فهرست مطالب

Pollution - Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2015
  • Volume:1 Issue: 1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/10/13
  • تعداد عناوین: 10
  • Abbas Akbarzadeh, Shervin Jamshidi, Maryam Vakhshouri Pages 1-8
    This research compares the performance of floating systems planted with Vetiveria zizanioides as a hydroponic approach for removing nutrients from two contaminated waters. For this purpose, two pilots with overall net volume of 60 litres were constructed and inoculated by secondary treated domestic wastewater (STDW) and irrigation water obtained from Minab reservoir (IWMR) in batch mode. Regarding the experimental results, the total nitrogen removal efficiency reaches more than 40 and 75%, in two and four days’ detention time, respectively, while these figures are 75 and 85% for phosphorus. The comparative statistical analyses verify that the results reveal significant differences in nitrogen removal, its uptake and the shoots’ dry weight. Conversely, phosphorus removal, its uptake and the roots’ growth are not significantly different. The regression analysis shows that the nitrogen uptake is well correlated with the shoots’ expansion rate as a matter of substrate type. The decay coefficient rates of nitrogen and phosphorus are calculated as 0.43 and 0.52 day-1, respectively. It is then concluded that this system should be used for wastewater treatment rather than for surface water purification. However, it can be recommended as an environmental friendly approach for both, because of the high efficiency in nutrients’ removal and the aeration capability.
    Keywords: Hydroponic, Minab reservoir, Phytoremediation, Vetiveria zizanioides, Wastewater Treatment
  • Ziba Hosseini, Mohammad Nakhaie Pages 9-21
    In this paper, we present an application of evolved neural networks using a real coded genetic algorithm for simulations of monthly groundwater levels in a coastal aquifer located in the Shabestar Plain, Iran. After initializing the model with groundwater elevations observed at a given time, the developed hybrid genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) should be able to reproduce groundwater level variations using the external input variables, including rainfall, average discharge, temperature, evaporation and annual time series. To achieve this purpose, the hybrid GA-BP algorithm is first calibrated on a training dataset to perform monthly predictions of future groundwater levels using past observed groundwater levels and additional inputs. Simulations are then produced on another data set by iteratively feeding back the predicted groundwater levels, along with real external data. This modelling algorithm has been compared with the individual back propagation model (ANN-BP), which demonstrates the capability of the hybrid GA-BP model. The later provides better results in estimation of groundwater levels compared to the individual one. The study suggests that such a network can be used as a viable alternative to physical-based models in order to simulate the responses of the aquifer under plausible future scenarios, or to reconstruct long periods of missing observations provided past data for the influencing variables is available.
    Keywords: ANN, Coastal aquifer, GA, BP, Groundwater level, Simulation
  • Yashvir Singh, Amneesh Singla Pages 23-30
    An ever-increasing drift of energy consumption, unequal geographical distribution of natural wealth and the quest for low carbon fuel for a cleaner environment are sparking the production and use of biodiesels in many countries around the globe. In this work, jatropha and karanja biodiesels were produced from the respective crude vegetable oils through transesterification, and the different physical properties of the produced biodiesels have been presented and found to be acceptable according to the ASTM biodiesel specification standard. This paper presents the experimental results of the research carried out to evaluate the BTH, BSFC exhaust emission characteristics of jatropha and karanja blends in a single-cylinder diesel engine at different engine load. Comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO, and NOx have been presented and discussed. Engine performance, in terms of higher brake thermal efficiency and lower emissions (HC, CO, NOx) with jatropha-based biodiesel (JB50) operation, were observed compared to karanja-based biodiesel (KB50).
    Keywords: Comparison, Emission, Jatropha, Karanja, Performance
  • Vara Saritha, Ka Sunil Kumar, Nv Srikanth Vuppala Pages 31-43
    The electronics industry is one of fastest growing manufacturing industries in India. However, the increase in the sales of electronic goods and their rapid obsolescence has resulted in the large-scale generation of electronic waste, popularly known as e-waste. E-waste has become a matter of concern due to the presence of toxic and hazardous substances present in electronic goods which, if not properly managed, can have adverse effects on the environment and human health. In India, the e-waste market remains largely unorganized, with companies being neither registered nor authorized and typically operating on an informal basis. In many instances, e-waste is treated as municipal waste, because India does not have dedicated legislation for the management of e-waste. It is therefore necessary to review the public health risks and strategies in a bid to addressthis growing hazard. There is the strong need for adopting sustainability practices in order to tackle the growing threat of e-waste. In the present work, we attempt to identify the various sources and reasons for e-waste generation, in addition to understanding the perception of the public towards e-waste management. This study aims to induce an awareness of sustainability practices and sustainability issues in the management of E-waste, especially waste related to personal computers (PCs) and mobile phones. From the results of the study, we concluded that the majority (90%) of the public is ignorant about e-waste and its issues; hence, there is a strong requirement for spreading awareness about the growing hazard of E-waste.
    Keywords: developing countries, Electronic waste, Hazardous substances, Personal computer (PC), Upgrading
  • Touraj Nasrabadi, Akbar Baghvand, Ali Vosoogh Pages 45-54
    Groundwater quality regarding major anions and cations in the Birjand Plain located in the largest desert in Eastern Iran was monitored in this study. Fifteen boreholes were considered as sampling stations and the parameters pH, TDS, EC and major anions and cations were measured in groundwater samples. The dominant groundwater types can be introduced as sodium-chloride and magnesium-sulphate. The majority of samples were within the not-suitable category for drinking uses. Regarding agricultural use, around 80 and 50 per cent of samples indicated a very high salinity hazard and a very high sodium alkali hazard, respectively. Spatial distribution of salinity was also monitored within the study area. If the study area was considered to be a semicircle, the centre appeared to be the least polluted area, while towards the peripheral surroundings, an increasing behaviour was observed. Intrusion of salt water from eastern and western parts of the study area caused severe groundwater degradation. The relatively better quality of groundwater in southern areas may be attributed to a chain of mountains located along south of the study area. The prevention of uncontrolled groundwater withdrawal must be regarded to cease the salinization trend and to prepare the required infrastructure for implementing the artificial recharge projects.
    Keywords: Birjand plain, groundwater, Quality, salinity
  • Ayiwulu Ezekiel, Alexander Dominic Pages 55-65
    This paper examines the relationship between domestic water sources, demand and associated problems in the context of a rapidly increasing household population in Nassarawa Eggon town, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The data for this research were generated using a questionnaire survey of systematically selected households, and analysed using descriptive statistics in the form of frequencies and percentages, and are presented as tables and graphs. The study revealed that the major sources of water in the area are hand-dug wells and streams, with no pipe-borne water. This has greatly affected the inhabitants of the locality, resulting in cases of water-related diseases. Consequently, due to the recent inter-communal and ethnic crisis in some parts of the local government area and the state, which led to massive immigration of people into Nassarawa Eggon, pressure on the available sources of domestic water has intensified, resulting in insufficiency in meeting domestic water demand. Against this backdrop, the paper seeks to examine in detail the various sources of domestic water and the problems associated with accessing it.
    Keywords: Domestic water, Household, Quality, Respondents, Waterborne
  • Abdolazim Ghanghermeh, Gholamreza Roshan, Sultan Al- Yahyai Pages 67-83
    The main objective of this study was to reveal the impact of nine climate indices on temperature changes and climate oscillations in Golestan Province along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea. Climate indices data from across the Atlantic-Eurasian sector were collected from the NCEP/NCAR, the Climate Prediction Centre (CPC) and the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) over a period of 40 years (1971-2010). The climate indices are then compared and correlated with temperature observations from 47 weather stations collected from meteorological and energy organizations. The correlations are based on the 12-month moving average. The study results show a significant increasing temperature trend in most months over different regions of Golestan. For maximum temperature, a significant increasing trend was seen in 55.64, 41.8 and 40% of the land area in the province during August, June and July, respectively. In general, summer had the most significant maximum-temperature trends, with an average of 37.8% of the land area. On the other hand, increasing minimum-temperature trends were seen in 58% of the land area of the province compared to the other seasons. It was concluded that there is high correlation between climate indices and temperature components. The correlation coefficients obtained for various indices including North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), North Sea Caspian Pattern (NCP), Arctic Oscillation Index (AO), East Atlantic (EA), East Atlantic/West Russia (EATL/WRUS), Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), North Tropical Atlantic (NTA), Polar/Eurasia (PE), and Scandinavia teleconnection index (SCAND) suggest an inverse relationship between these indices and temperature components. Therefore, the higher the values of these indices, the lower the temperature values, and vice versa.
    Keywords: Climate indices, Climate oscillation, Golestan province, Temperature trend
  • Zahra Zangeneh Sirdari, Aminuddin Ab. Ghani, Nasim Zangeneh Sirdari Pages 85-94
    Bedload transport is an essential component of river dynamics and estimation of its rate is important to many aspects of river management. In this study, measured bedload by Helley- Smith sampler was used to estimate the bedload transport of Kurau River in Malaysia. An artificial neural network, genetic programming and a combination of genetic programming and a neural network were used to estimate the bedload carried in Kurau River, based on bedload transport measurement data and hydraulic variables. A statistical analysis was carried out to validate methods by computing RMSE, MARE and inequality ratio (U). In general, the ability of the artificial neural network combined with genetic programming with R2 equal to 0.95, RMSE equal to 0.1 as a precipitation predictive tool for predicting the bedload transport rate was observed as being acceptable.
    Keywords: Artificial neural network, Bedload transport, Genetic programming, Kurau River
  • Gholamabbas Asadpour Pages 95-101
    Evaluation of the geochemistry and hydrochemical quality of Bam salt dome located in southern Iran, was conducted in this study. Two composite samples from salt units were collected and analysed by XRD and XRF to determine their mineral and elemental compositions. Water samples were also collected from the only spring in the area and analysed for major anions, cations and some toxic elements. The results indicated halite as the major mineral present, while quartz, anhydrite and dolomite were present at minor levels. The presence of anhydrite and dolomite together with quartz had negative effects on edible salt quality. The dominant water type in the area was sodium-chloride. Negligible sulphate and calcium contents may be attributed to anhydrites detected in the geological texture of the study area. According to a Schoeller diagram, the water is not suitable for drinking. Concentrations of toxic metals in the salt sample were significantly higher than those in water samples. Such a result can be viewed as an opportunity to produce edible salts from the evaporation of spring water.
    Keywords: Geochemistry, Hormozgan, Hydrochemistry, Salt dome
  • Ali Ghanbari, Pouyan Abbasi Maedeh Pages 103-116
    Regarding the importance of the prevention of hazards and adverse environmental impacts in industrial and populated areas such as southern parts of Tehran city, the response of impulsive period ground-supported tanks were assessed. Having considered the study area''s soil properties, the response of ground-supported tanks was modelled. Regarding the soil properties of southern parts of Tehran, the soil structure interaction method explained in FEMA 368 revealed that the interactional impulsive period (~T) was greater than non-interactional one (T). In addition, results showed that Poisson''s ratio and stiffness ratio (K/Kx) were more effective regarding the response of the interactional period of ground-supported tank systems. According to the achieved results, the liquid mass density effect on impulsive period was as low as the thickness of the ground-supported walls effect. Results showed that wall materials significantly affected the variation within the impulsive period. Generally, concrete materials were shown to be more periodic than steel materials. Overall, in southern parts of Tehran, when the soil fluid structure interaction method was used, the period increased from 1 to up to 3.6 times greater than the normal impulsive period.
    Keywords: Ground, supported tanks, Impulsive period, interaction, Tehran