فهرست مطالب

  • Volume:5 Issue:1, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/10/24
  • تعداد عناوین: 9
|
  • Zahra Sadeghi, Jafar Valizadeh, Omid Azyzian Shermeh, Maryam Akaberi Pages 1-9
    Objective
    Boerhaavia elegans L. (Nyctaginaceae) is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of kidney disorders, urinary tract disorders and blood purification in Baluch tribe. The aim of present study is to evaluate the antioxidant propertyof B. elegans species for the first time.
    Materials And Methods
    Different parts (leaf, stem and fruit) of the plant were extracted by using various solvents (water, methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1 picryl hydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. In addition, total phenolic content was determined by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent.
    Results
    Antioxidant results were expressed as IC50. The antioxidant power in DPPH and FRAP assay were evaluated as shown in decreasing order: Methanolic extract > Aqueous extract > Ethyl acetate extract > Chloroform extract, for all parts of the plant. In both methods of antioxidant assay and Folin-Ciocalteu method, methanolic extract of leaf exhibited the highest activity and the most phenolic content IC50= 6.85ppm and 16.41 mg GA/g d w respectively. Total phenolic content had a positive relationship with antioxidant capacity in extracts and there was a high correlation (r=1.00, p<0.01) between antioxidant activities as determined by both antioxidant assays for various parts.
    Conclusion
    The results of the experiments showed that B. elegans extract had significant antioxidant effects. This high antioxidant activity may be linked to phenolic contents of the plant but complementary investigations are suggested in order to determine active elements.
    Keywords: Boerrhavia elegans, Antioxidants, DPPH, FRAP, Total phenolic content
  • Elham Jafari, Sasan Andalib, Alireza Abed, Mahmoud Rafieian-Kopaei, Golnaz Vaseghi Pages 10-16
    Objectives
    Herbal medicine is known as a valid alternative treatment. Salvia Reuterana, which has been used in the Iranian traditional medicine, is mostly distributed in the central highlands of Iran. Salvia Reuterana is a medicinal herb with various therapeutic usages. The aim of the present review is to take account of pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana.
    Materials And Methods
    The present review summarizes the literature with respect to various pharmacological properties of Salvia Reuterana.
    Results
    Salvia Reuterana possesses neurological, antimicrobial, antioxidant, chemotherapeutic, and antidiabetic properties.
    Conclusions
    Salvia Reuterana can be used as an alternative for treatment of several disorders.
    Keywords: Salvia Reuterana, Neurological property, Antimicrobial property, Antioxidant property, Chemotherapeutic property, Antidiabetic property
  • Jacob Ataman E., Macdonald Idu Pages 17-25
    Objective
    Anchomanes difformis is a member of the plant family Araceae which is used as a diuretic but also has other medicinal applications. This study investigates the dietary effects of A. difformis on the kidneys of adult wistar rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Sixteen rats were used and were weighed, before and after the experiment. All rats were randomly divided into four groups. All groups were treated with the following regimen for two weeks. The control group (A) was fed on feed mash and water ad libitum throughout the period. The treatment groups B, C, and D received feed mash mixed with crude extract of A. difformis in the following proportions: 25:75(g), 50:50(g), and 75:25(g), respectively. The kidneys of the experimental animals were histologically examined for morphologic changes.
    Results
    Results showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in the kidney weight of the treatment groups compared with the control. Histological examination of the renal tissues also showed considerable lesions such as inflammation, focal cortical and interstitial hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the treated rats compared with the control.
    Conclusion
    The current study results suggest renal toxicity with excessive consumption of A.difformis.
    Keywords: Anchomanes difformis, Crude extract, Kidney FRAP, Wistar rats
  • Khadijeh Sadat Moosavi Dolatabadi, Gholamreza Dehghan, Siavash Hosseini, Ali Jahanban Esfahlan Pages 26-33
    Objectives
    Almond (Prunus amygdalus) hull and shell are agricultural by-products that are a source of phenolic compounds.The processing of almond produce shell and hull, accounts for more than 50% by dry weight of the almond fruits. Recently, more studies have focused on the influence of storage conditions and postharvest handling on the nutritional quality of fruits, especially the antioxidant phenolics. In this study, influence of long-term storage (five years) on the total phenolic and antioxidant capacity of almond hull and shell from different genotypes was evaluated.
    Materials And Methods
    The fruits of subjected genotypes were collected and their hull and shell were separated. They were dried and reduced to fine powder. This powder stored at room temperature for five years. The total phenolic content (TPC) and bioactivities (antioxidant potential: DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging and reducing power) of extracts were evaluated using spectrophotometric methods.
    Results
    It was found that TPC content and bioactivity levels in the stored almond hull and shell were different, compared to the hulls and shells which were evaluated in 2007. S1-4 genotype had the highest TPC and reducing power in its hull and shell.Low correlation coefficient was observed between phenolic content and the DPPH radical scavenging percentage in hull and shell extract.
    Conclusions
    For the first time, results of this investigation showed that storage can influence the antioxidant and antiradical potential of almond hull and shell.
    Keywords: Almond, Hull, Shell, Genotype, Radical scavenging, Storage
  • Ali Reza Khosravi, Hojjatollah Shokri, Ali Reza Mokhtari Pages 34-42
    Objectives
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Cuminum cyminum (C. cyminum) essential oil on the growth and FUM1 gene expression of fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides (F. verticillioides) strains isolated from maize.
    Materials And Methods
    All fungal strains were cultured on potato dextrose agar (PDA) slopes at 30°C for 7 days. The antifungal activity was evaluated by broth microdilution assay. One set of primers was F. verticillioides species specific, which selectively amplified the intergenic space region of rDNA. The other set of primers was specific to FUM1 gene region of fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides. FUM1 transcript levels were quantified using a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) protocol.
    Results
    Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of C. cyminum oil against F. verticillioides strains varied from 0.195 to 0.781 µl.ml-1 (mean MIC value: 0.461 µl.ml-1) indicating 54.5% of the fungal strains inhibited at 0.390 µl.ml-1. PCR analysis of FUM1 gene expression revealed that DNA fragment of 183 bp was amplified in all the isolates of F. verticillioides before treatment with C. cyminum essential oil. Based on RT-PCR analyses, reduction in the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes was significant only for FUM1 gene (p<0.05), while no effect was observed on ITS gene.
    Conclusions
    This study showed that all F. verticillioides isolates were susceptible to C. cyminum essential oil, indicating a significant reduction in the growth of fungal isolates. In addition, this oil completely inhibited the expression of FUM1 gene in concentrations dose-dependently.
    Keywords: Fusarium verticillioides, Fumonisin, Cuminum cyminum, RT, PCR, FUM1 gene
  • Alireza Sarkaki, Yaghoob Farbood, Shieda Hashemi, Maryam Rafiei Rad Pages 43-55
    Objective
    Estrogen deficit following menopause results in cognitive behaviors impairment. Severity of these impairments in menopause women suffer with cerebral hypo perfusion/ischemia (HI) cause the brain damage and neuronal death. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Adult female Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups with 8 rats in each group: 1) Sham-operated for ovaries and 2CCAO (ShO); 2) OVX and sham operated for ischemia (OShI); 3-7) OVX with 2CCAO (OI) received PGSE (100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/2ml/kg or normal saline, orally) for 14 days (OI+E100, 200, 400, 800 or OI+Veh); 8) OShI received most effective dose of PGSE (200 and 400 mg/kg for passive and active avoidance memories respectively). Active and passive avoidance tasks were measured in Y-maze and two-way shuttle box respectively. Data were analyzed with one-way and RM-ANOVA followed by HSD post-hoc test.
    Results
    Sensorimotor impaired in OShI+Veh and OI+Veh (P)
    Keywords: Ovariectomy, Cerebral ischemia, Pomegranate, Memory, Rat
  • Mina Mehrara, Mehri Halakoo, Mojdeh Hakemi-Vala, Seyyde Jamal Hashemi, Jinous Asgarpanah Pages 56-61
    Objectives
    Belonging to Papaveraceae family, Glaucium vitellinum is one of the Persian endemic plants which has not been investigated biologically. The present paper focused on the assessment of the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of the flowering aerial parts of G. vitellinum.
    Materials And Methods
    The antibacterial and antifungal activities were investigated using cup plate method and disc diffusion assay, respectively. The MIC values of the active samples were determined using micro plate dilution method.
    Results
    The crude extract and alkaloid sub-fraction of G. vitellinum had significant inhibition activity on the growth of S. aureus and S. typhi. From antifungal assay, it is concluded that only the yeast C. albicans, showed a high sensitivity to the extract and especially to the related alkaloid sub-fraction.
    Conclusions
    Regarding the results, G. vitellinum could be employed as a natural antibacterial and antifungal agent against S. aureus, S. typhi, and C. albicans, respectively. Moreover, based on the results of this study, further in vivo and ex vivo confirmatory tests for total methanol extract and alkaloid sub-fraction are recommended.
    Keywords: Glaucium vitellinum, Papaveraceae, Antibacterial, Antifungal
  • Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani, Hadi Esmaili Gouvarchin Galee, Mahsa Khamisabadi, Bita Lotfallahzade Pages 62-68
    Objective
    Hypericum perforatum (St. John''s Wort) has long been used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of internal and external ailments. The present study was done to evaluate the immumodulatory potentials of the hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum.
    Materials And Methods
    Twenty male BALB/c-mice were randomly allocated in two equal groups and immunized with sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) and complete Freund’s adjuvant. Mice in the treatment group orally received hydroalcoholic extract of H. perforatum (110 mg/Kg daily) from the beginning of the study which continued for 2 weeks.
    Results
    The data indicated a significant increase in the level of anti-SRBC antibody and simultaneously a significant decrease in the level of cellular immunity, an enhancement in foot pad thickness, in treatment group compared to control group. The level of the respiratory burst in phagocytic cells and the level of lymphocyte proliferation in splenocytes were significantly decreased in the treatment group compared to control group. Moreover, extract caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 as well as IFN-γ, parallel to increasing the level of IL-6.
    Conclusions
    The hydroalcoholicextract of H. perforatum may be used as a natural source for treatment of immunopathologic conditions.
    Keywords: Hypericum perforatum, Humoral immunity, Cellular immunity, Lymphocyte response
  • Saurabh Bhatia, Kiran Sharma, Ajay Sharma, Kalpana Nagpal, Tanmoy Bers Pages 69-77
    Objectives
    Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis).
    Materials And Methods
    Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer.
    Results
    Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE.
    Conclusions
    The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions.
    Keywords: Porphyra, Porphyran, Carrageenan, Analgesia, Ulcer