فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:7 Issue: 11, 2014
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/09/29
  • تعداد عناوین: 11
|
  • Khalid Niazi, Jamal Mohammed Ali Khaled *, Saleh A. Kandeal, Addulla Saleh Khalel Page 1
    Background
    There are several conventional, immunological and molecular techniques to diagnose the fungi that cause aspergillosis in biological samples; these methods have some advantages and disadvantages..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to evaluate different methods used in identification and diagnosis of fungi causing aspergillosis..
    Materials And Methods
    Male Western Albino rats were provided by Animal Care Unit at Faculty of Pharmacy, King Saud University. After adaptation for a reasonable period, rat''s immunity was debilitated by injection of cyclophosphamide (i.p.); the infection was induced by injecting (i.v.) the prepared suspension of Aspergillus fumigatus spores. Blood samples, lung tissue, lung fluid smears and nasal fluid smears were obtained during the periods before and after injection. Isolation of fungus was carried out by synthetic media; and macro- and micro-characteristics were studied to identify the fungus. Enzyme-linked immunesorbent (ELISA) and LightCycler-based PCR was employed to check the existence of the fungus in blood samples..
    Results
    The results indicated that all methods were unable to diagnose the A. fumigatus on the following day of infection except ELISA method; however, culturing methods varied according to the type of vital samples where lung tissue and lung fluid smears were the best. Moreover, more than half of the samples used in the culturing techniques had negative results. The highest rate of the cases diagnosed by ELISA and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was recorded during the second week following the infection, and then it declined gradually till the end of the experiment. The molecular methods showed high efficiency followed by ELISA..
    Conclusions
    It could be concluded that the best methods to identify A. fumigatus were molecular methods; however, the early diagnosis requires the enzymatic-immunological methods (ELISA). The current study recommends the integration among all possible techniques whenever the facilities are available. But when only microbiological methods are used, samples should be collected from different organs of the infected hosts..
    Keywords: Aspergillosis, ELISA, PCR, Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Seyed Mohammad Alavi, Fatemeh Roozbeh, Farzaneh Behmanesh, Leila Alavi * Page 2
    Background
    Despite the effectiveness of prophylactic antimicrobials to prevent surgical site infection the use of antibiotic prophylaxis is often inappropriate..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to determine the pattern of prophylactic antibiotic use in a teaching hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran..Patients and
    Methods
    The current descriptive study included 8586 patients who received prophylactic antibiotics before surgery from April 2011 to March 2012, in Razi Hospital affiliated to Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences. Indications for antibiotic use, proper or inappropriate antibiotics, an antibiotic or combination of antibiotics, dosage and length of treatment for each patient based on the infectious disease textbook (Mandel''s Principle and practice of infectious diseases) definitions were administrated..
    Results
    Of the total 8586 patients who took antibiotics for preventive purposes, 4815 (56%) required antimicrobial prophylaxis, and 3771 (44%) patients did not. Of the 4815 patients who received prophylaxis, 86.9% received it appropriately, 13.1% received it inappropriately; 8.2% received inappropriate dosage, and 9.5% received antibiotic longer than 24 hours..
    Conclusions
    The current study revealed that 44% of those who received prophylaxis did not need it. In the patients who received antibiotics, the most common mistakes were antibiotic selection followed by prolonged prophylaxis (> 24 hours) and excess dose..
    Keywords: Prophylaxis, Infection, Nosocomial Infection
  • Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Soodabeh Rostami *, Abbas Jolodar, Mohammad Amin Tabatabaiefar, Farzin Khorvash, Azadeh Saki, Saeed Shoja, Raheleh Sheikhi Page 3
    Background

    Carbapenems are important drugs used for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections, however metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) are able to efficiently hydrolyze these classes of drugs. Immediate detection of the MBL-producing P. aeruginosa is necessary in order to accurately treat infections caused by this organism..

    Objectives

    To determine the prevalence of MBL producing P. aeruginosa in burn and non-burn patients by two phenotypic tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to compare phenotypic tests with PCR..

    Materials And Methods

    A total of 223 non-duplicate strains of P. aeruginosa were collected from three teaching hospitals of Ahvaz, Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem) were determined by the Kirby-Bauer and E-test methods. Combined disk (CD) test, MBL E-test and PCR were performed for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates..

    Results

    Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 58.7% were resistant to imipenem while 31.8%, 13.5% and 74.4% were resistant to meropenem, doripenem and ertapenem, respectively. Amongst all the P. aeruginosa isolates, 44.4% were multidrug resistant and 13.45% were resistant to all of the carbapenems. The CD test with doripenem disk / 750 μg ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) had the highest efficiency compared to the other phenotypic tests. blaIMP and blaVIM genes were detected in 11.7% and 0.4% of isolates, respectively. blaSPM and blaNDM genes were not observed..

    Conclusions

    Epidemiological and regional evaluation of MBL-producing P. aeruginosa through simple and inexpensive methods should be considered for effective treatment of carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa infections..

    Keywords: Metallo, beta, lactamase, Carbapenemase, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • Somayeh Mazaheri *, Siavosh Salmanzadeh Ahrabi, Mohammad Mahdi Aslani Page 4
    Background
    During the last decade, the prevalence of foodborne diseases due to contaminated food as well as the outbreaks of diseases due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains has increased..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and antibiotic resistance pattern of STEC strains in lettuce samples. Since lettuce is used as a raw vegetable in salads, the rates of infections caused by this vegetable are high..
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 100 samples collected from Tehran, Iran, were transported to the laboratory, homogenized by a stomacher in E. coli broth containing cefixime, and cultured on MacConkey agar medium. Their DNA was extracted by boiling method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed, using five primers targeting the stx1, stx2, fliCh7, rbfO157, and eaeA genes. Susceptibility testing against ampicillin, imipenem, cephalosporin, tetracycline, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol and quinolones was performed using disk diffusion method..
    Results
    Eight samples were positive for presence of STEC strains, three contained stx1, five contained stx2, and one sample was positive for presence of both rbfO157 and fliCh7. They were susceptible to all the antibiotics except for ampicillin and tetracycline..
    Conclusions
    This study indicated the contamination of lettuce by STEC strains and its possible role as the source of infection. Resistance to both tetracycline and ampicillin may be considered as an emergency alarm for a multidrug resistance of STEC strains..
    Keywords: Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli, Iran
  • Reza Taherkhani, Fatemeh Farshadpour, Manoochehr Makvandi *, Ali Reza Samarbafzadeh Page 5
    Background
    Flagellin is the main structural protein of the flagella of many pathogens including Salmonella typhimurium. It is a potent trigger of innate immune responses that enhance adaptive immune responses to a variety of protein antigens. Flagellin has intrinsic adjuvant activity mediated through toll-like receptor (TLR) 5 and is an attractive candidate for highly effective vaccine adjuvant conferring enhanced antibody and cellular immune responses to proteins or peptides. In the present study, we cloned the fliC gene from S. enterica typhimurium in eukaryote vector pVAX1 and evaluated its expression in eukaryotic cells..
    Objectives
    The main aim of the present study was to construct a DNA vaccine expressing fliC as an adjuvant..
    Materials And Methods
    The fliC gene of S. typhimurium (ATCC 14028) was amplified by PCR with specific primers and cloned into the pPrime cloning vector and successfully subcloned into expression vector pVAX1. The recombinant plasmid pVAX-fliC was finally expressed in eukaryotic cells..
    Results
    Cloning and subcloning of the fliC gene were confirmed by colony PCR, restriction enzymes digestion and DNA sequencing of the recombinant plasmids pPrime-fliC and pVAX-fliC. The expression of flagellin protein in eukaryotic cells was approved by immunofluorescence assay (IFA), western blotting analysis and the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method..
    Conclusions
    The results of this study demonstrated that the fliC gene in recombinant plasmid pVAX-fliC was successfully expressed in eukaryotic cells and produced flagellin protein, which could be used as an effective adjuvant for DNA vaccine research..
    Keywords: Cloning, fliC gene, pVAX1, Salmonella typhimurium, Adjuvant candidate
  • Manijeh Sedaghat, Masoume Nakhost Lotfi, Malihe Talebi *, Mahnaz Saifi *, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie * Page 6
    Background
    Pertussis is a respiratory and contagious disease which is mostly caused by Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. It usually spreads from person to personduring the incubation or catarrhal phase of the disease. Despite of large-scale vaccination, whooping cough is still an endemic disease with several outbreaks..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pertussis and identify its causative agents, B. pertussis or B. parapertussis, from specimens collected from Iranian patients from 2004 to 2008.. Patients and
    Methods
    Nasopharyngeal swab samples from 347 suspected pertussis cases were collected from 18 provinces of Iran. The patients were in different age groups and were either unvaccinated or vaccinated for pertussis with whole cell vaccine (WCV). Bacterial culture, agglutination tests and quantitative PCR (qPCR) targeting IS481 and IS1001 for B. pertussis and B. parapertussis were done for every specimen, respectively..
    Results
    The results showed that seven nasopharyngeal swab samples (2%) were positive for B. pertussis (1.7%) and B. parapertussis (0.3%) by culture and agglutination test and 30 patients had positive qPCR test results (9%)..
    Conclusions
    Despite the fact that bacterial culture is the golden standard for the detection of B. pertussis, direct detection of bacteria from nasopharyngeal specimens can be performed by a rapid qPCR assay. In this study, high percentage of positive qPCR cases may indicate that the patients might have recovered from pertussis following antibiotic treatment before samples were collected. Rapid detection by qPCR could be important for immediate diagnosis and treatment of patients with pertussis..
    Keywords: Pertussis, qPCR, Whooping Cough
  • Shahram Khademvatan, Jasem Saki *, Niloufar Khajeddin, Maryam Izadi-Mazidi, Reza Beladi, Behnaz Shafiee, Zahra Salehi Page 7
    Background
    Schizophrenia is a major psychiatric disorder with a deeply destructive pathophysiology. There are evidences to indicate that infectious agents such as Toxoplasma gondii may play some roles in etiology of the disorder..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to determine the association between T. gondii exposure and the risk of schizophrenia..
    Materials And Methods
    T. gondii IgG antibodies of 100 patients with schizophrenia as well as 200 healthy volunteers were assessed. The subjects also completed demographic questionnaires. Data was analyzed using the chi-square and Fisher exact tests..
    Results
    The analyses confirmed the significant differences between healthy women and ones with schizophrenia (P = 0.001) as well as between males and females with schizophrenia (P = 0.009) in IgG positivity..
    Conclusions
    The present study supported the contamination with T. gondii as a risk factor for schizophrenia just in women..
    Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii, Schizophrenia, Toxoplasmosis, Parasite, Enzyme, Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Iran
  • Mishar Kelishadi, Mohammad Mojerloo, Abdolvahab Moradi, Masoud Bazouri, Pezhman Hashemi, Sobhan Samadi, Atefeh Saeedi, Alijan Tabarraei * Page 8
    Background
    GB Virus C is a blood-borne virus and a member of Flaviviridae, like hepatitis C that is distributed globally and puts hemodialysis patients at high risk of developing liver disease. The clinical significance of GBV-C in this population remains unclear..
    Objectives
    The current study aimed to evaluate GBV-C infection among hemodialysis patients..Patients and
    Methods
    Totally, 149 patients receiving hemodialysis were included in the study. The detection of GBV-C sequences in plasma was done by the nested Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers selected from highly conserved regions of 5'' UTR of GBV-C and antibodies to the envelope protein of GBV-C (anti-E2 GBV-C antibody) were analyzed by also serological methods. In addition, Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb) IgM, anti- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and anti- hepatitis E virus (HEV) Ab was determined in patients who were GBV-C RNA and anti-E2 GBV-C antibody positive..
    Results
    The total prevalence of GBV-C infection was 14.7% (95%CI: 0.09-0.21) among patients receiving hemodialysis. The rate of GBV-C viremia and anti-E2 antibody positivity were 6.04% and 10.73%, respectively. Among the subjects who were positive for GBV-C, 27.27% (95% CI: 0.02-0.09), 45.45% (95% CI: 0.03-0.11), 59.9% (95% CI: 0.06-0.16) and 0% (95% CI: 0.01-0.07) were positive for anti-HCV, anti-HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM and anti-(HEV) Ab, respectively. In addition, the rate of both anti-HBc IgM /anti-HCV/ HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM /anti-HCV positivity in GBV-C infected cases were 9.09%. The liver enzymes were normal in all of them. There was significant difference between GBV-C exposures with viral hepatitis co-infection, but there was no correlation between GBV-C exposure with gender, age, ethnicity, time on dialysis and history of blood transfusions. A relatively high frequency of positivity GBV-C-exposure among hemodialysis patients suggested that the transmission route for GBV-C may be nosocomial transmission, and via transfusions..
    Conclusions
    The current study found a relatively high frequency of positivity GBV-C-exposure among the patients receiving hemodialysis in the area understudy. Nosocomial transmission seems to be the main route of GBV-C infection in the area..
    Keywords: Hemodialysis, GBV, C viremia, Anti, E2 GBV, C, Iran
  • Amir Sasan Mozaffari Nejad, Shahrokh Shabani, Mansour Bayat, Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini * Page 9
    Background
    Using garlic is widespread in Iran and other countries as a medicine and a natural spice. Garlic is a potential inhibitor for food pathogens. Foods contaminated with pathogens pose a potential danger to the consumer’s health. The use of garlic can increase the shelf life and decrease the possibilities of food poisoning and spoilage in processed foods..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of garlic aqueous extract on growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria..
    Materials And Methods
    In this study, the garlic aqueous extract was prepared under sterile conditions and was added in 1, 2, and 3 mL to 100g hamburger samples. A group of samples was prepared to be used as treatment sample, while a group was stored at 4°C and -18°C. The samples were kept in refrigerator for one and two weeks and they were frozen for one, two and three months and then subjected to microbial tests..
    Results
    Statistical evaluation of the first and second week samples indicated a significant growth decreased by all the 1, 2, and 3-mL extracts. In treatment of one, two and three-month samples, the growth of S. aureus was significantly decreased by the 2 and 3-mL extracts. The 1-mL extract was effective in decreasing the growth, and a significant difference was observed in treatments with 2 and 3-mL extracts. However, there was no significant difference between the two and three-month samples, though they were significantly different from the one-month samples. After evaluations, treatment with the 2-mL extract was found to be the best one..
    Conclusions
    Garlic aqueous extract has antibacterial properties against S. aureus present in hamburger. Moreover, garlic aqueous extract can be used not only as a flavor but also as a natural additive for hamburger. In addition, garlic has antibacterial properties against other Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which must be investigated in further studies..
    Keywords: Antibacterial Effect, Garlic, Staphylococcus aureus, Hamburger
  • Huixuan Wang *, Fen Huang Page 10
    Introduction
    Babesiosis is caused by apicomplexa parasites of the genus Babesia. Humans are commonly infected by Babesia through tick bites. There is limited information available about Babesia infection of humans in China. The aim of this study was to isolate the pathogen from a patient with severe parasitemia..
    Case Presentation
    Blood samples were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA), and red blood cells of bone marrow and blood smears were examined by a microscope. The patient was infected by Babesia and cured after a combined treatment..
    Conclusions
    Babesia infection was detected in an individual from China..
    Keywords: Babesiosis, Infection, indirect fluorescent antibody, TEM transmission electron microscopy
  • Khalid Abdalla Ali Abdel Rahim *, Ahmed Mohamed Ali Mohamed Page 11
    Background
    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) are gram-negative bacteria that produce the enzyme, β-lactamase, which can break down commonly used antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, making infections with ESBL producing bacteria more difficult to treat. Extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae were first reported in 1983 from Germany, and since then a steady increase in resistance against cephalosporins has been seen causing health problems..
    Objectives
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ESBL in strains of K. pneumoniae isolated from different clinical samples..Patients and
    Methods
    One hundred and thirty isolates of K. pneumoniae were isolated from different clinical specimens from King Khalid hospital, Hafr Elbatin, Kingdom Saudi Arabia. These isolates were then characterized, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and screened for ESBL production by the MicroScan WalkAway-96 SI System. Extended spectrum β-lactamase production was confirmed by the phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT) and the double disc synergy test (DDST)..
    Results
    Overall, 76.9% (100) of the isolates were resistant to cefuroxime, cefepime and cefazolin, 69.23% (90) were resistant to cefotaxime, and 46.15% (60) were resistant to cefoxitin. Extended spectrum β-lactamase was detected in 53.8% (70) of K. pneumoniae as detected by the MicroScan “WalkAway-96” SI System and 50.07% (66) by PCDDT and 46.15% (60) by DDST. All K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillin followed by both piperacillin and mezlocillin 92.30% (120). K. pneumoniae isolates showed high sensitivity to imipenem (15.38%) (20), followed by ertapenem, tetracycline, tigecycline pipracilline/tazobactam and amikacin (23.07%) (30)..
    Conclusions
    Our study showed that the prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae at King Khalid Hospital was significantly high. Routine detection of ESBL-producing microorganisms is required by each of the laboratory standard detection methods to control the spread of these infections and allow a proper therapeutic strategy. For detection, the phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test is simple, sensitive and cost effective. However, there is a need for larger scale drug susceptibility surveillance..
    Keywords: Prevalence, Klebsiella pneumoniae, ESBL