our results were above the soil critical range. The mean levels of all the elements in the surface and groundwater were considerably lower than the related guidelines and limits.
    Keywords: Heavy metals, Agricultural soils, Surface water, Groundwater, Tehran
  • W. Yao, P. Rutschmann, S. Bamal Pages 887-896
    Quantification of the habitat available for fish species named Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were evaluated in Lees Ferry, Colorado River using water depth, water temperature, sediment transport, flow velocity in 2004 as environmental index. For the flow velocity and temperature distribution calculations in the river, the Navier-Stokes equation and energy conservation equations with finite volume approach has been employed. Sediment transport and river bed deformation in Lees Ferry were also calculated based on Engelund-Hansen equations. The suitability index (SI) curves based on these four biological, ecological and hydraulic factors were obtained and fish habitat suitability function was established. The HSI (habitat suitability index), WUA (weighted useable area), OSI (overall suitability index) of the fish species were quantitatively calculated using SI curves coupled with habitat suitability function. The effects of these variables on the Lees Ferry river areas were analyzed. The results showed that the model system can correctly represent the Rainbow Trout living situation. The WUA and OSI are generally low in Less Ferry and the proportions of high quality of OSI (HSI) are even less which is in accordance with the real situation. The results also revealed that there is a nonlinear relationship between flow discharge and suitable habitat areas.
    Keywords: Rainbow trout habitat model, CFD model, Sediment transport, Weighted usable area (WUA), Overall suitability index (OSI)
  • P.F. Hudak Pages 897-902
    The objective of this study was to analyze spatial patterns of ground-level ozone concentration in the Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas metropolitan area. Average daily maximum eight-hour ozone concentration, number of days with concentrations exceeding 75 ppb, average outside air temperature, and resultant wind direction at 20 monitoring stations were compiled for January-December, 2013. Recent estimates of population and vehicle miles traveled were also compiled for 12 counties with ozone monitoring station(s). Ozone levels and resultant wind directions were mapped for representative months in each season. On several days from May-October, eight-hour ozone measurements exceeded 75 ppb. September, followed by August, produced the highest ozone concentrations, as well as the most observations exceeding 75 ppb. Late spring and summer months also showed the greatest range in ozone concentrations; during this time period, sustained southeasterly winds caused distinct clusters of high ozone concentration at the northern perimeter of the study area. However, ozone concentrations at individual monitoring stations were not associated with population or vehicle miles traveled in counties occupied by those stations.
    Keywords: Ozone, Dallas, Fort Worth, Texas
  • R. El, Osmani, S. Net, D. Dumoulin, M. Baroudi, H. Bakkour, B. Ouddane Pages 903-912
    Due to the uncensored use of pesticides in the agricultural regions of Lebanon, the contamination risks of drinking water by organic residues increase periodically in planting seasons. No previous work have been considered in North Lebanon plain concerning pesticide pollution though it is the second agricultural zone in Lebanon with an excessive activity. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination and to map the pollution level of groundwater by organochlorine pesticides in Northern Lebanon. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge embedded with Hydrophilic-lipophilic-balanced (HLB) copolymer were used for the isolation and trace enrichment of pesticide from water samples followed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to quantify pesticide concentrations. The levels of organochlorine pesticide recorded in groundwater of Akkar district exceeded the limits set by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants with total amounts that can reach 14.2 μg/L. Contamination was also found to be more important inland with the frequent presence of banned pesticide such HCH isomers, 4,4’-DDT, aldrin and endrin. Appropriate remedial measures and systematic investigation of Organochlorine residues in water resources of the AKKAR district are necessary to check further aggravation of the situation.
    Keywords: SPE, HLB, GC, MS, organochlorine, Groundwater, Lebanon
  • M. Kolahi, K. Moriya, T. Sakai, E. Khosrojerdi, V. Etemad Pages 913-930
    Participatory conservation, as bottom-up management, is currently the most acceptable model for management of protected areas across the world. Social context is a central issue in the sustainable management of conservation areas. It is also crucial to introducing participatory conservation. The new approach therefore recognizes rural communities as key partners in biodiversity management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. This paper examines the opinions and perceptions of local residents towards conservation, ecotourism, and Khojir National Park (KNP) in Iran. A questionnaire and informal interviews were conducted in five villages in or around the park. A comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers among the villagers were also employed. A model was developed to study attitudes of the local people and how they affect conservation and ecotourism development. The results revealed a moderate general knowledge about KNP and environmental issues, the lack of interaction between local people and government authorities, eagerness to participate in the activities of KNP, general support for the conservation cause, and important differences among the villages. Furthermore, the majority of respondents were classified as supportive of biodiversity conservation and neutral to ecotourism development, which may indicate a coexistent relationship. The research clearly identifies the need for devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific local groups for optimizing their input in conservational issues. The optimization process of participatory conservation in Iran should be undertaken to create a congruent, sitespecific model with the best possible results based on world experiences.
    Keywords: Biodiversity conservation, Bottom, up management, Local people, Ecotourism development
  • R. Pilarczyk Pages 931-940
    Concentrations of major nutritional and trace elements (Ca, P, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Se, Co, Cr, Ni, Sr, Ba) and toxic heavy metals (Cd, Pb) were analyzed in the meat of Limousin, Red Angus and Salers bulls. Elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma emission atomic spectrometry. The conducted research showed that the meat of compared breeds differed in the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, Se and K. The meat from Limousin bulls had significantly lower Zn (P<0.001) and Cu (P 0.05) contents than that of Red Angus and Salers bulls. Moreover, the meat of Red Angus bulls was characterized by a significantly (P<0.001) lower K content and significantly (P<0.05) higher Fe content compared to those in the Limousin and Salers bulls as well as significantly (P<0.05) higher Se content in comparison with the Salers bulls. No breed differences in the concentrations of Pb and Cd were found; however, the Pb concentration in meat was higher than the recommended standards. In the meat of all three breeds, the significant strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of Pb-Cd, Pb-Ni, Cd-Ni and K-P. The correlations between other elements within each of the breeds separately were also found.
    Keywords: Beef, Breeds, Tace elements, Heavy metals, Correlations
  • M. Fathi, M.R. Masnavi Pages 941-952
    This paper discusses the importance of environmental aesthetics and scenic beauty of current roadside vegetation in the highways, and the necessity for the contribution of users (motorists) preferences in the integration of scenic beauty of roadside vegetation into its management plans. The results of a questionnaire survey of motorist’s opinion on the landscape aesthetics and quality of some highways in Tehran city are presented with their analyses. Findings of the research indicate the roadside vegetation as the most important elements of highway scenic beauty for the majority of users. High-rise building, historic or cultural landmarks, farmlands, street lighting and advertisement boards found with lower level of importance to the passengers. A strong positive tendency of respondents found towards variety of vegetation types instead of a uniform composition. The most preferred combination of plant types of road were preferred were: trees in the background, grass and flowering herbs in the foreground and shrubs in the middle. In our case study, dissatisfaction with vegetation type and combination was reported lower among those who travelled once or twice a month or longer, compare to those who travelled the site more frequently in a daily or weekly basis. This indicates that for less frequent users the roadside vegetation was reported almost satisfactory, as their personal cognition of a route is less affected by their prior knowledge. However, the preferences of motorists who used the highway more frequently, showed a great tendency with planting design patterns of trees in background and shrubs in the foreground.
    Keywords: Highway, Scenic beauty, Questionnaire survey, Roadside vegetation, Environmental Aesthetics
  • A. Gupta, R. Vijay, V.K. Kushwaha, S.R. Wate Pages 953-960
    Two-dimensional hydrodynamic and advection-dispersion simulations were carried out to identify the appropriate locations of inlet and outlet for cool seawater discharges from the proposed Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminal using MIKE-21 suites of software. The model simulations were validated by comparing the observed and simulated hydrodynamics in terms of water depths, current speeds and directions. The model is satisfactorily correlated with coefficients 0.98, 0.86 and 0.91 for water depth, current speed and direction, respectively. The validated model was extended to predict the advection dispersion phenomena for the two scenarios based on positions of inlet and outlet and their discharges. The predicted results of cool water discharges were compared to the existing Environmental Health and Safety, World Bank guidelines for LNG discharge facilities. It was observed that a trade-off is required before taking engineering decisions for selecting an environmentally acceptable and energy efficient option for such cool water discharges from an LNG facility.
    Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Advection, Dispersion, Cool seawater discharges, LNG, Simulation
  • G.V. Lavrentyeva, O.A. Mirzeabasov, B.L. Synzynys Pages 961-970
    A methodology of ecological risk assessment for the terrestrial ecosystem under chronic radioactive pollution of a biotope near a regional radioactive waste storage has been developed in terms of the critical environmental loads analyzed. It consists of five stages: determination of effect indicators and assessment of their values; establishment of reference species and indices; assessment and analysis of critical loads by plotting “dose-effect” dependencies; ecological risk assessment from critical loads versus permissible values; plotting of risk functions to calculate the expected adverse alterations in the ecosystem. Based on the results obtained the storage risk for a terrestrial ecosystem is considered to be inadmissible and this implies unstable conditions in the territory in the nearest future. The calculations and mapping have shown that in the territory studied the area with excess critical loads is 48% for CFU and 61% for 90Sr accumulation coefficient. The analyzed risk functions give evidence of highly probable negative alterations in the tested ecosystem: 85% for CFU and 99% for 90Sr accumulation coefficient.
    Keywords: Radioactive waste storage, Sr, 90, Ecological risk
  • M. Abbaspour, S.R. Saraei Pages 971-978
    Load management and cost optimization are among the important factors in trigeneration systems and combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) systems. In this study, an innovative CCHP system uses a gas turbine as the prime mover and has a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) in addition to an auxiliary boiler, electric and absorption chillers. The system is tied with the bulk electric grid; to export and sell excess power or import power when necessary. This study analyzes load management and cost optimization of CCHP systems. A heuristic strategy to optimize the total energy cost is then presented. The optimal size of CCHP is determined from the study results. This paper proposes a model for CCHP system optimization based on minimization of energy consumption and initial investment costs. It is to be noted that the selected variables are the size of the gas turbine, the absorption chiller capacity, and other dependent components.
    Keywords: Modeling, Optimization, Energy, CCHP
  • A. Moshrefzadeh, M.R. Sabour Pages 979-986
    Biofiltration method is one of the most commonly used and most effective methods to remove pollutants from the exhaust gas flow from different industries. One of the most important categories of air pollutants is HAP (Hazardous Air Pollutants). This Study assesses the ability of biofiltration method to remove and treat HAP DEA (Diethanolamine) from a gas stream through a laboratory scale biofilter column filled with granular compost, plastic hose pieces and municipal wastewater sludge. After start-up period with an average concentration of 6 ppm, the main period began with an average DEA inlet concentration of about 51.7 ppm corresponding to a loading rate of 0.97 g/m3.hr and empty bed residence time of 89s, the biofilter reached a removal efficiency of about 89% by two weeks. The maximum EC of 26.85 g/m3.hr was achieved at a loading rate of 42.62 g/m3.hr, corresponding to an inlet concentration of DEA of about 258 ppm. Also the loading rates less than 28 g/m3.hr are recommended to achieve the efficiency higher than 80%. The biofiltration method had an efficiency of more than 80% for concentrations <170 ppm at 40°C. Also the maximum pressure drop was recorded 13.8 mmH2O. It is because of using a mixture of shredded plastic hose pieces as a bulking agent due to a high level of porosity in the bed.
    Keywords: Diethanolamine, Bulking Agent, Biofiltration, Compost, Based Biofilter, Two, Stage Biofilter, Hazardous Air Pollutants, Shredded Plastic Hose
  • O. Ileri, S. Cay, A. Uyanik, N. Erduran Pages 987-996
    The adsorption ability of miswak (Salvadora persica L.) waste was investigated for the removal of common heavy metals; Pb(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cd(II), from aqueous systems. The miswak mainly consists of saponins, tannins, silica and resin, which are accounted for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems. The effects of various parameters, such as solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of the heavy metal ions and adsorbent dosage were examined. The linear correlation coefficients of Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were obtained and the results revealed that the Freundlich isotherm fitted the experiment results better than Langmuir isotherm (r2=0.974–0.993). The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II) for per g miswak waste were calculated as 6.84±0.23, 5.91±0.20, 4.56±0.17 and 3.73±0.15 mg, respectively. Five cycles of adsorption-desorption were carried out revealing the strong reuse potential of this low-cost adsorbent. The results indicate that the miswak waste, which has a very low economical value, could be used to effectively adsorb common heavy metals from aqueous systems for environmental cleaning purposes.
    Keywords: Salvadora persica L, Miswak, Adsorption, Low, cost materials, Heavy metals
  • S.M. Shoaei, S.A. Mirbagheri, A. Zamani, J. Bazargan Pages 997-1004
    Concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) in the reservoir of Shahid Rajaei Dam, one of the main water reservoirs in north part of Iran, were determined using a differential pulse polarography (Metrohm 797 VA) and compared with the national and international specified maximum contaminant levels (MCL) for different purposes of water use. The results showed that concentrations of Cd and Pb in the reservoir exceeded different MCLs and thus they could pose health problems for regional residents. Averaged concentrations of heavy metals exhibited a decreasing order of: Zn>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Co. The spatial distribution and seasonal variation implied the significant effect of anthropogenic sources on concentration of heavy metals. These metals mainly originate from the fertilizers and pesticides which are used in upstream farm lands of the flood plain; however the natural sources should not be neglected. The results would help in water resource management of Shahid Rajaei Dam.
    Keywords: Dissolved heavy metals, Spatial distribution, Seasonal variation, Reservoir, Dam, Iran
  • J.A. Mondejar, Jimenez, A. Peiro, Signes, M.D.V. Segarrao., Ntilde, A Pages 1005-1010
    The objective of present research was to analyze environmental scores in companies when adopting external social policies. We confirmed that location acts as a differentiating factor. We also analyzed the human rights, community and product responsibility policies interaction with Environmental Scores. Our first hypothesis stated that social policies contribute to orientate companies toward environmental aspects and improving environmental scores. The results supported the assumption that better environmental scores are influenced positively by the promotion of social policies. We can conclude that the promotion of social policies positively affects the environmental orientation of the firm. We can argue that company’s capacity to operate guaranteeing the freedom association and excluding child, forced or compulsory labor, to be a good citizen protecting public health and to produce quality goods and services is a measure of being more sensible to promote environmental aspects among their structures and processes. The differences between firms that promote external social policies and those that don’t are evident. Finally, we have determined how location moderates the relative impact of each policy in the environmental performance.
    Keywords: Social, Location, Policy, Firm, Environment, Score
  • A.H. Davami, N. Moharamnejad, S.M. Monavari, M. Shariat Pages 1011-1018
    Landfill is one of the primary methods for urban solid waste disposal. In order to reduce the environmental adverse effects and to protect the public health and human welfare, evaluating the landfill is utmost importance. In this research work evaluation procedure for the current condition of Ahvaz city urban solid waste landfill site with criteria of Local Screening Method (LSM) is outlined. In this method, with combining GIS technologies and site investigation the main criteria are physical conditions, economical factors, and land use. These 14 criteria were used into the overlaying technique to determine suitability conditions in the study region. The obtained results indicated that Ahvaz solid waste landfill should be graded on a scale of very weak condition in local scale and ranked in order of in appropriate. The main reasons for the occurrence of this condition was considered as land purchase ability, lack of landfill cover values of natural vegetation in public view, difficulty in sampling and high groundwater levels inside of the study site.
    Keywords: Screening method, Local scale, Evaluation of solid waste landfill, Ahvaz city
  • F. Moyo, R. Tandlich Pages 1019-1026
    Ecotoxicity of rhodium (Rh) from the model of mining waste water side stream was examined in this paper. Rh was extracted from the model of the mining waste water using an emulsion liquid membrane (ELM). The extractions were done at pH of 1.87 and pH 2.92 and 41.6 % and 46.2 % of Rh was extracted respectively. The side streams of pH of 1.87 and pH 2.92 after the extractions were examined for ecotoxicity using Daphnia pulex in the acute toxicity testing. All test organisms died after 48 hours of exposure to the side stream effluent with the original pH = 1.87, while 10-60 % survival rates were observed at the mining spent effluent with original pH of 2.92 if the strength of the effluent ranged from 12.5 to 62.5 %. Results for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt dehydrate (EDTA) showed that an increase in concentration of EDTA in the test concentrations lead to the death of D. pulex. It was concluded that the very dilute water side streams are toxic hence the discharge of the spent Rh side-stream should thus be discouraged and prevented at all costs.
    Keywords: Daphnia pulex, Emulsion liquid membrane, Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt dehydrate, Rhodium
  • N. Delshad, M. Emtyazjoo, M. Khezri Pages 1027-1030
    One of the most chemical methods for controlling of oil spills is use of dispersants, which are widely being used worldwide. In this research, comparison of acute toxicity of crude oil of the Persian Gulf- Khark area (CO), Iranian Naftroob crude oil dispersant (IND), Radiagreen OSD dispersant crude oil (RD), the mixture of crude oil and Iranian Naftroob dispersant (CO-IND) and crude oil with Radiagreen OSD dispersant(CO-RD) was carried out. For this purpose, the concentrations of both dispersants were equal: 10.5, 21, 42,84 and 168 mg/L. The concentrations of 8.4+16, 16.8+336, 33.6+672, 67.2+1344 and 134.4+2688 mg/L were used for dispersants-crude oil mixtures and the concentrations of 168, 336, 672, 1344 and 2688 mg/L were used for crude oil alone. Litopenaeus vannamei was used for bioassay toxicity test. 48-h LC50 was estimated by Probit value table. Relationship between efficiency and toxicity (RET) was also estimated. 48-h LC50 for CO, IND, RD, CO-IND and CO-RD were 1741, 17.21, 43.52, 631.456, 357.089 mg/L, respectively. The results were obtained by these tests were shown that CO alone is less toxic than the IND, RD and also COIND and CO-RD. Moreover, CO-IND was less toxic than CO-RD. With regard to the efficiency of IND had a lower (RET = 34.8) than RD (RET = 39) and so, it was more efficient.
    Keywords: Oil dispersant, Toxicity, Crude oil, RET, Litopenaeus vannamei
  • M. Morovati, M. Karami, M. Kaboli Pages 1031-1040
    Capra aegagrus is one of the most highly-valued animals of Iran. This species is also considered as one of the main food sources for the Acinonyx jubatus venaticus, which are critically endangered.Seasonal habitat use of wild goat was studied from January 2011 to September 2012 in Dareh Anjir Wildlife Refuge, Yazd, Iran. We developed Maximum Entropy models in three seasons.This study aims to determine the habitat desirability and factors affecting wild goats using a maximum entropy algorithm. Environmental variables used in modeling the three seasons of winter, spring, and summer include elevation classes, slope, direction, vegetation, distance to water sources, distance to the rocky substrate, distance to roads (asphalt, soil), and distance to mines. The results show that the most important factors affecting habitat desirability of the wild goat in winter, spring, and summer include the ratio of distance variable to the rocky cliffs, slope, and distance to water resources. According to the predictions, wild goats are most likely to be found in the northern, central and southeastern areas of the Dareh Anjir Wildlife Refuge, which are considered the most desirable habitats of the species and its associated predator (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus) over the three seasons.The results of this study can be used as a valuable tool in implementing conservation and management strategies in order to enhance the desirable habitats in the province of Yazd (Dareh Anjir Wildlife Refuge).
    Keywords: Capra aegagrus, Seasonal habitat use, Dareh Anjir Wildlife Refuge, MaxEnt, Maximum Entropy model
  • N. TomiĆ, S. BoŽiĆ Pages 1041-1052
    The aim of this paper is to present a modified version of GAM (M-GAM) which should show that the results gained by using this version are more accurate and realistic. The modification is based on the inclusion of tourists and their opinion regarding the importance of indicators in the assessment process. The assessment was done by using both versions of GAM and the results were compared and analyzed afterwards. Both assessment methods were applied on the Lazar Canyon area located in eastern Serbia, a territory which possesses a large concentration of geosites on a relatively small surface area and it has great potential for geotourism development. The study revealed that the inclusion of tourists in the assessment process can have crucial impact on the final results. By introducing the importance factor in the modified model we were able to point out those values which are of paramount importance for tourists. This can be rather useful in the improvement and planning of tourism activities as it exactly shows which of the lower values should receive the most attention in the future based on their significance for tourists.
    Keywords: d Geosite Assessment Model (M, GAM), Evaluation, Assessment, Geotourism, Lazar Canyon
  • F. Bouatay, S. Dridi, M.F. Mhenni Pages 1053-1066
    This study examined the adsorption behavior of two cationic dyes used in textile industries (CI Basic Red 46 and CI Basic Blue 3) on Tunisian clay used in pottery. The ability of pottery clay to remove the basic dyes from aqueous solution was compared to that of the commercial powdered activated carbon (PAC) and raw clay. Physicochemical characteristics of these adsorbents were performed by Boehm dosage, pHPZC and CEC determination, particle size distribution and spectroscopic analysis (FTIR and UV Vis). The pHPZC of the pottery clay was about 9.86 and the CEC was about 15.6 meq/g. The empirical kinetic data fitted very well the pseudo second order model for the adsorbent studied. The isotherm data fitted rightly to the Langmuir isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacities of the raw clay, pottery clay and PAC onto CI Basic Red 46 (CI Basic Blue 3) were respectively2806 mmol/g(785 mmol/g), 2114mmol/g (116. mmol/g) and 2123mmol/ g (343.9 mmol/g). These results showed the large adsorption capacities of the studied samples onto the basic dyes. Based on thermodynamic study, the adsorption of the cationic dye on raw clay, pottery clay and PAC appears to be physical adsorption process. The effect of the ionic strength study showed that the presence of electrolyte had an important effect on the basic dyes removal.
    Keywords: Pottery clay, Raw clay, Powdered activated carbon, Adsorption, Basic dyes
  • A.H. Pejman, G.R. Nabi Bidhendi, M. Ardestani, M. Saeedi, A. Baghvand, Sh. Moradi Pages 1067-1074
    In this study, the mineralogical composition and concentration of heavy metals in surface sediment of North West Persian Gulf (Musa estuary and Hendijan coastline) were investigated. Fifteen sampling sites were selected and the sediment samples were collected using Peterson grab sampler in August 2013. XRD analyses demonstrated that the sediments of study area are principally composed of calcite, quartz and dolomite. The high concentration of calcium carbonate can be derived from limestone and frequency remains of benthic organisms. The metal concentrations compared with values of these metals in the average shale, indicated that all the sampling sites are contaminated with Pb and Ni. The results of enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index demonstrated that at sites 3, 4, 5, 6 (near Emam port and petrochemical plant site), 14 and 15 (adjacent Bahregan port) have high metal concentrations due to anthropogenic activities such as discharge of industrial, agricultural and residential wastewaters and shipping. Based on the average shale contents, the result of EF are more reliable than the Igeo index.
    Keywords: XRD, Metals, Sediment, Enrichment factor, Geoaccumulation index, Persian Gulf
  • H. Sereshti, N. Eskandarpour, S. Samadi, Gh. Aliakbarzadeh Pages 1075-1084
    The task specific ionic liquid (TSIL), tricaprylmethylammonium thiosalicylate ([A336][TS]), was synthesized, characterized and subsequently used as extraction solvent in dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) technique. The TSIL-DLLME method followed by inductively coupled plasmaatomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was applied to determination of trace mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) in aqueous sample solutions. The significant parameters of the extraction process were optimized using a response surface methodology. Under the optimal conditions (pH, 6.50; concentration of TSIL, 47.50 mg m/ L; and salt concentration, 8.50 % (w/v)), the analytical figures of merit for Hg and Cd were obtained as: LDR, 1-5000 μg/L; determination coefficients (R2), 0.9990 and 0.9991; LODs (limit of detections), 0.28 and 0.22 μg/ L; RSD, 1.1% and 1.0%, respectively. In addition, the removal of Hg2+ and Cd2+ ions by the plant Dracaena sanderiana was investigated using the developed method. The Hg and Cd uptake and storage by the plant from contaminated waters was also evaluated to be approximately equal to 10.32 and 30.90 mg/kg, respectively. The relative recoveries of Hg and Cd were 97.50% and 92.37%, respectively.
    Keywords: Dracaena sanderianam, Cadmium, Mercury, ICP, AES
  • C. Dey, S.K. Saha Pages 1085-1092
    Dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide) and Lambda-cyhalothrin (synthetic pyrithroid) are two frequently used pesticides due to their high effectiveness and rapid breakdown into environmentally safe products. The aim of this present study was to assess and compare the acute toxicity of Dimethoate (Rogor30%EC) and Lambda-cyhalothrin (5%EC) on Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Acute toxicity bioassay was carried out in a static renewal system to assess the toxicity. The fishes were exposed to different concentration of dimethoate and Lambda-cyhalothrin to determine the LC50 values for 96hrs. The mortality data obtained were analyzed by SPSS 16.0 based on Finney’s Probit Analysis Statistical method. The 9 h LC50 values for Dimethoate and Lambda-cyhalothrin were found to be 24.55 μl/L and 0.7 μl/L respectively. Effects of these two insecticides on serum T3, T4 and TSH were investigated under sub-lethal toxicities which cause decrease in the serum T3, T4 and increase in TSH level. It shows significant difference from control fish (p < 0.05).
    Keywords: Dimethoate, Lambda, cyhalothrin, Labeo rohita, LC50 value, Thyroid hormone
  • F. Oudghiri, J.L. Garc, Iacutea., Morales, N. Allali, M.R. Rodr, Iacute, Guez, Barroso Pages 1093-1104
    This study proposes a method employing thermogravimetric analysis (TG) to predict pollution levels by heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg) in port sediments close to urban and industrial sites from bay of Cádiz. For this purpose, the thermogravimetric results of 14 sediment samples were recorded and showed two characteristic ranges of temperatures (W1 as weight loss, %: 200-650°C) vs. (W2 as weight loss, %: 650-900°C) as being representative of the sediment characteristics. Samples with a high W1 were characterized by the prevalence of a thin fraction and high metal content, while samples with a high 2 were characterized by large sandy fractions and, in general, low metal contents in agreement with the pollution load index (PLI). Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) analysis proved to be an alternative tool for the simultaneous detection of many components of sediments. Combined with TG, this technique allows for simultaneous, rapid and reliable screening of pollution levels in port sediments.
    Keywords: ATR, FTIR, Pollution load index, Port sediments, Thermogravimetric, Weight loss
  • S. Ali Ahmad Korori, M. Matinizadeh, A. Shirvany, E. Madani Mashaei, T. Talebi Khorabadi, S.M. Monemian, E. Abdi Pages 1105-1114
    Plane and Mulberry trees play a crucial role in purifying the polluted air in Tehran as a major city. In this research, 13 main districts of Tehran city were chosen as study area. 20 completely healthy Plane and Mulberry species were selected in similar ecological conditions and age range. The uptake of Cd and Pb was determined using Spectrophotometry, whereas the Chlorophyll content was measured applying ICP method. The statistical results of Chlorophyll data put the Mulberry and Plane trees of the studied district into 9 classes (Dunkan statistical test). The statistical results put the studied districts in terms of amount of Pb uptake in 3 classes for Plane trees and in 5 classes for Mulberry trees. The districts were classified in 5 classes for plane trees and in 4 classes for Mulberry trees in terms of amount of Cd uptake. In general, the uptake content of Cd and Pb is higher in Plane trees in comparison with Mulberry ones. In other words, Plane trees are more sensitive to the uptake of contaminants than Mulberry trees. Finally, GIS maps were designed showing the average uptake of contaminates in each district.
    Keywords: Plane tree, Mulberry tree, Phytoremediation, Tehran, Contaminants
  • Y.L. Liu, D.W. Tang, X.S. Kong, Y.F. Liu, T.H. Ai Pages 1115-1126
    Land-use spatial allocation is a multi-objective collaborative spatial optimization method for rational use of the land use. Based on global search capabilities and the information feedback mechanism of ant colony optimization (ACO), a land-use spatial allocation model (ACO-LA) is proposed. FirstlyFirst, a construction graph is built for modeling the land-use spatial allocation problem. SecondlySecond, the behaviors of artificial ants are improved so that the solution can be foundobtained quickly in the searchingsearch space. Finally, the ant colony generates optimized solutions by reconciling the conflicts between different planning objectives or by setting the relative dominance of different land-use types. Our study focuses on Gaoqiao Town of Fuyang City in Zhejiang Province, China. The model maximizes the land-use suitability and spatial compactness, and minimizes the cost of changing the land use, based on a variety of constraints, e.g., the optimal land-use structure and land-use policies. The results suggest that this model can obtain an optimized land-use spatial pattern from different sets of sub-objective weights and different development scenarios. With the constraint of the land-use structure, the land-use types can be distributed more reasonably by different sets of sub-objective weights. In different development scenarios, the model encourageencourages areas of land-use types in line with the development direction, adapting to meet different development needs by setting the relative dominance of the different land-use types, Wdominance, which is added to the component selection probability Pij.
    Keywords: Land, use spatial allocation, ACO, Construction graph, Solution component, Scenario simulation
  • P. Divyasree, J.J. Braun, S. Subramanian Pages 1127-1134
    The potential of Citrobacter freundii, a Gram negative bacteria for the remediation of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) from aqueous solutions was investigated. Bioremediation of Cr(VI) involved both biosorption and bioreduction processes, as compared to only biosorption process observed with respect to Cr(III) bioremediation. In the case of Cr(VI) bioremediation studies, about 59 % biosorption was achieved at an equilibrium time of 2 h, initial Cr(VI) concentration of 4 mg/L, pH 1 and a biomass loading of 5x1011 cells/mL. The remainder, 41 %, was found to be in the form of Cr(III) ions owing to bioreduction of Cr(VI) by the bacteria resulting in the absence of Cr(VI) ions in the residue, there by meeting the USEPA specifications. Similar studies were carried out using Cr(III) solution for an equilibrium time of 2 h, Cr(III) concentration of 4 mg/L, pH 3 and a biomass loading of 6.3x1011 cells/mL, wherein a maximum biosorption of about 30 % was achieved.
    Keywords: Biosorption, Bioreduction, Hexavalent chromium, Trivalent chromium, Citrobacter freundii
  • F. Forouzan, F. Ghazban, M. Ardestani Pages 1135-1144
    The δ18O, δ13C, and strontium/calcium (Sr/Ca)-record was measured from a 7-year old Platygyra sinensis coral located offshore Larak Island in the Persian Gulf at a resolution of 22 samples/year. An increased sampling resolution of 55 samples/year over two annual cycles was also compared with the 22 sample resolution to evaluate the effectiveness of the sampling procedure. The resulting data exhibited identical results between the two methods. By means of previously reported equations, Sr/Ca derived sea surface temperatures (SST) ranged between 17 to 30 °C, with an average of 24.7 °C. The inter annual variability in the Platygyra sinensis indicated a significant correlation with COADS data. In addition, the relation between the δ18O in Platygyra sinensis coral and the Sr/Ca-estimated SST data was assessed. Subtracting the Sr/Ca-based SST values from the δ18O of the coral, the δ18O of water was calculated. These data were then used to construct ranges of sea surface salinity (SSS) in the region.
    Keywords: Coral, Persian Gulf, Temperature, Salinity, Geochemical tracers
  • H.B. Wakode, K. Baier, R. Jha, S. Ahmed, R. Azzam Pages 1145-1158
    Hyderabad is one of the fastest growing Indian megacities which have significant impact on its environment. The surface and groundwater resources are severely affected by uncontrolled expansion and densification of the city. For the better understanding, recovery and to prevent future deterioration of these significance resources, it is necessary to have knowledge of the impact of urban growth in various ways on environment. Historical groundwater level and quality data obtained from different sources as well as by field study data is used for this analysis. In some cases missing data points were interpolated and verified by providing certain criteria. The map of rate of groundwater level change per year showed the locations of recharge activity by sewage and other effluents as well as overexploitations by industrial and some upper middle class residential areas. The results obtained from groundwater quality analysis are then compared with the BIS (Bureau of India) as well as WHO (World Health Organization) standards for drinking water. It had been observed that many water samples had heavy metal elements and bacterial formation above permissible limits and it is not suitable for drinking purpose. The water samples obtained from locations which do not qualify for drinking water use according to WHO as well as BIS standards are identified. These results are then overlapped with map of rate of groundwater level change to establish the relation between urban groundwater recharge and its effect on groundwater quality.
    Keywords: Groundwater pollution, Groundwater level change, Groundwater quality, Urban recharge, Hyderabad, India
  • S. Net, D. Dumoulin, R. El, Osmani, S. Rabodonirina, B. Ouddane Pages 1159-1170
    Surface waters, especially natural rivers always act as receiving waters for various kinds of organic contaminants from municipal and industrial wastewaters, agricultural activities, organic chemicals in use, non-point source pollutions. Due to their toxicity, persistency and wide diffusion, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and their alkylated homologues (Me-PAHs) are among the organic contaminants the most often monitored in the environment. Determination of the contamination level is the crucial first step of environmental research. Field investigations have clearly demonstrated their importance on various studies on the contamination levels, the origin, and impact of contaminants in the aquatic ecosystems. The present paper is an effort on the field studies focusing on persistent organic pollutants: PCBs, PAHs and Me-PAHs, phthalates and pesticides in Somme River water located on Northern France. The sampling zone is characterized by fields of agriculture surrounding urbanized and industrialized areas and constitutes a place embedded with strong fishing activities. However, the river section of interest is also known for the high levels of PCB in sediments. The water were analyzed for 28 PCBs, 16 PAHs and 18 Me-PAHs, 6 phthalates and 28 pesticides with the aim to determine the dispersion trend and the water quality of the sampled water.
    Keywords: PAHs, Me, PAHs, Phthalates, PCBs, Pesticides, LLE, GC, MS, Somme River
  • M. Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq, A. Samson Nesaraj Pages 1171-1184
    Novel ceramic oxides have been increasingly focused in recent years because of their potential applications in environmental purification especially to treat organic contaminants present in water. In this research work, a set of NiO-Co3O4 nano-ceramic composite materials were prepared by a simple reflux condensation method using nickel acetate / cobalt acetate as precursor salts, sodium monododecyl sulphate (SDS) as a surfactant and N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent. The prepared nano ceramic composites were calcined at different temperatures such as 200, 400, 600 and 800oC for 2 hours each to get the phase pure product. XRD results revealed that all the samples indexed to a cubic crystalline geometry. The presence of metal-oxygen bond (Ni-O and Co-O) was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of Ni, Co and O in the sample was confirmed by EDAX analysis. The existence of particles in nanometer range was shown by SEM. The particle size analysis by light scattering method also confirmed the particles in nanometer range (approximately 270 nm) in all the three samples. The optical behavior of the materials was studied by UV-Vis and PL spectrophotometer. Photocatalytic activity studies carried out with NiO-Co3O4 1.0:1.0) nano-ceramic composites in presence of organic dyes such as, rhodamine B and methyl orange dyes under UV light irradiation (for two hours) resulted in the degradation of 77% and 84% respectively.
    Keywords: NiO, Co3O4 nano, ceramic, Reflux, Photocatalytic, Degradation, Organic, Dyes, Water
  • A. Garcia, Pozo, J.L. Sanchez, Ollero, A. Marchante, Mera Pages 1185-1194
    Recent studies have shown that firms that have adopted environmental standards and those that have obtained official quality certifications achieve higher labour productivity than firms that have not done so. Unlike previous studies, this paper analyzes the combined effect of implementing environmental good practices and obtaining quality certifications on apparent labour productivity using a sample of 106 hotels in Andalusia (Spain). To this end, a descriptive analysis and an econometric estimation of a production function were conducted based on data obtained from the Quality, Productivity and Competitiveness in the Hospitality Industry for Andalusia project. We applied a standard Cobb-Douglas production function to this data, and extended the function by introducing an indicator of the implementation of good environmental practice by hotels and four different types of quality certifications as additional explanatory variables. The econometric results indicate that labour productivity increases only when both the Q mark is awarded and environmental good practices are implemented (by 18.74% and 7.51%, respectively). In conclusion, the positive response of consumers towards improving environmental and quality measures may be an incentive to invest in these measures.
    Keywords: Environmental good practices, Quality certifications, Productivity, Andalusia
  • G. Georgiadis, S. Spanou, I. Kokkoris, A. Tiniakou, Th. Georgiadis Pages 1195-1202
    Nowadays the science of remote sensing and satellite data, constitute modern scientific tools, as they provide important information and make research easier in many scientific fields. This research article presents an integrated system for continuous monitoring of the vegetation and the human impact on the Natura 2000 protected areas of Strofilia Forest and Kotychi lagoon (Natura 2000 codes: GR 232001 and GR233006 respectively) with contemporary methods of remote Sensing and Telemetry. More specifically, aerial photographs and still images obtained from the Landsat satellite were used for visualization of spectral signatures and detection of changes in vegetation and land-uses. Water quality data was checked via sensors measuring hydrological parameters in order to detect temporal changes. Finally, an on-line database system, whose main structural characteristics are illustrated in this paper, was created to assist field work and help data collection and assessment. The efficiency and accuracy of this type of monitoring for the conservation of natural environment is discussed.
    Keywords: Biomonitoring, Natura 2000, Wetlands, Greece, Remote Sensing, Database
  • C. Carneiro, P. Kelderman, J.H. Kondageski, K. Irvine Pages 1203-1214
    Monthly and annual water and phosphorus mass budgets were set up over the year 201 for the Lake Rio Verde, Brazil. Limited data for the water budget was compensated using an interpolation method with data water budget data of a nearby reservoir. Thus, errors of ca. 1.5% were estimated for the water budgets. Dominant P mass input terms were inflows from the rivers and direct run off into the reservoir. Main output terms were P outflow via rivers and industrial water abstraction. Equalizing the P inputs and outputs leads to a sediment phosphorus uptake term were estimated at 35% of the annual P inflow, but with a possible weak correlation between monthly P sediment/water exchange and monthly precipitation figures. Sediment characteristics likely play an important role in the P sediment-water exchange. High concentrations of P in sediment pore water, and seasonal reductions in the oxidized surface layer of sediment suggests reduction of the potential of the sediment to retain P under current and likely, increased, P loads to the reservoir. Future management of the reservoir, therefore, requires continued monitoring and catchment management to mitigate nutrient both point source and diffuse loads. This necessitates an integrated approach to reduce pressures on the reservoir. Failure to address potential problems can lead to reduced water quality, with associated increased treatment costs for water supply.
    Keywords: Water budget, Mass budget, Phosphorus, Sediment, Internal loading
  • M. G., Oacute, Mez, D. Hidalgo Pages 1215-1222
    Pollution control is based on correctly measuring pollutant concentrations but, at the moment, the principal European cities only monitor pollution levels by means of a few fixed stations co-located in selected points of the urban layout far from hotspots and/or by means of meteorological prediction models of future pollution. Few cities integrate the information from both sources. The implementation of wireless sensor network provides an alternative solution by deploying a larger number of disposable sensor nodes and it is the key that enable more flexible real-time environmental monitoring. This paper presents a new system for sustainable traffic management by using models that predict pollution levels, which are fed with data, gathered by the air quality sensors network and may help to take early action. This new system has been implemented in Salamanca (Spain), thus allowing, to test in real urban environments the collection and processing of data from 35 motes located in experimental roads during a year-round period. Monitoring results allow building a database with the temporal evolution of the different environmental indicators registered. In general the prediction model has an average error around 20% for predictions at one hour and 30% at three hours. The results highlight the very good performance of the prediction model. The strategic approach proposed is highly innovative and embodies great scientific and technological advances. The use and integration of measured and modeled data thus becomes a key element in the future management of atmospheric pollution.
    Keywords: Pollution control, Sensors network, Sustainable traffic management
  • A. Gupta, R. Vijay, V.K. Kushwaha, S.R. Wate, A. Shiehbeigi, M. Abbaspour, M. Soltaniyeh, F. Hosseinzadeh, Z. Abedi Pages 1223-1230
    Numerous studies yet have been carried out on downscaling of the large-scale climate data using both dynamical and statistical methods to investigate the hydrological and meteorological impacts of climate change on different parts of the world. This study was also conducted to investigate the capability of feedforward neural network with error back-propagation algorithm to downscale the provincial segmentation of Iran (30 provinces) on a daily scale. This model was proposed for the downscaling daily temperature, precipitation and wind speed data, and it was calibrated and verified by using the daily outputs derived from the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) database including air temperature, air pressure, absolute and relative air humidity, wind speed and direction, and data for the base period (1982-2001) at the selected synoptic station in each province. Correlation and root mean square error (RMSE) coefficients were used to analyze the performance of the proposed models. These criteria indicated the high accuracy of the proposed models in downscaling of daily temperature parameter rather than precipitation and wind speed parameters.
    Keywords: Climate, Downscaling, Neural network (NN), Iran
  • B.V. Digas, V.L. Rozenberg, A.A. Kuklin Pages 1231-1240
    The optimization Model for Evaluating Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gases reduction policies named MERGE is an actively usable tool for studying some aspects of the problem of climate change. It is first of all destined for the quantitative estimation of emission trajectories and results of applying abatement measures. In the paper, the emphasis is on the adaptation of the integrated assessment model MERGE to the modern state of the world and regional economy and on the analysis of possibilities of Russia’s participation in some Kyoto-type initiatives on greenhouse gases emission reduction under different assumptions on the dynamics of regional economic-energetic indices. Calculations with the MERGE model demonstrated the attainability of the national emission targets: stabilizing the carbon dioxide emissions at 75 per cent of the 1990 level by 2020 with further reducing to 70 per cent by 2030. Some trends in the structure of energy sector and fossil fuel exports are also analyzed.
    Keywords: Integrated assessment model, Optimization, Economic development, GHG emissions
  • R.K. Pillay, S. Pillay, A. Bissessur, H. Ballabh Pages 1241-1250
    This study examines the transport of seventeen heavy metals between the Isipingo Estuary and the adjacent sea. Results demonstrate variability of fluxes in terms of prevalence, concentration and seasonality. Summer neap and spring tides had approximately twice the number of heavy metals compared to winter and spring seasons. Spring and winter seasons yielded higher concentrations and a greater number of metals on the spring tides whilst autumn yielded the fewest metals on both tides. Export dominance characterized the system and this was evident in the annual fluxes with 14 metals (Al, As, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, V and Zr) being exported while 3 (Cu, Ni and Zn) were imported into the estuary over the four seasons, pointing to potential contamination from marine sources. Whilst human utilization of the catchment is often reported as the primary cause of degradation of the Isipingo Estuary, this study demonstrates that some of the contamination may also originate from the nearshore environment.
    Keywords: Isipingo estuary, Tides, Net flux, Heavy metals
  • S. Zubelzu, C. Del Campo Pages 1251-1260
    This paper presents a new approach for assessing agricultural landscapes based on mixture methods and the study and definition of aesthetic attributes as lines, forms, texture, spatial composition, scale and color as they are the closest to human perceptual aesthetic attributes. A set of variables capable of quantifying those attributes in a simple, objective and systematized way will be proposed. They are related with physical dimensions such as length, radium, angle, surface or brightness. People preferences for a specific type of agricultural landscape have been collected and different regression models between preferences and variables capable of quantifying attributes have been tried. The optimal model, explaining 82.3% of the variance in population preferences, selects 41 variables, adopts a linear structure and identifies the color as the most relevant attribute on population preferences and, inside it, green brightness as the most positive influencing variable on preferences being referred to red gamma the most influencing negative one.
    Keywords: Landscape preferences, Landscape valuation method, Landscape assessment
  • B. Poyraz, F. Taspinar Pages 1261-1270
    Since they may expose to inorganic pollutants, drinking waters should be investigated and monitored in industrialized regions. In this study, drinking water samples taken from eight different locations in heavily industrialized region of Turkey, namely Marmara region, were analyzed to determine heavy metal and harmful trace element (Fe, Co, Cd, Hg, Pb, Zn, Sb, Cu, Ba, Mo, Cr, Mn and V) concentrations. Besides analytical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) technique, spatial relationships related to these metal elements were also examined. Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP MS) was used to determine the metal concentrations. The average concentrations in ìgL-1 were as follows: Hg. Cd and Co BDL; Pb 0.18; Zn 27.32; Sb 0.04; Cu 6.35; Mn 2.15; Cr 1.07; V 1.86; Mo 0.52; Ba 3. ; Sr 252. The obtained results indicated that the heavy metals concentrations in drinking water samples did not exceed the limits values declared in the guidelines of WHO (World Health Organization), EPA (Environment Protection Agency) and TSE-266 (Turkish National Standards). However, some V and Cu concentrations found to be very close to tolerable limits declared by EPA.
    Keywords: Hazardous element, PCA, drinking water
  • C.P. Wang, J. Li, Y. Jiang, Z.Y. Zhang Pages 1271-1278
    Effect of different concentrations of ammonium chloride (NCL) and ammonium nitrate (NN) and surfactants such as Tween-80, HPCD and rhamnolipids on the bioremediation of PAHs and OCPs was investigated. The results showed that the best optimum concentration of NCL and NN was 50 g·kg-1, and the PAHs degradation rate during 60 days of remediation was enhanced to 64.6% and 62.8 for NCL and NN, respectively, which was approximately 45, 17, 10% higher than those in the control group, soil only added microorganism, soil added microorganism and tourmaline. OCP removal rates were 51.7% and 50.4 % for NCL and NN, respectively, which was 34% higher than the control group, 14% higher than the soil only added microorganism, 9% higher than the soil added microorganism and tourmaline. The best dose of Tween-80, HPCD and rhamnolipids was 2, 0.5 and 0.2 g·kg-1. When they were applied, the PAHs degradation rate during 60 days of remediation was enhanced to 69, 70.4 and 71.5%, respectively, which was approximately 52, 24 and 17% than those in the control group, soil only added microorganism, soil added microorganism and tourmaline. Similarly, OCP removal rate was 42, 26 and 16% higher than those in the control group, microorganism -added soil alone, soil added microorganism and tourmaline. Additionally, nutrients and surfactants can promote the generation of soil hydrogen peroxidase and invertase enzyme. Hence, the present study provides a promising combination remediation technology for the remediation of field soils contaminated by PAHs and OCPs.
    Keywords: Nutrients, Surfactants, Tourmaline, Soil, Remediation
  • J.A. Mondejar, Jimenez, J.L. Alfaro, Navarro, E. AndrÉs, Mart, Iacute, Nez Pages 1279-1286
    A lot of people think that the economic development of a country is associated with its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), but GDP does not consider aspects as important as the environmental performance of a country. Nowadays, environmental issues are one of the most important aspects of the long term development of a country and play an important role in a nation’s wealth. Although the analysis of countries’ environmental performance is a very novel subject, many researchers are making a significant effort to capture its essence by testing the sustainability of regions. This paper discusses the main proposals developed in the literature that establish country rankings considering different dimensions in order to measure the sustainability or environment. This summary allows us to establish the main differences between proposals and some future research. Furthermore, we analyse the correlation and concordance between the different countries rankings established in the literature. The results reveal clear concordance between proposals.
    Keywords: Concordance, Countries, Environment, Ranking, Non, parametric measures
  • D. Borah, R.N.S. Yadav Pages 1287-1294
    Contamination of soil and air due to hydrocarbon is a global issue and bioremediation provides probably the best way to remediate the contaminants. The current study shows the biodegradation of crude oil, diesel and used engine oil by a newly isolated Bacillus cereus strain DRDU1 from an automobile engine. Hydrocarbon degrading strains were screened on BH (Bushnell and Haas broth) agar supplemented with 2% (v/v) of used engine oil as sole carbon source. The strain was found to be degrading 77, 67%, and 16% of diesel, crude oil, and used engine oil respectively after 28 days under nitrogen and phosphorus stressed condition. It was increased significantly up to 99%, 84% and 29% in presence of nitrate and phosphate supplements. Degradation was confirmed both gravimetrically and by gas liquid chromatographic analysis. The strain proves itself a stress tolerating bacteria by withstanding 7% of salinity, 37% of glucose concentration and 52% of relative humidity. The thermal death point of the strain was found to be 8 oC. The significance of the study is that the percentage degradation of the complex petroleum supplements used in the study was found to be far higher than some of the previously reported values.
    Keywords: Bacillus cereus strain DRDU1, Complex hydrocarbon, Degradation of complex petroleum oil
  • F. Bouatay, F. Mhenni Pages 1295-1308
    The Opuntia ficus indica mucilage was an abundant and a low cost product. In the present paper, it was tested as an eco-friendly flocculants for textile waste water treatment. Its performance as flocculants in decolorization, COD removal and turbidity abatement was checked. The natural product was characterized using UV-Vis and Infra-Red spectroscopy. The study of the effect, followed by an optimization and modeling analysis, of some experimental parameters on the coagulation-flocculation performance, using cactus mucilage combined with aluminum sulfate (as a coagulant), showed that the best conditions for flocculation process were given for a pH equal to 7.25, flocculants dose of about 40 mg/L, flocculation mixing speed of about 30rpm and flocculation mixing time of about 11min. This gives a decolorization equal to 99.84%, COD removal of about 88.76% and turbidity abatement of about 91.66%. The comparison between the flocculation performance of commercial flocculants and the bio-flocculants agent exhibited that the latter has the highest pollution removal.
    Keywords: Opuntia ficus indica, Bio, flocculants, Optimal conditions, Flocculation performance, Statistical analysis
  • Sh. Shiehbeiki, M. Abbaspour, S.M. Monavari, R. Arjmandi, A. Lahijanian Pages 1309-1314
    Public participation is counted as one of the main indexes in sustainable urban management. Based on their nature, metropolitan cities has several and complex problems. For this purpose Tehran metropolitan area is selected. Quantitative Strategic Planning Matrix (QSPM) weighted through a made-byresearcher questionnaire. The reliability of the model was verified by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Evaluation matrix for internal and external factors was equal to 1.944 and 3.413, respectively. The strategies were classified and prioritize by quantitative matrix. Suitable strategies for Tehran city are as follows: developing a strategic plan in field of social control participatory management for Tehran city; changing management approach from a traditional pattern into a modern one in Tehran’s urban management system and making urban mangers required to respond to people’s demands; facilitating conditions of non governmental (NGOs’) registration and activities affairs, especially those related to the field of urban environment; educating citizens in order to create citizens’ demands and improving its legal position; empowering non governmental (NGOs) and community-based organizations in a social-based manner and establishing citizens’ advisory committees (CACs); developing and equipping neighborhood houses and supporting successful and superior plans in management of neighborhoods; creating and improving the electronic city’s infrastructures and designing the control system and virtual participation; developing legal mechanisms so as to handle what citizens ask urban management to do; educating and promoting urban management officials’ and managers’ level of environmental knowledge; patterning of superior examples of participatory urban environmental management; distributing the power through transferring municipality’s authorities to regions’ and neighborhoods’ citizens.
    Keywords: Strategic, Planning, QSPM, Management, Public Participation
  • M. Stanek, J. DĄ, Browski, J. D³Ugosz, B. Janicki Pages 1315-1322
    This study was undertaken to determine the concentrations of metals in the muscle and exoskeleton of the crayfish Orconectes limosus in order to compare them with other species of crayfish and crustaceans. In addition, we analyzed the correlation between the concentrations of the same element in the exoskeleton and the meat and different elements accumulated in the same tissue. Crayfish individuals were acquired in spring (May 2012) from Lake Gop³o. Individuals with damaged claws were not analyzed. Due to the relatively low amounts of meat that was obtained from the abdomen of individual crayfish, material from individuals with a similar body length was combined; thus, there were ten samples of meat and the exoskeleton obtained on the whole. The muscle samples (about 12 g) were freeze dried in a Finn-Aqua Lyovac GT2 freeze dryer (Finland). Three replicates of each freeze-dried sample were acid digested with 1 ml of concentrated HNO3 and 1 cm3 H2O2. Metal analyses were performed using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a Perkin-Elmer Optima 8300 spectrometer. The analyses revealed that the mean metals concentrations (mg·kg-1) in the meat of the crayfish and in the exoskeleton were in the following order (Zn (115.571) > Mn (18.825) > Cu (17.226) > Ni (15.472) > Pb (3.535) > Cr (0.769) > Co (0.551) > Cd 0.315) > Hg (0.138)) and (Mn (111.640) > Zn (11.355) > Ni (8.165) > Pb (6.695) > Co (0.595) > Cu (0.575) > Cd (0.379) > Cr (0.195) > Hg (0.0168)), respectively.
    Keywords: Crayfish, Exoskeleton, Meat, Metals
  • A. Arshad, I. Shahid, U.H.C. Anwar, M.N. Baig, S. Khan, K. Shakir Pages 1323-1328
    The Marble Slurry Wastes (MSW) produced by marble industry is left unattended in the environment which causes serious environmental problems. In order to evaluate its potential usage in normal 1:2:4 concrete, this study was designed, where the partial replacement of cement with MSW was examined. Replacement of cement with MSW from 0 to 100%, and also its usage as an additive material 10% and 20% by weight of cement were the main objectives of this study. Various laboratory tests, like compressive strength test, splitting tensile test and slump test were conducted by using local available MSW. The primary chemical composition of the MSW indicated that it contains high contents, nearly 97% of lime (CaO). The laboratory results show that cement in structural concrete can be replaced by MSW up to 7% safely. The compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete was observed to be increased by 15% and 6% by the addition of 10% MSW. A similarly increase in strength was also observed by adding the 20% of MSW additionally to the normal 1:2:4 concrete. However, by the addition of MSW in concrete, its slump strength i.e., its workability is found to be reduced.
    Keywords: Marble powder, Compressive strength, Tensile strength, Slump
  • A. Kilic, E. Tzannatos Pages 1329-1340
    Ship exhaust emission inventories and their associated externalities constitute valuable information resources towards policy making and management of the influence exerted by shipping on air quality. To this extent, the container terminal at the Greek Port of Piraeus by virtue of its shipping significance and its urbanised character was selected in order to provide an estimation of the emissions produced by the ship activity within the terminal and to monetarise their adverse effects upon the environment and the local population in particular. With reference to the year 2006, the relevant annual emission inventory generated during in-port ship manoeuvring and at berth was found to be equal to 16,104 tons, divided into 294, 264, 15,504, 16.5 and 26.4 tons of NOx, SO2, CO2, HC and PM, respectively. The overall damage of these emissions was estimated to be around 7.5 million euro, comprised by 2.15, 3.35, 0.6, 0.003 and 1.35 million euro of NOx, SO2, CO2, HC and PM, respectively. The findings of this work, along with similar studies recently conducted in neighbouring locations, provide useful information towards the completion of a detailed and accurate picture of ship exhaust emissions and their externalities within the region of the eastern Mediterranean.
    Keywords: Maritime, Shipping, Air Pollution, Emission, Environmental Costs
  • R. BernabÉu, A. Samos Pages 1341-1348
    Public authorities should assess what recreational services can be offered citizens visitinga protected natural area. Therefore, the characterisation of visitors as well as the economic valuation of a park’srecreational use would allow the proposal of management strategies to satisfy visitors. For this purpose, 410 surveys were taken of visitors to the CalaresdelMundoandSimaNatural Park (Spain). The results showed two segments of visitors. The first segment is better informed about topics related to the environment and has a higher educational level and higher monthly family income. However, they are willing to pay less to enter the park (3.70€). Meanwhile the visitors from the second segment are more conscientious about environmental problems andare familiar with other natural areas.They are willing to pay more for park entrance (4.61€), even though they have lower incomes, because they value the scenic beauty of the park and particularly, the singularity of the waterfall and the source of the Mundo River.
    Keywords: Natural Areas, Visitor Life Styles, Contingent Valuation, Maximum Willingness to Pay, Castile, La Mancha