فهرست مطالب

Basic Medical Sciences - Volume:17 Issue: 12, 2015
  • Volume:17 Issue: 12, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/05
  • تعداد عناوین: 15
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  • Liyana Hazwani Mohd Adnan, Nor Hidayah Abu Bakar, Nasir Mohammad* Pages 926-928
    Methadone is widely being used for opioid substitution therapy. However, the administration of methadone to opioid dependent individual is frequently accompanied by withdrawal syndrome and chemical dependency develops. Other than that, it is also difficult to retain patients in the treatment programme making their retention rates are decreasing over time. This article is written to higlights the potential use of prophetic medicines, Nigella sativa, as a supplement for opioid dependent receiving methadone. It focuses on the potential role of N. sativa and its major active compound, Thymoquinone (TQ) as a calcium channel blocking agent to reduce withdrawal syndrome and opioid dependency.
    Keywords: Calcium channel blocker Methadone Nigella sativa Opioid dependence Thymoquinone
  • Fatemeh Forouzanfar, Bibi Sedigheh Fazly Bazzaz, Hossein Hosseinzadeh* Pages 929-938
    Nigella sativa seeds have wide therapeutic effects and have been reported to have significant effects against many ailments such as skin diseases, jaundice, gastrointestinal problems, anorexia, conjunctivitis, dyspepsia, rheumatism, diabetes, hypertension, intrinsic hemorrhage, paralysis, amenorrhea, anorexia, asthma, cough, bronchitis, headache, fever, influenza and eczema. Thymoquinone (TQ) is one of the most active constituent and has different beneficial properties. Focus on antimicrobial effects, different extracts of N. sativa as well as TQ, have a broad antimicrobial spectrum including Gram-negative, Gram-positive bacteria, viruses, parasites, schistosoma and fungi. The effectiveness of N. sativa seeds and TQ is variable and depends on species of target microorganisms. The present review paper tries to describe all antimicrobial activities that have been carried out by various researchers.
    Keywords: Nigella sativa Thymoquinone Antibacterial Antifungal Antimicrobial Antiparasite Antischistosoma Antivirus
  • Rana Keyhanmanesh, Zahra Gholamnezhad, Mohammad Hossien Boskabady* Pages 939-949
    Nigella sativa (N. sativa) is a spice plant which has been traditionally used for culinary and medicinal purposes. Different therapeutic properties including the beneficial effects on asthma and dyspnea, digestive and gynecology disorders have been described for the seeds of N. sativa. There is evidence of the relaxant effects of this plant and some of its constituents on different types of smooth muscle including rabbit aorta, rabbit jejunum and trachea. The relaxant effect of N. sativa could be of therapeutic importance such as bronchodilation in asthma, vasodilation in hypertension and therapeutic effect on digestive or urogenital disorders. Therefore in the present article, the relaxant effects of N. sativa and its constituents on smooth muscles and its possible mechanisms as well as clinical application of this effect were reviewed.
    Keywords: Clinical application Nigella sativa Possible mechanisms Relaxant effect Thymoquinone
  • Mohannad Khader*, Peter M. Eckl Pages 950-957
    Nigella sativa has attracted healers in ancient civilizations and researchers in recent times. Traditionally, it has been used in different forms to treat many diseases including asthma, hypertension, diabetes, inflammation, cough, bronchitis, headache, eczema, fever, dizziness and influenza. Experimentally, it has been demonstrated that N. sativa extracts and the main constituent of their volatile oil, thymoquinone, possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective properties. In this review we aimed at summarizing the most recent investigations related to a few and most important effects of thymoquinone. It is concluded that thymoquinone has evidently proved its activity as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cytotoxic and anti-cancer chemical, with specific mechanisms of action, which provide support to consider this compound as an emerging drug. Further research is required to make thymoquinone a pharmaceutical preparation ready for clinical trials.
    Keywords: Anti, cancer Anti, inflammatory Antioxidant Nigella sativa Thymoquinone
  • Hamid Mollazadeh, Hossein Hosseinzadeh* Pages 958-966
    Nigella sativa (Family Ranunculaceae) is a widely used medicinal plant throughout the world. N. sativa is referred in the Middle East as a part of an overall holistic approach to health. Pharmacological properties of N. sativa including immune stimulant, hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, antioxidant, hypoglycemic, spasmolytic and bronchodilator have been shown. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress are known as the major causes of many diseases such as liver injury and many substances and drugs can induce oxidative damage by generation of ROS in the body. Many pharmacological properties of N. sativa are known to be attributed to the presence of thymoquinone and its antioxidant effects. Thymoquinone protects liver from injury via different mechanisms including inhibition of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, elevation in total thiol content and glutathione level, radical scavengering, increasing the activity of quinone reductase, catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione transferase, inhibition of NF-κB activity and inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase. Therefore, this review aimed to highlight the roles of ROS in liver diseases and the mechanisms of N. sativa in prevention of liver injury.
    Keywords: Black cumin Hepatitis Liver injury Nigella sativa Thymoquinone
  • Hammad Shafiq, Asif Ahmad*, Tariq Masud, Muhammad Kaleem Pages 967-979
    Nigella sativa is the miraculous plant having a lot of nutritional and medicinal benefits, and attracts large number of nutrition and pharmacological researchers. N. sativa seed composition shows that it is the blessing of nature and it contains and many bioactive compounds like thymoquinone, α-hederin, alkaloids, flavonoids, antioxidants, fatty acids many other compounds that have positive effects on curing of different diseases. Several medicinal properties of N. sativa like its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, antioxidant activities and many others are well acknowledged. However, this article focuses on activity of N. sativa against cardiovascular diseases and cancer. For gathering required data the authors went through vast number of articles using search engines like Science direct, ELSEVIER, Pub Med, Willey on Line Library and Google scholar and the findings were classified on the basis of relevance of the topic and were reviewed in the article. N. sativa is rich source of different biologically active compounds and is found effective in controlling number of cardiovascular diseases and various cancers both in vivo and in vitro studies.
    Keywords: Anti, diabetic Cancer Cardiovascular Nigella sativa
  • Latiffah Abdul Latiff, Saadat Parhizkar*, Mohammad Aziz Dollah, Syed Tajuddin Syed Hassan Pages 980-985
    Objective(s)
    The aim of this open label crossover study was to investigate the effects of Nigella sativa on reproductive health and metabolic profile of perimenopausal women in Rawang, Malaysia.
    Materials And Methods
    Sixty nine perimenopausal women aged 45 to 65 were allocated into the experimental group treated orally with 1600mg/day of encapsulated pure powdered N. sativa compared to control groups treated with placebo for 12 weeks. At the end of study, participants underwent washout period for fourteen days before being crossed over and continued for another cycle of treatment. Participants were abstained from taking any other drugs, herbal preparations or food supplements throughout the study. Body weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure, biochemical parameters and hormonal levels were measured at baseline and at the end of experiment for both cycles. Face to face interview was carried out at baseline and every week to check for compliance, minimize dropouts and to record reproductive health and quality of life indicators using Greene climacteric and SF-36 instruments.
    Results
    The treatment groups in both cycles showed significant improvement with reference to low density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood glucose (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between groups in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and triglyceride concentration. Treatment with N. sativa induced a significant reduction of prevalence and severity of menopausal symptomsas well as significant improvement in some components of quality of life (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    These results suggested that treatment with N. sativa exert a therapeutic and protective effect by modifying weight gain, improving lipid profile and blood glucose as well as hormonal level which is believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome during menopause.
    Keywords: Metabolic syndrome Nigella sativa Perimenopausal Reproductive health
  • Shahrzad Havakhah, Hamid R. Sadeghnia, Mosa Al Reza Hajzadeh, Nama Mohammadian Roshan, Somayeh Shafiee, Hossein Hosseinzadeh, Narges Mohareri, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad* Pages 986-992
    Objective(s)
    There are a few previously reported studies about the effect of Nigella sativa oil on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis whether pre- or post-treatment with N. sativa hydroalcoholic extract (NSE) would reduce tissue injury and oxidative damages in a clinically relevant rat model of renal IRI.
    Materials And Methods
    IRI was induced by clamping of bilateral renal arteries for 40 min fallowed by reperfusion for 180 min. NSE was prepared in a Soxhlet extractor and administrated with doses of 150 mg/kg or 300 mg/kg at 1 hr before ischemia induction (P-150 and 300) or at the beginning of reperfusion phase (T-150 and 300), via jugular catheter intravenously. The kidneys were then removed and subjected to biochemical analysis, comet assay or histopathological examination.
    Results
    The kidneys of untreated IRI rats had a higher histopathological score (P<0.001), while in P-150, as well as T-150 and T-300 groups tubular lesions significantly decreased (P<0.001). Pre- and post-treatment with NSE also resulted in a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) level (P<0.001) and DNA damage (P<0.001) that were increased by renal I/R injury. NSE treatment also significantly restore (P<0.01) the decrease in renal thiol content caused by IRI.
    Conclusion
    The present study shows N. sativa extract has marked protective action against renal IRI, which may be partly due to its antioxidant effects.
    Keywords: Comet assay Ischemia, reperfusion injury (IRI) Kidney Nigella sativa Oxidative stress
  • Azar Hosseini, Reza Shafiee, Nick*, Seyed Hadi Mousavi Pages 993-1000
    Objective(s)
    The use of doxorubicin (DOX) is limited by its dose-dependent cardio toxicity in which reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) play an important role in the pathological process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of three medicinal plants, Nigella sativa (N), Glycyrrhiza glabra (G) and Zingiber officinale (Z), and their combination (NGZ), against DOX-induced apoptosis and death in H9c2 cells.
    Materials And Methods
    The cells were incubated with different concentrations of each extract or NGZ for 4 hr which continued in the presence or absence of 5µM doxorubicin for 24 hr. Cell viability and the apoptotic rate were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium (MTT) and propidium iodide (PI) staining assays, respectively. The level of ROS and lipid peroxidation were measured by fluorimetric methods.
    Results
    Treatment with doxorubicin increased ROS generation, enhanced malondialdehyde (MDA) formation, and induced apoptosis. Co-treatment of the cells with each herb extract increased viability of cells dose-dependently with a maximum protection effect of about 30%, and their potencies were N>G>Z. The combination of the threshold dose of each extract (NGZ) produced a similar effect, which was increased dose-dependently to a maximum protection of 70%. These effects were correlated with the effects of NGZ on ROS and MDA.
    Conclusion
    All of the extracts have some protective effects against DOX-induced toxicity in cardiomyocytes with similar efficacies, but with different potencies. However, NGZ produced much higher protective effect via reducing oxidative stress and inhibiting of apoptotic induction processes. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of NGZ on DOX chemotherapy.
    Keywords: Doxorubicin Nigella sativa Glycyrrhiza glabra Zingiber officinale
  • Hossein Mahmoudvand, Arash Asadi, Majid Fasihi Harandi, Fariba Sharififar, Sareh Jahanbakhsh, Ebrahimm Saedi Dezaki* Pages 1001-1006
    Objective(s)
    There are several scolicidal agents for inactivation of hydatid cyst protoscolices during surgery, but most of them are associated with adverse side effects such as sclerosing cholangitis and liver necrosis. The present study was aimed to evaluate scolicidal effects of various extracts of Nigella sativa seeds againstprotoscoleces of hydatid cyst in an in vitro model.
    Materials And Methods
    Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of the different extracts of N. sativa (5 to 50 mg/ml) were used for 5 to 60 min. Viability of protoscoleces was confirmed by 0.1% eosin staining.
    Results
    The findings exhibited that methanolic extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 10 min of incubation, and aqueous extract at the concentration of 50 mg/ml after 30 min of incubation can kill 100% of protoscoleces. In addition, all of experiments revealed dose-dependent and also time-dependent scolicidal effect of various extracts of N. sativa on the protoscoleces of hydatid cyst.
    Conclusion
    The results of the present study demonstrated that N. sativa may be a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be required to evaluate scolicidal effects of N. sativa in the in vivo model.
    Keywords: Hydatid cyst Echinococcus granulosus Nigella sativa
  • Soghra Mehri, Mehran Shahi, Bibi Marjan Razavi, Faezeh Vahdati Hassani, Hossein Hosseinzadeh* Pages 1007-1011
    Objective(s)
    Acrylamide (ACR) has broad applications in different industries. It also forms in food during heating process. Oxidative stress has a critical role in ACR-induced neurotoxicity in both in vitro and in vivo models; therefore, the aim of the current study was the evaluation of effects of thymoquinone, the main constituent of volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds in ACR-induced neurotoxicity.
    Materials And Methods
    Male Wistar rats were treated with ACR (50 mg/kg IP) alone or with thymoquinone (TQ) (2.5, 5, 10 mg/kg IP) for 11 days. Two protocols were used in this study, A: in this one TQ and ACR were used simultaneously, B: Administration of TQ was started 1 week before ACR treatment and continued during exposure to ACR. At the end of the treatment, behavioral index (gait score) was examined for rats. After that, rats were sacrificed and molondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) content were determined in cerebral cortex.
    Results
    Exposure to ACR led to severe gait abnormalities and treatment with TQ significantly decreased abnormalities. Level of MDA was elevated in cerebral cortex after exposure to ACR while TQ treatment significantly and in a dose-dependent manner reduced lipid peroxidation. Results clearly showed that there is no significant difference between two protocols of administration of TQ.
    Conclusion
    It suggests the neuroprotective effect of TQ in this model in part, may be because of due the antioxidant activity of this natural compound.
    Keywords: Acrylamide Behavioral index Gait scores Lipid peroxidation Neurotoxicity Thymoquinone
  • Laleh Pejman, Hasan Omrani, Zahra Mirzamohammadi, Rana Keyhanmanesh* Pages 1012-1035
    Objective(s)
    For determining the mechanism of anti-asthmatic effect of thymoquinone, this investigation evaluated the effect of thymoquinone in the presence of selective A2A and A2B adenosine receptor antagonists (ZM241385 and MRS1706, respectively).
    Materials And Methods
    Seventy guinea pigs were randomly divided to 7 groups; control (C), sensitized with ovalbumin (S), sensitized groups pretreated with thymoquinone (S+TQ), ZM241385 (S+Anta A2A), MRS1706 (S+Anta A2B), thymoquinone and antagonists (S+Anta A2A+TQ and S+Anta A2B+TQ). Thymoquinone and each of these antagonists with 3 mg/kg dose were injected i.p. on 10th day of sensitization protocol. Tracheal responsiveness (TR) to methacholine and ovalbumin (OA), and total and differential cell count in lung lavage fluid (LLF) in different groups were measured.
    Results
    Increased EC50 and LLF neutrophil count and decreased TR to methacholine and OA, LLF eosinophil and basophil counts were observed in S+TQ group compared to S group (P<0.001 to P<0.05). Significant decrease in EC50 (P<0.01), LLF neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte count (P<0.001 for all) and significant increase in TR to OA (P<0.01), LLF total WBC (P<0.01) and eosinophil count (P<0.001) were observed in S+A2A group compared to S+TQ group. There was significant increase in LLF eosinophil and monocyte counts in S+Anta A2B group compared with S+TQ group (P<0.001 for both). In S+TQ+Anta A2A group, there was significant increase in LLF eosinophil (P<0.001) and significant decrease in LLF neutrophil (P<0.01) and monocyte (P<0.001) counts compared with S+TQ group.
    Conclusion
    Thymoquinone affects adenosine receptors, which suggest that some of its anti-inflammatory effects may be mediated by these receptors.
    Keywords: Asthma Adenosine receptor MRS1706 Thymoquinone ZM241385
  • Hamed Pourbakhsh, Elahe Taghiabadi, Khalil Abnous, Alireza Timcheh Hariri, Sayed Masoud Hosseini, Hossein Hosseinzadeh* Pages 1020-1031
    Objective(s)
    This study was planned to appraise the protective effect of Nigella sativa fixed oil (NSO) against subchronic ethanol induced toxicity in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Studies were carried out on six groups of six animals each, including control (normal saline, gavage), ethanol (3 g/kg/day, gavage), NSO (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 ml/Kg/day, IP) plus ethanol and NSO (0.5 ml/Kg/day, IP) groups. Treatments were continued for 4 weeks.
    Results
    According to data, treatment with NSO attenuated ethanol-induced increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), as well as histopathological changes in liver and kidney tissues. Moreover, NSO improved the level of serum liver enzymes (including alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutathione (GSH) content in liver and kidney tissues in ethanol-treated rats. Western blot analysis and quantitative real time RT-PCR showed that NSO treatment inhibited apoptosis stimulated by ethanol through decreasing the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio (both protein and mRNA levels), cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8 and cleaved caspase-9 level in liver and kidney.
    Conclusion
    This study showed that NSO may have protective effects against hepatotoxicity and renal toxicity of ethanol by decreasing lipid peroxidation and inflammation and preventing apoptosis.
    Keywords: Apoptosis Ethanol toxicity Lipid peroxidation Nigella sativa Oxidative stress Alcohol
  • Ghafour Mousavi*, Daryoush Mohajeri Pages 1032-1035
    Objective(s)
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ground black seeds on renal tubular cell apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats.
    Materials And Methods
    Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into 5 equal groups including Sham, I/R model and three I/R+ black seeds (5, 10 and 20%)-treated groups. I/R groups’ kidneys were subjected to 60 min of ischemia followed by 24 h of reperfusion. Microscopically, apoptosis of tubular cells was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) method.
    Results
    The apoptotic cells of renal tubules were increased significantly (P<0.01) in I/R group than those in sham operation group. The TUNEL positive cells in black seeds (10% and 20%) treatment groups decreased significantly (P<0.05).
    Conclusion
    Inhibition of apoptosis may be responsible for the protective effects of black seeds in rats with renal I/R injury.
    Keywords: Apoptosis Ischemia, reperfusion Kidney Nigella sativa Rat
  • Contributors (Peer Reviewers)
    Pages 1036-1037