فهرست مطالب

Fertiliy and Sterility - Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2015
  • Volume:8 Issue: 4, 2015
  • تاریخ انتشار: 1393/11/10
  • تعداد عناوین: 16
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  • Xinjuan Pan, Xiaozhuan Liu, Xing Li, Nannan Niu, Xinjuan Yin, Ning Li, Zengli Yu Page 351
    Dioxin-related compounds are associated with teratogenic and mutagenic risks in laboratory animals, and result in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, there were inconsistent results in epidemiology studies. In view of this difference, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this association and to assess the heterogeneity among studies. Comprehensive literature searches were performed to search for relevant articles published in English up to 15 May 2012. In total, we identified 15 studies which included 9 cohort and 6 case control studies. The Cochrane Q test and index of heterogeneity (I2) were used to evaluate heterogeneity. In either cohort studies (I2=0.89, p<0.0001) or case control studies (I2=0.69, p=0.02), significant heterogeneity of risk estimates were observed. Subgroup analyses found no significant increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome with air dioxin-related compounds exposure (RR=0.99, 95% CI:0.85–1.16), no significant increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB) with exposure to food dioxin-related compounds (RR=1.05, 95% CI:0.80–1.37), higher significant risks of low birth weight (LBW) with exposure to food dioxin-related compounds (RR=1.55, 95% CI:1.24–1.94), and higher significant risks of birth defects with maternal solid contaminants dioxin exposure (OR=1.24, 95% CI:1.19–1.29). In conclusion, more evidences are needed to confirm the association between environmental dioxin-related compounds exposure and pregnancy outcome.
    Keywords: Dioxin, Pregnancy Outcome, Meta, Analysis
  • Mahbod Kaveh, Mahsa Ghajarzadeh, Fatemeh Davari Tanha, Fatemeh Nayeri, Zahra Keramati, Mamak Shariat, Azadeh Ghaheri Page 367
    Background
    This study compared neonatal outcome and maternal complications in multiple pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies (ART) to spontaneous pregnancies.
    Materials And Methods
    In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed medical records of 190 multiple pregnancies and births conceived by ART or spontaneous conceptions between 2004 and 2009 in Women Hospital. Obstetric history and outcomes were recorded and compared between these two groups. SPSS version 13 was used for data analysis. The results were analyzed using student’s t test, chi square and logistic regression (p<0.05).
    Results
    There were 106 deliveries from spontaneous conceptions and 84 that resulted from ART. Parity history and mode of delivery significantly differed between the two groups (p<0.001). The ART group had significantly higher preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes (PROM) whereas pregnanc-induced hypertension (PIH) was higher in the spontaneous group (p=0.01). Newborn intensive care unit (NICU) admission, duration of hospitalization, still birth and low gestational age were significantly higher in the ART group while neonatal jaundice was higher in the spontaneous group. Logistic regression analysis by considering neonatal complications as the dependent variable showed that respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), NICU admission and Apgar score were independent predictors for neonatal complications.
    Conclusion
    Obstetric and neonatal outcomes must be considered in multiple pregnancies conceived by ART.
    Keywords: Assisted Reproductive Technology, Multiple Pregnancies, Outcome, Pregnancy Complications
  • Junwei Qu, Yena Che, Pei Xu, Yanjie Xia, Xiaoke Wu, Yong Wang Page 373
    Background
    This research investigated the response of vascular active factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiotensin-II (AT-II) to ovarian stimulation during 24 hours in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
    Materials And Methods
    In this clinical trial study, 52 patients with PCOS and 8 control cases were stimulated with human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) on the 4th to 7th day of the patients’ natural or induced menstrual cycles. We measured VEGF and AT-II by radioimmunoassay before the injection (0 hour) and 3, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours after the stimulation.
    Results
    After ovarian stimulation, there was substantially higher level of VEGF in typical PCOS patients than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05), while there were no significant differences in VEGF at all the other time points among the four groups. As for AT-II, before and at all time points after the ovarian stimulation, it seemed that the AT-II levels in patients’ sera with different phenotypes of PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria were all higher than in the control group although the differences were not statistically significant. The level of AT-II in typical PCOS patients was also significantly higher than the other three groups at the 3 hour time point (p<0.05), while no significant differences at all the other time points among the four groups were observed.
    Conclusion
    The response to the stimulation varied among patients with different phenotypes of PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria. Serum VEGF and AT-II were possible contributors to an increased risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in patients with typical PCOS during the early follicular phase (3 hours) after ovarian stimulation (Registration Number: NCT02265861).
    Keywords: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, Angiotensin, II, Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome
  • Sepideh Peivandi, Shila Modanlu, Aghdas Ebadi Page 379
    Background
    Controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with intrauterine insemination (IUI) is commonly offered to infertile couples with patent fallopian tubes because it is simple, non-invasive and cost-effective technique. Another non-invasive method is fallopian tube sperm perfusion (FSP). This study was performed to compare the relative efficacy between FSP using fallopian sperm transfer (FAST) system and standard IUI in patients with unexplained infertility.
    Materials And Methods
    This prospective randomized study was conducted at the IVF Unit, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran, from March 2011 to February 2012. A total of ninety patients with unexplained infertility underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Patients were then randomly assigned into either group I (n=45) to undergo standard IUI or group II (n=45) to undergo FSP using FAST system.
    Results
    The patients’ basic characteristics, including age, primary infertility and duration of infertility, were not significantly different between two study groups. In the group I, there were 9 pregnancies (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 20%), whereas in the group II, 8 pregnancies occurred (a pregnancy rate per cycle of 17.8%, p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    FSP using FAST system offers no advantage over the standard IUI in order to increase pregnancy rate in patients with unexplained infertility.
    Keywords: Infertility, Ovarian Stimulation, Insemination
  • Xuemei Liu, Cuifang Hao, Jinfang Wang Page 385
    Background
    Urine derived follicle-stimulating hormone (uFSH) contains a higher proportion of acidic isoforms, whereas recombinant FSH (rFSH) contains a higher proportion of less-acidic isoforms. Less-acidic isoforms have a faster clearance, and thus a shorter half-life than the acidic FSH isoforms. The slow clearance of the acidic isoforms has a longer half-life and higher biological activity. This study was designed to determine whether uFSH or rFSH is more effective in older Chinese women undergoing assisted reproductive techniques (ART).
    Materials And Methods
    This is a prospective, randomized, controlled cohort study. A total of 508 Chinese women over 37 years were randomized into two following study groups for their in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles: i. group A (n=254) were treated with rFSH, and ii. group B (n=254) were treated with uFSH. Both groups were suppressed with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue using a long down-regulation protocol. The main outcomes for comparison were days of stimulation, estradiol (E2) on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration, number of oocytes collected, amount of FSH used, quantity of FSH/oocyte, endometrial thickness at hCG day, M П oocyte rate, 2PN zygote rate, grade І embryo rate, number of embryos cryopreserved, pregnancy rate, implantation rate, abortion rate and the rate of no transferable embryos.
    Results
    Twenty two cycles including 16 cycles with poor ovarian response and six cycles with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome were cancelled. There were 243 cycles left in each group. The patients treated with uFSH had a significantly higher 2PN zygote rate (87.4 vs. 76.6%, p<0.001), grade І embryo rate (49.8 vs. 40.8%, p<0.001) and endometrial thickness on day of hCG (11.8 mm vs. 11.2 mm, respectively, p=0.006) and a lower rate of no transferable embryos (1.2 vs. 5.3%, p=0.019) than women treated with rFSH. The other measures evaluated showed no statistically significant differences between groups (p>0.05).
    Conclusion
    This study showed that uFSH produced a significantly higher proportion of grade І embryos than rFSH in older Chinese women and there was a significantly lower chance of no transferable embryos in uFSH cycles. The clinical efficacy of the two gonadotropins was equivalent.
    Keywords: Urinary FSH, Recombinant FSH, IVF, ICSI
  • Ludmila Barbakadze, Jenara Kristesashvili, Natalia Khonelidze, Gia Tsagareishvili Page 393
    Background
    The objective of our study was to identify the correlations between the tests currently used in ovarian reserve assessment: anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and antral follicle count (AFC) and to distinguish the most reliable markers for ovarian reserve in order to select an adequate strategy for the initial stages of infertility treatment.
    Materials And Methods
    In this prospective study, 112 infertile women were assessed. Subjects were divided into three age groups: group I <35 years (n=39), group II 35-40 years (n=31), and group III 41-46 years (n=42). AMH, FSH and AFC were determined on days 2-3 of the patients’ menstrual cycles.
    Results
    There was a significantly elevated negative correlation between age and AMH level (rs=-0.67, p<0.0001) and AFC (rs=-0.55, p<0.0001). We observed a significantly positive correlation between age and FSH (rs=0.38, p<0.0001). AMH negatively correlated with FSH (rs=-0.48, p<0.0001) and positively with AFC (r=- 0.71, p=0.0001). There was a moderate negative relation between FSH and AFC (r=-0.41, p=0.0001) and moderate positive relation between age and FSH (rs=0.38, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis performed in separate groups showed that AMH and AFC showed a statistically significant positive correlation for group I (r=0.57, p<0.0001), group II (r=0.69, p<0.0001) and group III (r=0.47, p<0.002). A statistically significant correlation between FSH and AMH was detected only in groups I (r=-0.41, p<0.02) and II (r=-0.55, p<0.0001). A statistically significant correlation existed between FSH and AFC only in group III (r=-0.42, p<0.006), as well as between age and AFC only in group I (r=-0.35, p<0.03).
    Conclusion
    Currently, AMH should be considered as the more reliable of the ovarian reserve assessments tests compared to FSH. There is a strong positive correlation between serum AMH level and AFC. The use of AMH combined with AFC may improve ovarian reserve evaluation.
    Keywords: Anti, Mullerian Hormone, Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Mullerian Inhibiting Substance
  • Ari Kim, Ji Young Lee, Yong Il Ji, Hae Hyeog Lee, Eun Sil Lee, Heung Yeol Kim, Young Lim Oh Page 399
    Background
    This study was aimed to assess the effect of endometrial movements on pregnancy achievement in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles.
    Materials And Methods
    The population of this observational study was composed of unexplained infertility couples undergoing first-time IUI with clomiphene citrate between September 2010 and October 2011. Not only endometrial movements, but also thickness, volume, pattern, and echogenic change of endometrium were analyzed prospectively in prediction of pregnancy.
    Results
    The total number of 241 cycles of IUI with 49 intrauterine pregnancies (20.3%) was analyzed. Pregnancy was not related to endometrial thickness and endometrial volume, but significantly related to endometrial movements associated with the number of contraction, strong movement, cervicofundal direction, and hyperechoic change (p<0.05). Pregnant group showed higher cervicofundal movement rate (89.8 vs. 75.5%).
    Conclusion
    For IUI cycles stimulated by clomiphene citrate in unexplained infertility women, endometrial movements on the day of IUI could be a predictor of pregnancy.
    Keywords: Pregnancy Outcome, Endometrium, Endometrial Cycle, Insemination, Clomiphene Citrate
  • Syedeh Batool Hasanpoor, Azghdy, Masoumeh Simbar, Abouali Vedadhir Page 409
    Background
    Infertility may prevent couples to achieve the desired social roles and lead to some social and psychological problems. This study aimed to explain the social consequences of infertility in Iranian women seeking treatment.
    Materials And Methods
    A qualitative content analysis was conducted based on 32 semi-structured interviews with 25 women affected by primary and secondary infertility with no surviving children. The participants were purposefully selected with maximum variability from a fertility health research center in Tehran, Iran, from January to October 2012. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the conventional content analysis method.
    Results
    Our findings indicate that the consequences of infertility are divided into five main categories: 1. violence including psychological violence and domestic physical violence, 2. marital instability or uncertainty, 3. social isolation including avoiding certain people or certain social events and self-imposed isolation from family and friends, 4. social exclusion and partial deprivation including being disregarded by family members and relatives and reducing social interactions with the infertile woman and 5. social alienation.
    Conclusion
    This study reveals that Iranian women with fertility issues seeking treatment face several social problems that could have devastating effects on the quality of their lives. It is, therefore, recommended that, in Iran, infertility is only considered as a biomedical issue of a couple and pay further attention to its sociocultural dimensions and consequences.
    Keywords: Infertility, Violence, Divorce, Social Isolation, Social Exclusion
  • Hakan Ozveri, Furkan Kayabasoglu, Cem Demirel, Ersan Donmez Page 421
    Background
    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal disorder in males and historically patients have been labeled as sterile. After the introduction of microdissection testicular sperm extraction (micro-TESE), successful sperm retrievals for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) have been reported.
    Materials And Methods
    A retrospective study was undertaken on ten patients with non-mosaic KS undergoing micro-TESE for ICSI. The testicular volume and FSH and LH levels of each patient were measured. Karyotypes were confirmed by analyzing peripheral lymphocyte metaphases. Physical examination of the external genitalia was performed in all patients to rule out any co-existing anomaly. Micro-TESE was performed in order to investigate the presence of seminiferous tubules which may contain spermatozoa. When testicular spermatozoa were found in micro-TESE, ICSI was performed. Embryos were evaluated for further development. Fertilization was considered to have occurred after the visualization of the two pro-nuclei stage of the oocyte 24 hours after the intracytoplasmic injection of the motile spermatozoa. Pregnancy was confirmed by visualization of an intrauterine gestational sac under ultrasonographic examination.
    Results
    Testicular biopsy revealed motile spermatozoa in 6 of 9 patients (66.6 %). Fertilization rate per embryo-transfer was 40%. One patient was able to conceive and fathered a healthy boy weights 3410 g at the 39th week of gestation.
    Conclusion
    Retrieval of testicular spermatozoa by micro-TESE is possible for azoospermic men with KS when assisted reproductive techniques are applied. For patients with KS who want to conceive, assisted reproductive techniques (ART) should be recommended.
    Keywords: Klinefelter Syndrome, Sperm Retrieval, ICSI, Pregnancy
  • Longyu Zhang, Ying Liu, Yuping Xu, Huan Wu, Zhaolian Wei, Yunxia Cao Page 429
    Background
    To investigate the expression of Beclin-1 mRNA and protein in eutopic and ectopic endometrium of women with and without endometriosis, and evaluate the association of Beclin-1 protein expression and serum CA125 levels in the endometriosis group due to CA125 being a well-known biomarker of endometriosis.
    Materials And Methods
    The expression levels (mean ± SD) of the mRNA and protein of Beclin-1 were examined in uterine endometria from 26 women without endometriosis and in eutopic and ectopic endometria from 26 endometriosis patients through experimental study, as reverse transcription PCR and Western-blotting assays. Serum CA125 levels in the endometriosis and control groups were compared and the correlation between Beclin-1 protein expression and serum CA125 was evaluated in the endometriosis group.
    Results
    Both eutopic (0.12 ± 0.04, 1.25 ± 0.42) and ectopic (0.12 ± 0.05, 1.09 ± 0.50) endometriotic tissue from 26 women with endometriosis expressed significantly lower levels of Beclin-1 mRNA and protein than endometrium from 26 normal women (0.15 ± 0.02, 1.67 ± 0.44) (p<0.05). Serum CA125 levels were found to be significantly higher in the endometriosis group (p<0.05). In addition, Beclin-1 protein expression of eutopic endometria in patients with endometriosis was negatively correlated with serum CA125 (r= -0.57, p<0.01).
    Conclusion
    The present study strongly suggests that Beclin-1 may play a role in the formation and progression of endometriosis.
    Keywords: Autophagy, Endometriosis, Beclin, 1, CA125
  • Mehdi Sahmani, Masoud Darabi, Maryam Darabi, Talaat Dabaghi, Safar Ali Alizadeh, Reza Najafipour Page 437
    Background
    Endometriosis is a chronic gynecological disease resulting from complex interactions between genetic, hormonal, environmental and oxidative stress and intrinsic inflammatory components. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential association of the 763C>G polymorphism in the secretory phospholipase A2 group IIa gene (PLA2G2A) with the risk of endometriosis in Iranian women.
    Materials And Methods
    Ninety seven patients with endometriosis along with 107 women who were negative for endometriosis after laparoscopy and laparatomy, and served as the control group, were enrolled for this cross-sectional study. Samples were genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method.
    Results
    Multivariate analysis was used to examine the association between the risk of endometriosis and the 763C>G polymorphism of PLA2G2A. Genotype distributions of PLA- 2G2A were significantly different between patients and the controls (p<0.001, OR=0.22, 95% CI=0.21-0.39). Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant association between the normal homozygous genotype and susceptibility to endometriosis (p<0.001).
    Conclusion
    The present study suggests that the 763C>G polymorphism of PLA2G2A plays an important role as an independent factor in the risk of endometriosis in Iranian women.
    Keywords: Endometriosis, polymorphism genetic, PLA2G2A
  • Hai, Yan Zhu, Xiao, Mei Tong, Xiao, Na Lin, Ling, Ying Jiang, Jun, Xia Wang, Song, Ying Zhang Page 445
    Background
    S100P is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins, and it participates in pathophysiological events, such as tumor growth and invasion. Based on the striking similarities between trophoblast cells and tumor cells with regard to proliferative and invasive properties, we raised the question of whether and how S100P expresses in trophoblast cells during development. This study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of S100P in the human placenta during pregnancy development.
    Materials And Methods
    In this experimental study, we collected 16 first-trimester placental tissues, 10 second-trimester placental tissues, and 12 term placentas. The mRNA expression levels of S100P were detected by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR, the protein expression levels were detected by western blot, and the localization of S100P was measured by immunohistochemical staining. The values obtained from PCR and western blot analysis were expressed as the mean ± SD. Levene’s test was used to test equal variances, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to evaluate differences between groups.
    Results
    Protein and mRNA expression of S100P could be detected in placenta during pregnancy, with minor higher levels in first-trimester (p>0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed that S100P protein was strongly expressed in syncytiotrophoblasts, and moderate expression was detected in villous cytotrophoblasts and cytotrophoblast columns. The S100P protein was localized to both cytoplasm and nuclei in syncytiotrophoblasts, while it only existed in the cytoplasm of cytotrophoblasts.
    Conclusion
    S100P was strongly detected in human placenta during pregnancy. The specific expression and distribution of S100P in human placenta throughout gestation suggested that S100P function might vary with its location in the placenta.
    Keywords: S100P, Placenta, Trophoblast, Pregnancy
  • Maryam Gholinezhad Chari, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Ali Bidmeshkipour Page 453
    Background
    To investigate the level of correlation between large-scale deletions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with defective sperm function.
    Materials And Methods
    In this analytic study, a total of 25 semen samples of the normozoospermic infertile men from North of Iran were collected from the IVF center in an infertility clinic. The swim-up procedure was performed for the separation of spermatozoa into two groups; (normal motility group and abnormal motility group) by 2.0 ml of Ham’s F-10 medium and 1.0 ml of semen. After total DNA extraction, a long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was used to determine the mtDNA deletions in human spermatozoa.
    Results
    The products of PCR analysis showed a common 4977 bp deletion and a novel 4866 bp deletion (flanked by a seven-nucleotide direct repeat of 5΄-ACCCCCT-3΄ within the deleted area) from the mtDNA of spermatozoa in both groups. However, the frequency of mtDNA deletions in abnormal motility group was significantly higher than the normal motility group (56, and 24% for 4866 bp-deleted mtDNA and, 52, and 28% for 4977 bp-deleted mtDNA, respectively).
    Conclusion
    It is suggested that large-scale deletions of the mtDNA is associated with poor sperm motility and may be a causative factor in the decline of fertility in men.
    Keywords: Mitochondrial DNA, Large Deletions, Sperm Motility
  • Xinjuan Pan, Ping Wang, Xinjuan Yin, Xiaozhuan Liu, Di Li, Xing Li, Yongchao Wang Page 463
    Background
    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is thought to be involved in the development of nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (NSCL/P). However, conflicting results have been obtained when evaluating the association between maternal MTHFR C677T and A1298C polymorphisms and the risk of NSCL/P. In light of this gap, a meta-analysis of all eligible case-control studies was conducted in the present study.
    Materials And Methods
    A total of 15 case-control studies were ultimately identified after a comprehensive literature search and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) examination. Cochrane’s Q test and index of heterogeneity (I2) indicated no obvious heterogeneity among studies.
    Results
    Fixed or random-effects models were used to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs). The results showed that the TT genotype in mothers increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring 1.25 times (95% CI: 1.047-1.494) more than the CC homozygotes. Meanwhile, maternal TT genotype increased the risk of producing NSCL/P offspring in recessive model (OR=1.325, 95% CI: 1.124-1.562). However, the CT heterozygote and the CT+TT dominant models had no association with NSCL/P offspring compared with the CC wild-type homozygote model. Subgroup analyses based on ethnicity indicated that maternal TT genotype increased the likelihood of having NSCL/P offspring in Whites (OR=1.308, 95% CI: 1.059-1.617) and Asians (OR=1.726, 95% CI: 1.090-2.733) in recessive model. Also, subgroup analyses based on source of control showed that mothers with the 677TT genotype had a significantly increased susceptibility of having NSCL/P children in hospital based population (HB) when compared with CC homozygotes (OR=1.248, 95% CI: 1.024-1.520) and under the recessive model (OR=1.324, 95% CI: 1.104-1.588). Furthermore, maternal A1298C polymorphism had no significant association with producing NSCL/P offspring (dominant model OR=0.952, 95% CI: 0.816-1.111, recessive model OR=0.766, 95% CI: 0.567-1.036).
    Conclusion
    MTHFR C677T polymorphism is associated with the risk of generating NSCL/P offspring, and being a 677TT homozygote is a risk factor. MTHFR A1298C polymorphism was not associated with generating NSCL/P offspring. However, further work should be performed to confirm these findings.
    Keywords: Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase, Cleft Lip, Meta, Analysis
  • Mahboobeh Shirazi, Fatemeh Shahbazi, Leila Pirzadeh, Seyed Rahim Mohammadi, Parisa Ghaffari, Tahereh Eftekhar Page 481
    Genitourinary tuberculosis is a common extrapulmonary manifestation of tuberculosis. Taking into consideration that genitourinary tuberculosis may be associated with a diversity of presentations, its diagnoses may be difficult. A young woman with an initial presumptive diagnosis of a uterine leiomyoma presented with abdominal pain and a pelvic mass that after further investigations, she was diagnosed with genital tuberculosis.
    Keywords: Genital Tuberculosis, Leiomyoma, Iran