فهرست مطالب

Public Health - Volume:43 Issue: 10, 2014
  • Volume:43 Issue: 10, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/08/11
  • تعداد عناوین: 22
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  • Bozidar Banovic, Veljko Turanjanin Pages 1316-1323
    Background
    Euthanasia is one of the most intriguing ethical, medical and law issues that marked whole XX century and beginning of the XXI century, sharply dividing scientific and unscientific public to its supporters and opponents. It also appears as one of the points where all three major religions (Catholic, Orthodox, and Islamic) have the same view. They are strongly against legalizing mercy killing, emphasizing the holiness of life as a primary criterion by which the countries should start in their considerations. Studying criminal justice systems in the world, the authors concluded that the issue of deprivation of life from compassion is solved on three ways. On the first place, we have countries where euthanasia is murder like any other murder from the criminal codes. Second, the most numerous are states where euthanasia is murder committed under privilege circumstances. On the third place, in the Western Europe we have countries where euthanasia is a legal medical procedure, under requirements prescribed by the law. In this paper, authors have made a brief comparison of the solutions that exist in some Islamic countries, where euthanasia is a murder, with Western countries, where it represents completely decriminalized medical procedure.
    Keywords: Euthanasia, Murder, Legalization, Legal solutions
  • Fatemeh Hosseini, Nikmatul Adha, Rosilawati Zainol, Marzuki Isahak, Nahid Nemati Pages 1324-1334
    The main objective was to find association between basal cortisol and neighborhood-level stress. Systematic searches, including electronic and hand searches, were conducted. The most recent date of the search was July 26, 2013. Primary observational studies included if they considered stress related outcomes in the neighborhood context. Using the EndNote X7 advanced search option; the authors examined the abstracts and titles of the 18,092 articles to exclude obviously irrelevant studies, gray literature, discussion papers, reviews and, studies with no complete data. Two authors independently extracted data from the original reports into pre-designed data extraction forms based on the Data Extraction Template of the Cochrane Consumer and Communication Review Group (CCCRG). Ten studies with a total of 2,134 participants were synthesized and analyzed. Two studies out of ten received expanded meta-analysis. The overall effect size (95% CI) for cortisol level for residents in neighborhoods with lower stress compared to inhabitants from higher was 0.12 (0.01, 0.23). This review is demonstrating a link between psychosocial or physical stress and cortisol obtained from saliva. However, living in high disorder neighborhoods results in higher level of cortisol. This represents a biological indicator of psychosocial/physical stress exposure (i.e., neighborhood disorder) that reflects variances in stress exposure levels.
    Keywords: Urban stress, Community health, Environmental stress
  • Naimeh Seyedfatemi, Mahvash Salsali, Nasrin Rezaee, Zahra Rahnavard Pages 1335-1344
    Background
    It is necessary to identify unidentified or less- concentrated issues in women’s health dimension through an extended study. This study is done to identify different dimensions of women’s health among qualitative research.
    Method
    The present meta-synthesis study is done through a systematic review. The main criteria were to use qualitative studies issued in the same language and researches in which their participants were women. All the published and indexed articles related to women’s health in Iran at SID, Magiran and Iranmedex databases from 2001 to 2013 were scrutinized. Search in these databases was done using key words “health” and “women”. Finally, 29 qualitative articles were chosen. Data analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis.
    Results
    Generally, concepts extracted from women’s health dimension are classified in three main categories including personal, familial and social dimensions. Each category includes some subcategories, too. Personal factors consist of physical, psychological -emotional and spiritual; familial factors consist of fertility, husband’s support and women’s fundamental roles, and social factors consist of cultural, socioeconomically support, and women’s management issues.
    Conclusion
    In this meta-synthesis study, there was an effort to present a new interpretation of the previous studies. This study helped attain a more comprehensive and deeper knowledge about women’s health concept and reveal its different aspects, which are not assessed in the country.
    Keywords: Health, Women, Meta, synthesis, Qualitative study
  • Liya Liu, Lizhang Chen, Zhanzhan Li, Liang Li, Jian Qu, Jing Xue Pages 1345-1355
    Background
    There are much heterogeneity in the genetic variation of type 2 diabetes (T2D).The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of seven novel genetic loci identified in a recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) with T2D in Chinese Dong populations.
    Methods
    A case-controlled study was performed in individuals of Chinese Dong nationality. The genotypes of PARD3B (rs849230), LOC729993 (rs149228), EPHA4 (rs16862811), HNT (rs3099797), PTPRD (rs17584499 and rs649891), TOMM7 (rs2240727) genes were determined using Multiplex PCR-SNaPshot. The independent association between each polymorphism and T2D was assessed using unconditional binary logistic regression analysis (BLR).
    Results
    A total of 136 cases of T2D and 136 control subjects were enrolled in the study. The polymorphism of rs2240727 in TOMM7 gene was associated with T2D (odds ratio (OR) = 1.65, per copy of the risk T allele, P = 0.004). In addition, CT and TT were risk genotypes for T2D (OR (95% CIs):2.64 (1.28-5.45) and 3.42 (1.58-7.41) respectively). After correcting for multiple testing, the above results remained significant (all P < 0.05). After adjusting for the confounders of age, gender, and BMI, the association between T2D and rs2240727 remained significant (P < 0.01). There were significantly statistical difference in levels of fasting plasm glucose(FPG) among genotypes of rs2240727 in controls and patients, the levels of FPG were significantly higher in CT and TT genotypes than in CC genotype in both groups(all P < 0.05).
    Conclusions
    The rs2240727 genetic variant in TOMM7 was associated with T2D of Chinese Dong individuals, and might enhance the risk of T2D by affecting the level of FPG.
    Keywords: Type 2 diabetes_Dong nationality_Gene polymorphism_TOMM7_SNaPshot genotyping
  • Salem Alkoshi, Kacey Ernst, Namaitijiang Maimaiti, Maznah Dahlui Pages 1356-1363
    Background
    Rotavirus is a common infection causing 450,000 deaths annually primarily in children 5 years and below. Despite the high burden of disease, little is known about the epidemiology of rotavirus in Libya. The aim of this study was to estimate the rotavirus disease burden among Libyan children.
    Methods
    A cross-sectional study was carried out prospectively among children 5 years old and below between August 2012 and April 2013. Stool samples of children with diarrhea attending the outpatient department or admitted to the pediatric wards, at three public hospitals within the northwestern region of Libya were tested for rotavirus. The seasonality, symptomology demographics and outcomes of rotavirus cases were determined and compared to other diarrhea illnesses. An estimated incidence rate per 100,000 children aged 5 years and below was determined.
    Results
    A total of 545 children with diarrhea were identified for participation. Results of rotavirus immunoassays determined 57% of cases were caused by rotavirus. Inpatients were more likely to be rotavirus positive than outpatients (58% vs. 53%, P<0.05), Most rotavirus positive cases (86%) were found among children below 2 years of age. Rotaviral cases peaked in the winter, constituting 76% of diarrheal illness in February and very few rotavirus cases in the summer months. The incidence rate of rotavirus diarrhea was estimated at 640/100,000 children aged 5 years and below.
    Conclusion
    Rotavirus infection poses a significant disease burden in Libya. Preventive measures such as proper hygiene should be emphasized. Introduction of vaccination against rotavirus into the national immunization program should be examined, as it would likely be a cost-effective investment.
    Keywords: Rotavirus, Diarrhea, Burden, Libya, Children, Incidence
  • Mojgan Aryaeipour, Soheila Rouhani, Mojgan Bandehpour, Hadi Mirah¬Madi, Bahram Kazemi, Mohammad Bagher Rokni Pages 1364-1371
    Background
    The aim of this study was to detect the genotype of Fasciola spp. in Meshkin-Shahr, Ardabil Province, northwestern Iran in different hosts using PCR-RFLP.
    Methods
    The parasite hosts included cattle, and sheep. Overall, 70 adult flukes from livers of slaughtered animals were collected from the abattoirs of aforementioned area. The included 35 samples from infected sheep and 35 samples from 35 infected cattle. PCR–RFLP and sequence analysis of the first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS 1) region from Fasciola species were used to conduct the study.
    Results
    The fragment of approximately 700bp in all of the Fasciola samples was amplified. PCR products of ITS 1 were subjected for digestion by restriction enzyme. RsaI restriction enzyme was selected for RFLP method that caused the separation specifically of Fasciola species. Amplicons with the sequences of F. hepatica had a pattern of about 360, 100, and 60 bp band size, whereas F. gigantica worms had a profile of 360, 170, and 60 bp in size, respectively. Results based on PCR-RFLP analysis were confirmed by sequence analysis of representative ITS 1 amplicons. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. All sheep were infected with F. hepatica but cattle were infected with both species.
    Conclusion
    Both species of Fasciola are present in Ardabil. The method described here can be valuable for identification of Fasciola species in endemic parts for fasciolosis, regions with intermediate species and in that overlapping distribution area.
    Keywords: Fasciola, Genotyping, Fasciolosis, PCR, Iran
  • Maliheh Arab, Giti Noghabaei Pages 1372-1379
    Background
    Female cancer, especially breast and gynecologic cancers are considered multistage disease, highly influenced by risk and protective factors and/or screening preventive modalities. Consequences of all these factors result in the trend of change over time.
    Methods
    In this comparative study, based on data of national cancer registry of Iran 2004 published by Iranian Ministry of Health, age – standard incidence rate (ASR) according to the world population was calculated in all reported gynecologic and breast cancers. Source of all subjects are pathologic based. In the next step, the calculated ASR of Iran and those of the other countries in 2004 were compared to GLOBOCAN ASR reports of 2008.
    Results
    In Iran ASR of breast cancer 2004 (24.93) changed to 18.4 in 2008. Ovarian cancer ASR of 2004, 3.07 was 3.1 in 2008. Endometrial cancer ASR in 2004 (2.29) was 1.7 in 2008. Cervical cancer ASR of 1.71 in 2004 was 2.2 in 2008.
    Conclusions
    In Iran incidence trend of breast and endometrium are decreasing in the same direction of USA and Australia. Increasing trend of ovary and cervix ASR in Iran is in the inverse direction of USA and Australia which are decreasing. Future studies to find out the same trend or any changes, might develop these findings and improve consequent practical decisions based on results of this study and complementary future studies.
    Keywords: Ovarian cancer, Cervical cancer, Breast cancer, Gynecologic malignancies, Iran
  • Majid Mobasseri, Neda Roshanravan, Naimeh Mesri Alamdari, Ali¬Reza Ostadrahimi, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Farideh Anari, Me¬Hdi Hedayati Pages 1380-1384
    Background
    Iodine is essential element in thyroid hormones synthesis and normal growth and development of the brain. Milk and iodine concentrations can be appropriate indicator of body iodine status; in this study, we evaluated the concentrations of urine and milk iodine in newborns and their mothers.
    Methods
    In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2013, urine and milk iodine in 106 neonates and their mothers referred to healthcare center in Shabestar, Eastern Azerbaijan for congenital hypothyroidism screening program were determined. Median urinary iodine < 100 μg/L and milk iodine < 50 μg/L was considered as iodine deficiency.
    Results
    The median urine iodine concentrations (UIC) in mothers and infants were 142.31 μg/L (.0 - 1260) and 306.76 μg/L (23.56-1020) respectively. Urine iodine concentrations were < 100 μg/L in 33.9% of mothers and 14.2% of neonates. The median milk iodine concentration (MIC) was 58.23 μg/L (20.31- 425) and in 41.9% of mothers was <50 μg/L. A positive significant correlation was found between milk iodine and maternal urinary iodine concentration (r=0.533, P= 0.000). There was significant correlation between neonatal UIC and maternal UIC (r=0.462, P= 0.000), neonatal UIC and MIC (r=0.414, P= 0.000).
    Conclusions
    Urinary and milk iodine concentrations in mothers and infants were within acceptable range, which indicates adequate iodine intake. However, there were moderate and marginal iodine deficiencies in about half percentage of participants. Insufficient amount of milk iodine in about half of the mothers can result in iodine deficiency in breast-fed infants.
    Keywords: Iodine, Milk, Urine, Congenital hypothyroidism, Iodine deficiency
  • Ammal Metwally, Amira Mohsen, Rehan Saleh, Walaa Foaud, Nihad Ibrahim, Thanaa Rabaah, Manal El-Sayed Pages 1385-1394
    Background
    The aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the risky behaviors and explore the newly emerging practices related to Egyptian habits that may lead to HCV transmission.
    Methods
    From January 2011 until January 2012, a case control study matched on socio demographic factors was conducted comparing 540 hepatitis C patients and their contacts who were HCV serologically negative (102 subjects). They were randomly selected from six governorates representing Upper Egypt, Lower Egypt, Middle and Canal regions. The questionnaire covered demographic data, risk exposures, behaviors, and practices for HCV infection. Focus group discussions were done with groups of professionals in Hepatology to discuss the observed emerging risk practices in Egypt.
    Results
    In univariate analysis, invasive medical procedures, wound stitches, illiteracy and marriage were significantly associated with HCV infection. Among women, delivery at home by traditional birth attendant was associated with 3 times (OR=2.91, CI=1.23-6.98) and 4 times (OR=3.94, CI=1.44-11.35) increase in HCV risk than delivery at hospital and by doctors respectively. Among males, shaving at barbershops was associated with 2 fold increase in the risk of infection (OR=2.6, CI=1.44-4.89). Newly observed emerging risk practices were: sharing scarves'' pins by veiled women in same houses, sharing loofah for personal cleaning and sharing toothpaste among family members.
    Conclusion
    Increasing risk of HCV infection in Egypt reinforces the need for strict implementation of effective HCV prevention programs according to the prevailing risk behaviours.
    Keywords: Hepatitis C, Risk factors, Risk practices, Emerging practices
  • Hamidreza Farrokh, Eslamlou, Siamak Aghlmand, Sima Oshnouei Pages 1395-1404
    Background
    This study aimed to assess factors affecting substandard care and probable medical errors associated with obstetric hemorrhage and HDP at a Northwestern Iranian health care system.
    Methods
    In a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study, data on all maternal deaths occurred at West Azerbaijan Province, Iran during a period of 10 years from March 21, 2002 to March 20, 2011 was analyzed. The principal cause of death, main contributory factors, nature of care, main responsible staff for sub-standard care and medical error were determined. The data on maternal deaths was obtained from the national Maternal Mortality Surveillance System (MMSS) which were covered all maternal deaths. The “Three delays model” was used to recognize contributing factors of maternal deaths due to obstetric hemorrhage and HDP.
    Results
    There were 183 maternal deaths, therefore the Mean Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) in the province was 32.8 per 100 000 live births (95% CI, 32.64–32.88). The most common causes of maternal deaths were obstetric hemorrhage in 36.6% of cases and HDP in 25.7%. The factors that most contributed to the deaths were all types of medical errors and substandard care with different proportions in management of obstetric hemorrhage and HDP.
    Conclusion
    A substandard care and medical error was the major contributing factor in both obstetric hemorrhage and HDP leading to maternal mortality, therefore, it is necessary to improve the quality of health care at all levels especially hospitals.
    Keywords: Maternal mortality, Substandard care, Medical error, Iran
  • Nehleh Parandavar, Khadijeh Abdali, Sara Keshtgar, Maasoumeh Emamghoreishi, Seddegheh Amooee Pages 1405-1416
    Background
    Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman''s life.With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms.
    Methods
    The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old) referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012). The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg’s general health questionnaire (GHQ), Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention
    Results
    We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001). In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001). No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135).
    Conclusion
    The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms.
    Keywords: Climacteric symptoms, Green scale, Melatonin, Menopausal women, RCT
  • Kobra Shiasi Arani, Abbas Taghavi Ardakani, Razieh Moazami Gou¬Darzi, Hamid Reza Talari, Kamran Hami, Hossein Akbari, Nima Akbari Pages 1417-1423
    Background
    We evaluated the effect of vitamin E and metformin on fatty liver disease in obese children.
    Methods
    This interventional study has been done on 119 children with Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (based on sonography results). Patients were divided into four treatment groups; they received metformin 1gr daily (age< 12 years), metformin 1.5 gr daily (age> 12 years), vitamin E 800 U daily and vitamin E 400 U daily. Liver sonography was performed for patients for two periods of two months. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), No.IRCT2013021012421N1
    Results
    The study group comprised 119 individuals (62 females, 57 males). The mean age was 10± 3.19 yr. There was no significant difference in terms of sex and BMI between the groups. Overall liver sonography showed normal liver in 66 patients (55.46%), 66.63% after two months and 33.37% after four months. After two months, the most therapeutic response observed in the group which received vitamin E 800 u daily (48.1%) and the least therapeutic response was in the group which received vitamin E 400 u daily (14.3%). After four months, the greater response was seen in vitamin E 400 u daily group (45.8%) and the least response in the metformin 1 gram daily group (19%).
    Conclusion
    In comparison with metformin, vitamin E is more influential in remission; however both are efficient in treatment of fatty liver. Vitamin E 400 u daily responses better in four-month treatment.
    Keywords: Fatty liver disease, Obesity, Children, Metformin, Vitamin E
  • Ghobad Moradi, Minoo Mohraz, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Masoumeh Dejman, Seyedahmad Seyedalinaghi, Sahar Khoshravesh, Hossein Malek¬Afzali Ardakani Pages 1424-1435
    Background
    HIV/AIDS has been concentrated among injecting drug users in the country. This study aimed to investigate and identify health and treatment needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.
    Methods
    This qualitative study was conducted in 2012 in Iran. The study groups consisted of experts, practitioners, and consultants working with People Living with HIV/AIDS and their families. Data was collected through Focus Group Discussions and deep interviews. Data were analyzed using content analysis method.
    Results
    The findings of this study included the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS, which were classified in three main categories. The first category was prevention and counseling services with several sub-groups such as education and public and available consultation, distribution of condoms to vulnerable groups, increasing counseling centers in urban areas, providing appropriate psychological and supportive counseling, and family planning services. The second category included diagnostic and treatment services and had several sub-groups such as full retroviral treatment, Tuberculosis treatment and continuing care, providing care and treatment for patients with hepatitis, and providing dental services. The third category included rehabilitation services and had some sub-categories such as home care, social and psychological support, nutritional support, and empowering positive clubs.
    Conclusions
    This study puts emphasis on making plans based on the priorities to meet the needs of people living with HIV/AIDS in Iran.
    Keywords: Health, HIV, AIDS, Qualitative study, Iran
  • Jan Luzny, Iva Holmerova, Petr Wija, Igor Ondrejka Pages 1436-1443
    Background
    The goal of the study is to evaluate the sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia in patients with memory impairment.
    Methods
    A retrospective observational study was designed. We have reviewed the electronic medical records of patients who have been hospitalized for the first time due to dementia of any type at the Kromeriz Mental hospital from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2013 (24-month period). Pluralistic methods combining the qualitative and quantitative approach were used in this study.
    Results
    Dementia of any type was diagnosed in 125 patients in the monitored period. The mean time between patient memory complaints and his / her admission to our facility for their first hospitalization due to dementia was 7.1 years (+- 3.7 years). Most patients with dementia had no prior outpatient treatment of their memory impairment (56.2%); a minority of patients (43.8%) had treatment of their memory impairment by an outpatient physician.
    Conclusion
    The sensitivity of Czech physicians to the early diagnosis of dementia is very low. Any delay in starting the treatment of dementia means a worsened effectiveness of this treatment, a worsened quality of life of patients with dementia and their caregivers. Our recommendations for both the early diagnosis and treatment of dementia should be involved in guidelines and should become a part of the pregraduate and postgraduate education of all physicians.
    Keywords: Dementia, Cognitive enhancers, Electronic medical records, Content analysis
  • Jamileh Vasheghani Farahani Pages 1444-1450
    In all over the world, mining is considered as a high-risk activity that is pregnant with serious disasters not only for miners, engineers, and other people into it, but also for people who live near the mines. In this article, our main purpose is to examine some major mine disasters and safety in mines and the case study is a coal mine in Turkey. Safety in mines is one of the most important issues that need attention. Therefore, it is suggested that existing deficiencies in mines should be removed by continuous monitoring in all devices, equipments, control of Methane and safe separation of coal from a mine. Moreover, we recommend that early warning systems should be installed to alert some explosions, fires and other dangerous events to the fire departments, hospitals, Red Crescent and other major reliefs. Experiences from previous events in mines can help managers and miners. With some plans and projects related to disasters in mines and solution for them, some diseases such as black lung disease or other problems in mines such as carbon monoxide poisoning can forestall a danger. Before Mine owners begin their activity, they must research about the environmental and social effects of their activities. Therefore, they should identify some important hazards and determine some essential tasks to remove them or control risks via collaboration with other scientists.
    Keywords: Explosions, Soma mine disaster, Mine disasters, Turkey
  • Sanja Mancevska, Jasmina (Plincevic) Pluncevic, Lidija Todorovska, Beti Dejanova, Joseph Tecce Pages 1451-1453
  • Muhammad Rizwan Yaseen, Shumaila Aziz, Shafaq Aftab Pages 1456-1457
  • Foroogh Khalilinejad, Mohammad Reza Khalilian, Neda Rasaei, Azadeh Saki Pages 1458-1460
  • Arman Zargaran, Amir Azizi, Gholamreza Kordafshari, Afshin Borhani-Haghighi Pages 1461-1462
  • Shirin Parvinroo, Mohammad Kamalinejad, Masoumeh Sabetkasaei Pages 1463-1465